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modprobe.old



SYNOPSIS

       modprobe [-adnqv] [-C config] module [symbol=value ...]
       modprobe [-adnqv] [-C config] [-t type] pattern
       modprobe -l [-C config] [-t type] pattern
       modprobe -c [-C config]
       modprobe -r [-dnv] [-C config] [module ...]
       modprobe -Vh


OPTIONS

       -a, --all
              Load all matching modules instead of stopping after
              the first successful loading.

       -c, --showconfig
              Show the currently used configuration.

       -C, --config config
              Use the  file  config  instead  of  (the  optional)
              /etc/modules.conf  to  specify  the  configuration.
              The environment variable  MODULECONF  can  also  be
              used   to   select   (and   override)  a  different
              configuration     file     from     the     default
              /etc/modules.conf       (or       /etc/conf.modules
              (deprecated)).

       When environment variable UNAME_MACHINE is  set,  modutils
       will  use  its value instead of the machine field from the
       uname() syscall.  This is  mainly  of  use  when  you  are
       compiling  64  bit  modules  in  32 bit user space or vice
       versa, set UNAME_MACHINE  to  the  type  of  the  modules.
       Current  modutils  does  not support full cross build mode
       for modules, it is limited to choosing between 32  and  64
       bit versions of the host architecture.

       -d, --debug
              Show  information about the internal representation
              of the stack of modules.

       -h, --help
              Display a summary of options and immediately  exit.

       -k, --autoclean
              Set  'autoclean'  on  loaded  modules.  Used by the
              kernel when it  calls  on  modprobe  to  satisfy  a
              missing  feature  (supplied  as  a module).  The -q
              option  is  implied  by  -k.   These  options  will
              automatically be sent to insmod.

       -l, --list
              List matching modules.

       -n, --show
       -s, --syslog
              Report  via syslog instead of stderr.  This options
              will automatically be sent to insmod.

       -t moduletype; --type moduletype
              Only consider modules of this type.  modprobe  will
              only  look at modules whose directory path includes
              exactly  "/moduletype/".   moduletype  can  include
              more than one directory name, e.g. "-t drivers/net"
              would list  modules  in  xxx/drivers/net/  and  its
              subdirectories.

       -v, --verbose
              Print all commands as they are executed.

       -V, --version
              Display the version of modprobe.

       Note:  Module  names  must not contain paths (no '/'), nor
              may they contain the trailing '.o'.   For  example,
              slip   is   a   valid  module  name  for  modprobe,
              /lib/modules/2.2.19/net/slip   and    slip.o    are
              invalid.   This  applies to the command line and to
              entries in the config.


DESCRIPTION

       The modprobe and depmod utilities are intended to  make  a
       Linux  modular  kernel  more  manageable  for  all  users,
       administrators and distribution maintainers.

       Modprobe uses a "Makefile"-like dependency  file,  created
       by  depmod,  to  automatically load the relevant module(s)
       from the set of modules available in predefined  directory
       trees.

       Modprobe  is  used  to  load  a  single module, a stack of
       dependent modules, or all modules that are marked  with  a
       specified tag.

       Modprobe  will  automatically load all base modules needed
       in a module stack, as described  by  the  dependency  file
       modules.dep.   If  the  loading  of  one  of these modules
       fails, the whole current stack of modules  loaded  in  the
       current session will be unloaded automatically.

       Modprobe  has  two  ways  of loading modules. One way (the
       probe mode) will try to  load  a  module  out  of  a  list
       (defined  by  pattern).  Modprobe stops loading as soon as
       one module loads successfully.   This  could  be  used  to
       autoload one Ethernet driver out of a list.
       The  other way modprobe can be used is to load all modules
       from a list.  See EXAMPLES, below.


CONFIGURATION

       The  behavior  of modprobe (and depmod) can be modified by
       the (optional) configuration file /etc/modules.conf.
       For a more detailed description  of  what  this  file  can
       contain,  as  well  as  the  default configuration used by
       depmod and modprobe, see modules.conf(5).

       Note that the pre- and post-remove commands  will  not  be
       executed  if  a  module is "autocleaned" by kerneld!  Look
       for the up-coming support for  persistent  module  storage
       instead.
       If you want to use the pre- and post-install features, you
       will have to turn off autoclean for  kerneld  and  instead
       put  something  like  the  following  line in your crontab
       (this is used for kmod systems as well)  to  do  autoclean
       every 2 minutes:
        */2 * * * * test -f /proc/modules && /sbin/modprobe -r


STRATEGY

       The idea is that modprobe will look first in the directory
       containing modules compiled for the current release of the
       kernel.   If  the module is not found there, modprobe will
       look in the directory common to the kernel  version  (e.g.
       2.0,  2.2).   If  the module is still found, modprobe will
       look in the directory containing  modules  for  a  default
       release, and so on.

       When  you install a new linux, the modules should be moved
       to a directory related to the release (and version) of the
       kernel  you  are installing.  Then you should do a symlink
       from this directory to the "default" directory.

       Each time you compile a  new  kernel,  the  command  "make
       modules_install"  will  create  a new directory, but won't
       change the "default" link.

       When you get a module unrelated to the kernel distribution
       you  should  place  it  in  one of the version-independent
       directories under /lib/modules.

       This is the default strategy, which can be  overridden  in
       /etc/modules.conf.


EXAMPLES

       modprobe -t net
              Load  one  of  the  modules  that are stored in the
              directory tagged  "net".   Each  module  are  tried
              until one succeeds.

       modprobe -a -t boot
              All  modules  that are stored in directories tagged
              "boot" will be loaded.


FILES

       /etc/modules.conf (alternatively but deprecated /etc/conf.modules)
       /lib/modules/*/modules.dep,
       /lib/modules/*


SEE ALSO

       depmod(8), lsmod(8), kerneld(8), ksyms(8), rmmod(8).


SAFE MODE

       If  the  effective  uid  is not equal to the real uid then
       modprobe treats its input  with  extreme  suspicion.   The
       last parameter is always treated as a module name, even if
       it starts with '-'.  There can only be one module name and
       options  of  the form "variable=value" are forbidden.  The
       module name  is  always  treated  as  a  string,  no  meta
       expansion   is  performed  in  safe  mode.   However  meta
       expansion is still applied to data read  from  the  config
       file.

       euid may not be equal to uid when modprobe is invoked from
       the kernel, this is true for kernels >= 2.4.0-test11.   In
       an  ideal  world,  modprobe could trust the kernel to only
       pass valid parameters to modprobe.  However at  least  one
       local  root exploit has occurred because high level kernel
       code passed unverified parameters direct from the user  to
       modprobe.  So modprobe no longer trusts kernel input.

       modprobe automatically sets safe mode when the environment
       consists only of these strings
        HOME=/
        TERM=linux
        PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin:/bin:/usr/bin
       This detects modprobe execution from the kernel on kernels
       2.2  though  2.4.0-test11,  even  if uid == euid, which it
       does on the earlier kernels.


LOGGING COMMANDS

       If directory /var/log/ksymoops exists and modprobe is  run
       with  an  option that could load or a delete a module then
       modprobe  will  log  its  command  and  return  status  in
       /var/log/ksymoops/`date +%Y%m%d.log`.   There is no switch
       to disable this automatic logging, if you do not  want  it
       to  occur,  do  not  create  /var/log/ksymoops.   If  that
       directory exists, it should be owned by root and  be  mode
       644 or 600 and you should run script insmod_ksymoops_clean
       every day or so.


REQUIRED UTILITIES

       depmod(8), insmod(8).


NOTES

       Patterns supplied  to  modprobe  will  often  need  to  be


AUTHOR

       Jacques Gelinas (jack@solucorp.qc.ca)
       Bjorn Ekwall (bj0rn@blox.se)

Linux                   February 12, 2003             MODPROBE(8)
  
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