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route



SYNOPSIS

       route [-CFvnee]

       route  [-v]  [-A  family] add [-net|-host] target [netmask
              Nm] [gw Gw] [metric N] [mss M] [window W] [irtt  I]
              [reject] [mod] [dyn] [reinstate] [[dev] If]

       route  [-v]  [-A  family]  del [-net|-host] target [gw Gw]
              [netmask Nm] [metric N] [[dev] If]

       route  [-V] [--version] [-h] [--help]


DESCRIPTION

       Route manipulates the kernel's  IP  routing  tables.   Its
       primary  use  is to set up static routes to specific hosts
       or networks via an interface after it has been  configured
       with the ifconfig(8) program.

       When  the  add or del options are used, route modifies the
       routing tables.  Without these options, route displays the
       current contents of the routing tables.


OPTIONS

       -A family
              use  the  specified  address family (eg `inet'; use
              `route --help' for a full list).

       -F     operate on the kernel's FIB (Forwarding Information
              Base) routing table.  This is the default.

       -C     operate on the kernel's routing cache.

       -v     select verbose operation.

       -n     show  numerical  addresses  instead  of  trying  to
              determine symbolic host names. This  is  useful  if
              you  are  trying to determine why the route to your
              nameserver has vanished.

       -e     use netstat(8)-format for  displaying  the  routing
              table.  -ee will generate a very long line with all
              parameters from the routing table.

       del    delete a route.

       add    add a new route.

       target the destination network or host. You can provide IP
              of your local interfaces, it will be used to decide
              about the interface to which the packets should  be
              routed to. This is a BSDism compatibility hack.

       metric M
              set  the metric field in the routing table (used by
              routing daemons) to M.

       mss M  set the TCP Maximum Segment Size (MSS) for  connec­
              tions  over  this route to M bytes.  The default is
              the device MTU minus headers, or a lower  MTU  when
              path  mtu  discovery  occured.  This setting can be
              used to force smaller TCP packets on the other  end
              when  path  mtu  discovery  does  not work (usually
              because of misconfigured firewalls that block  ICMP
              Fragmentation Needed)

       window W
              set  the  TCP window size for connections over this
              route to W bytes. This is typically  only  used  on
              AX.25  networks  and  with drivers unable to handle
              back to back frames.

       irtt I set the initial round trip time (irtt) for TCP con­
              nections   over   this   route  to  I  milliseconds
              (1-12000). This is typically  only  used  on  AX.25
              networks.  If omitted the RFC 1122 default of 300ms
              is used.

       reject install a blocking route, which will force a  route
              lookup  to  fail.  This is for example used to mask
              out networks before using the default route.   This
              is NOT for firewalling.

       mod, dyn, reinstate
              install  a  dynamic  or modified route. These flags
              are for diagnostic purposes, and are generally only
              set by routing daemons.

       dev If force the route to be associated with the specified
              device, as the kernel will otherwise try to  deter­
              mine  the  device  on  its own (by checking already
              existing  routes  and  device  specifications,  and
              where  the  route is added to). In most normal net­
              works you won't need this.

              If dev If is the last option on the  command  line,
              the  word  dev may be omitted, as it's the default.
              Otherwise the order of the route modifiers  (metric
              - netmask - gw - dev) doesn't matter.


       route add default gw mango-gw
              adds a default route (which  will  be  used  if  no
              other route matches).  All packets using this route
              will be gatewayed through  "mango-gw".  The  device
              which  will actually be used for that route depends
              on how we can reach "mango-gw" - the  static  route
              to "mango-gw" will have to be set up before.

       route add ipx4 sl0
              Adds  the  route  to  the  "ipx4" host via the SLIP
              interface (assuming that "ipx4" is the SLIP  host).

       route add -net 192.57.66.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw ipx4
              This command adds the net "192.57.66.x" to be gate­
              wayed through the former route to the  SLIP  inter­
              face.

       route add -net 224.0.0.0 netmask 240.0.0.0 dev eth0
              This  is  an  obscure one documented so people know
              how to do it. This sets all of the class D  (multi­
              cast)  IP routes to go via "eth0". This is the cor­
              rect normal configuration line with a  multicasting
              kernel.

       route add -net 10.0.0.0 netmask 255.0.0.0 reject
              This  installs  a  rejecting  route for the private
              network "10.x.x.x."


OUTPUT

       The output of the kernel routing table is organized in the
       following columns

       Destination
              The destination network or destination host.

       Gateway
              The gateway address or '*' if none set.

       Genmask
              The    netmask    for    the    destination    net;
              '255.255.255.255'  for  a  host   destination   and
              '0.0.0.0' for the default route.

       Flags  Possible flags include
       Ref    Number  of  references  to this route. (Not used in
              the Linux kernel.)

       Use    Count of lookups for the route.  Depending  on  the
              use  of  -F  and -C this will be either route cache
              misses (-F) or hits (-C).

       Iface  Interface to which packets for this route  will  be
              sent.

       MSS    Default  maximum  segement size for TCP connections
              over this route.

       Window Default window size for TCP connections  over  this
              route.

       irtt   Initial RTT (Round Trip Time). The kernel uses this
              to guess about the  best  TCP  protocol  parameters
              without waiting on (possibly slow) answers.

       HH (cached only)
              The  number  of  ARP entries and cached routes that
              refer to the hardware header cache for  the  cached
              route. This will be -1 if a hardware address is not
              needed for the interface of the cached route  (e.g.
              lo).

       Arp (cached only)
              Whether  or not the hardware address for the cached
              route is up to date.


FILES

       /proc/net/ipv6_route
       /proc/net/route
       /proc/net/rt_cache


SEE ALSO

       ifconfig(8), netstat(8), arp(8), rarp(8)


HISTORY

       Route for Linux was originally written  by  Fred  N.   van
       Kempen,  <waltje@uwalt.nl.mugnet.org> and then modified by
       Johannes Stille and Linus  Torvalds  for  pl15.  Alan  Cox
       added  the  mss  and window options for Linux 1.1.22. irtt
       support and merged with netstat from Bernd Eckenfels.


AUTHOR

       Currently  maintained  by  Phil   Blundell   <Philip.Blun­
       dell@pobox.com>.
  

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