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       The  files  /etc/sysconfig/network/routes and /etc/syscon­
       fig/network/ifroute-config  are  parsed  by   the   script
       /etc/sysconfig/network/scripts/ifup-route  which  sets  up
       routing for  an  interface/configuration.   ifup-route  is
       used  by /sbin/ifup, which is the command line user inter­
       face for setting up network interfaces.

       /etc/sysconfig/network/routes is used for every  interface
       while  /etc/sysconfig/network/ifroute-config  is used only
       for  the  network  interface   configuration   stored   in
       /etc/sysconfig/network/ifcfg-config, that means only for a
       certain interface. (See a discussion of the  notions  con­
       figuration, interface and device in ifup(8).)

       At  boot  time  /etc/init.d/network  calls  ifup for every
       existing configuration and uses ifup-route directly to set
       up  special routes which do not belong to a certain inter­

       The current routes can be seen by issuing:

              /sbin/ip route list

       which will give the current routing table.


       The files /etc/sysconfig/network/routes  and  /etc/syscon­
       fig/network/ifroute-config  use  the same syntax. The only
       difference is the interpretation  of  an  empty  interface
       field. See 4th column below.

       Lines  beginning with # and blank lines are ignored. There
       are 5 columns with special meaning.  Write a dash  "-"  if
       you  want  to  omit an entry for a field. If all following
       fields in the line are empty too, you can  even  omit  the

       The first column gives the destination, written as the IP-
       address of a host or a network. The heading default  indi­
       cates   that   the   route  is  the  default  gateway.  Do
       not use for this purpose. A prefixlen can be used;
       e.g., is valid.

       The  second  column  contains  the gateway. Write here the
       regular IP-address of a host which routes the packages  to
       a  remote host or remote network. You can omit this infor­
       mation for rejecting routes.
       up,  but if you have multiple interfaces this route is set
       up with every single interface you activate. This may lead
       to  error messages in the syslog. If you see such an error
       message which tells you "...  this  needs  NOT  to  be  AN
       ERROR"  then  check if you wrote the wrong ip addresses or
       if it occurs because it's being  set  up  with  the  wrong

       In the latter case you may want to use /etc/sysconfig/net­
       work/ifroute-config instead. Here an empty interface field
       is  always  replaced  with the interface name that is cur­
       rently being activated. This makes sense because this file
       is  only  used  for one configuration (for one interface).
       This is even necessary if  you  use  several  hotpluggable
       devices, because you cannot know the name of the interface
       that is used with a configuration  for  a  certain  device

       The  fifth  column  can  be  used to specify the type of a

              The route entry describes real paths to the  desti­
              nations covered by the route prefix.

       local  The  destinations  are  assigned  to this host. The
              packets are looped back and delivered locally.

              The destinations are broadcast addresses. The pack­
              ets are sent as link broadcasts.

              A  special  type  used for multicast routing. It is
              not present in normal routing tables.

       throw  A special control route used together  with  policy
              rules.  If such a route is selected, lookup in this
              table is terminated pretending that  no  route  was
              found.  Without  policy routing it is equivalent to
              the absence of the route in the routing table.  The
              packets  are  dropped  and  the  ICMP  message  net
              unreachable is generated. The local senders get  an
              ENETUNREACH error.

              These  destinations  are  unreachable.  Packets are
              discarded silently. The local senders get an EINVAL

              translate to are selected with attribute 'via'.

       Any remaining columns, if given, are appended to the route
       command.   This  makes it possible to pass special options
       for this route. Columns which are not needed  should  con­
       tain  a  minus  sign  ( - ) to ensure that the parser cor­
       rectly interprets the command.


       An example with common network interfaces and some  static

       # Destination     Dummy/Gateway     Netmask            Device
       #       lo       eth0
       default             eth0    eth1        eth1

       An  example for routing entries for synchronous ppp over a
       ISDN connection.

       # Destination     Dummy/Gateway     Netmask            Device
       #       lo     ippp0
       default             ippp0


       SuSE Linux >= 8.0 uses the ip command  from  the  iproute2
       package  to  setup the network and routes.  Please see the
       documentation  distributed  with  this  package  for  more




       Michal Svec <msvec@suse.cz>
       Christian Zoz <zoz@suse.de>
       Mads Martin Joergensen <mmj@suse.de>

       Thanks   to  Werner  Fink  <werner@suse.de>  for  the  old
       route.conf(5).   Parts  of  the  ip  reference  by  Alexey
       Kuznetsov <kuznet@ms2.inr.ac.ru> were also used.


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