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       Main function:

        /sbin/lilo - install boot loader

       Auxiliary uses:

        /sbin/lilo -q - query map
        /sbin/lilo -T - tell more about specified topic
        /sbin/lilo -R - set default command line for next reboot
        /sbin/lilo -A - activate/show active partition
        /sbin/lilo -E - edit header or update a bitmap file
        /sbin/lilo -M - write a Master Boot Record on a device
        /sbin/lilo -I - inquire path name of current kernel
        /sbin/lilo {-u|-U} - uninstall LILO boot loader


       lilo  installs  a  boot loader that will be activated next
       time you boot.  It has lots of options.

       -A master-device [ N ]
              Inquire  of  active  partition  on  device  master-
              device;  e.g.,  "/dev/hda".   With  a number in the
              range 1 to 4, activate the specified  partition  on
              the master device.

       -b bootdev
              Specify  the  boot  device;  i.e.,  where  the boot
              loader will be installed.  "-b /dev/hda"  specifies
              the  Master  Boot  Record; "-b /dev/sdb5" specifies
              the first extended partition  on  the  second  SCSI

       -B bitmap-file
              Specify  a  bitmap  file for the boot-time graphics

       -c     Enable  map  compaction.  This  will   merge   read
              requests from adjacent sectors. Speeds up the boot­
              ing (especially from floppy).

       -C config-file
              lilo reads its instructions about what files to map
              from the specified configuration file.  This option
              overrides the  use  of  the  default  config  file,

       -d delay
              Specifies  the delay time in tenths of a second (20
              = 2 sec) before  automatically  booting  the  first
              image.   Gives  you time to interrupt the automatic
              create or update the color/placement information in
              the bitmap file LILO header.

              If .ext is .dat, then take the file to be a config­
              uration file which specifies bitmap graphic parame­
              ters, which are transferred into the LILO header in
              the bitmap file of the same name.

       -f disk-tab
              Specify disk geometry parameter file. (The  default
              is /etc/disktab.)

       -F     Override  boot  sector check for filesystems (e.g.,
              swap, XFS, ...) which might  be  destroyed  by  the
              installation  of  the LILO boot sector on the first
              sector of the partition.  These filesystems use the
              first sector as a superblock.

              Compare  with  "-P  ignore", which bypasses certain
              partition table checks.

       -g     Generate  cylinder/head/sector   (geometric)   disk
              addresses.    Limited  to  cylinders  up  to  1023.
              Forces compatibility with older versions of LILO.

       -i boot-loader
              Specify a file to be used as the new  boot  loader.
              (The default is /boot/boot.b.)

       -I label
              The label of the running kernel can be found in the
              environment variable BOOT_IMAGE after  startup,  or
              in  the  pseudo-file `/proc/cmdline'.  This command
              will print path name of  the  corresponding  kernel
              file, keytable file, or of any initial ramdisk file
              ("i", "k", or "r" option).

       -l     Generate 24-bit linear sector addresses instead  of
              cylinder/head/sector addresses.

       -L     Generate  32-bit Logical Block Addresses instead of
              cylinder/head/sector addresses, allowing access  to
              all  partitions on disks with more than 1024 cylin­

       -m map-file
              Use specified map file instead of the default.

       -M master-device [ mbr-file ]
              Install a Master Boot Record on the  device  speci­
              fied  as  master-device.   The new MBR is copied by
              default  from  "mbr.b",   which   is   built   into
              tion table, possibly destroying all  partitions  on
              the disk.

              -P  ignore  is  also  used  to bypass the partition
              table check for partition types within  the  parti­
              tion  table  which might not allow the installation
              of a LILO boot sector.  Compare with the "-F" flag,
              which  overrides  the check of the actual boot sec­

       -q     List the currently mapped files.  lilo maintains  a
              file, by default /boot/map, containing the name and
              location of the kernel(s)  to  boot.   This  option
              will  list the names therein.  Use with -v for more
              detailed  information  about  the  installed   boot

       -r root-directory
              Before  doing  anything  else,  do  a chroot to the
              indicated directory. The new  root  directory  must
              contain  a  /dev  directory,  and  may need a /boot
              directory. It may also need an /etc/lilo.conf file.

              Used  by the mkbootdisk shell script for creating a
              bootable floppy.

       -R command line
              This option sets the default command for  the  boot
              loader  the  next time it executes. The boot loader
              will then erase this line: this is a once-only com­
              mand.  It is typically used in reboot scripts, just
              before calling `shutdown  -r'.   Used  without  any
              arguments,  it  will  cancel  a lock-ed or fallback
              command line.

       -s save-file
              When lilo overwrites the boot sector, it  preserves
              the   old   contents   in   a   file,   by  default
              /boot/boot.NNNN where NNNN depends on  the  device.
              This  option  specifies  an alternate save file for
              the boot sector. (Or, together with the -u  option,
              specifies from where to restore the boot sector.)

       -S save-file
              Normally,  lilo will not overwrite an existing save
              file.  This  options  says  that   overwriting   is

       -t     Test only. Do not really write a new boot sector or
              map file.  Use together with -v to  find  out  what
              lilo is about to do.

                         e.g., table=/dev/sda
                 video - list graphic modes available to boot

       -u [device-name]
              Uninstall lilo by copying  the  saved  boot  sector
              back.   The '-s' and '-C' switches may be used with
              this option.  The device-name is optional.  A time-
              stamp is checked.

       -U [device-name]
              Idem, but do not check the time-stamp.

       -v     Increase  verbosity.  Giving one to five -v options
              will make lilo more verbose, or use, -v n  (n=1..5)
              to set verbosity level 'n'.

       -V     Print version number.

       -w     Suppress warning messages.

       -x option
              For RAID installations only.  The option may be any
              of the keywords none, auto, mbr-only,  or  a  comma
              separated  list  of  additional  boot  devices  (no
              spaces allowed in the list).

       -X     Reserved for LILO internal use.  May  produce  dif­
              ferent output for different LILO versions. The line
              beginning  "CFLAGS="  will  contain  the   compiler
              options used to generate this version of LILO.

       -z     When  used  with  the  -M switch, clears the device
              serial  number.   Usually  used  in  the  following
              sequence to generate a new device serial number:
                   lilo -z -M /dev/hda
                   lilo -M /dev/hda

       The above command line options correspond to the key words
       in the config file indicated below.

              -b bootdev       boot=bootdev
              -B file.bmp      bitmap=file.bmp
              -c               compact
              -d dsec          delay=dsec
              -D label         default=label
              -i boot-loader   install=boot-loader
              -f file          disktab=file
              -g               geometric
              -l               linear
              -L               lba32
              -m mapfile       map=mapfile

       lock   Locks  the  command line, as though 'lock' had been
              specified in 'lilo.conf.'

              Specifies the  maximum  memory  in  the  system  in
              bytes, kilobytes, or megabytes.  This option is not
              removed from the command line, and is always passed
              to the kernel.

       nobd   Suppresses collection of BIOS data.  This option is
              reserved  for  use  with  non-IBM-compliant  BIOS's
              which hang with the lines:

                   BIOS data check

              Allows  overriding the default video mode upon ker­
              nel startup.


       The boot process takes place in  two  stages.   The  first
       stage loader is a single sector, and is loaded by the BIOS
       or by the loader in the MBR.  It  loads  the  multi-sector
       second  stage loader, but is very space limited.  When the
       first stage loader gets control, it types the letter  "L";
       when  it  is ready to transfer control to the second stage
       loader it types the letter "I".  If any error occurs, like
       a  disk  read  error,  it will put out a hexadecimil error
       code, and then it will  re-try  the  operation.   All  hex
       error  codes  are BIOS return values, except for the lilo-
       generated 40, 99 and 9A.  A partial list  of  error  codes

              00  no error
              01  invalid disk command
              0A  bad sector flag
              0B  bad track flag
              20  controller failure
              40  seek failure (BIOS)
              40  cylinder>1023 (LILO)
              99  invalid second stage index sector (LILO)
              9A  no second stage loader signature (LILO)
              AA  drive not ready
              FF  sense operation failed

       Error  code 40 is generated by the BIOS, or by LILO during
       the conversion of a linear (24-bit) disk address to a geo­
       metric  (C:H:S)  address.   On  older systems which do not
       support lba32 (32-bit) addressing, this error may also  be

       All second stage loader error messages are  English  text,
       and  try to pinpoint, more or less successfully, the point
       of failure.


       lilo is known to have problems with  the  reiserfs  intro­
       duced  with  the  2.2.x kernels, unless the file system is
       mounted with the 'notail' option.  This incompatibilty has
       been resolved with reiserfs 3.6.18 and lilo 21.6.

       Beginning  with version 22.0, RAID installations write the
       boot record to the RAID partition. Conditional writing  of
       MBRs may occur to aid in making the RAID set bootable in a
       recovery situation, but all default actions may  be  over­
       ridden.  Action  similar  to previous versions is achieved
       using the `-x mbr-only' switch.


       Configuration file options `backup' and `force-backup' are
       not  yet correctly implemented for RAID installations. Use
       of the default boot record backup mechanism seems to  work
       okay, and should be used.


       fdisk(8), lilo.conf(5), mkrescue(8), mkinitrd(8).

       The lilo distribution comes with very extensive documenta­
       tion.  (lilo 21)


       Werner Almesberger <almesber@lrc.epfl.ch> (versions  0  to
       John Coffman <johninsd@san.rr.com> (21.2 to present)

                           09 Jun 2002                    LILO(8)
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