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       For a quick start, see NOTES at the end of the procmail(1)
       man page.

       The rcfile can contain a mixture of  environment  variable
       assignments  (some of which have special meanings to proc­
       mail), and recipes.  In their most simple appearance,  the
       recipes  are  simply one line regular expressions that are
       searched for in the header  of  the  arriving  mail.   The
       first  recipe  that matches is used to determine where the
       mail has to go (usually a file).  If processing falls  off
       the  end  of the rcfile, procmail will deliver the mail to

       There are two kinds of recipes: delivering and  non-deliv­
       ering  recipes.  If a delivering recipe is found to match,
       procmail considers the mail (you guessed it) delivered and
       will cease processing the rcfile after having successfully
       executed the action line of the recipe.  If a non-deliver­
       ing  recipe  is  found  to match, processing of the rcfile
       will continue after the action line  of  this  recipe  has
       been executed.

       Delivering recipes are those that cause header and/or body
       of the mail to be: written into a file, absorbed by a pro­
       gram or forwarded to a mailaddress.

       Non-delivering recipes are: those that cause the output of
       a program or filter to be captured  back  by  procmail  or
       those that start a nesting block.

       You  can  tell procmail to treat a delivering recipe as if
       it were a non-delivering recipe by specifying the `c' flag
       on such a recipe.  This will make procmail generate a car­
       bon copy of the mail by delivering it to this recipe,  yet
       continue processing the rcfile.

       By  using  any number of recipes you can presort your mail
       extremely straightforward into several mailfolders.   Bear
       in  mind  though  that the mail can arrive concurrently in
       these mailfolders (if several procmail programs happen  to
       run  at  the  same  time,  not  unlikely  if a lot of mail
       arrives).  To make sure this does not result  in  a  mess,
       proper use of lockfiles is highly recommended.

       The  environment  variable  assignments and recipes can be
       freely intermixed in the rcfile. If any environment  vari­
       able  has  a  special meaning to procmail, it will be used
       appropriately the moment it is parsed (i.e. you can change

       A  word  beginning with # and all the following characters
       up to a NEWLINE are ignored.  This does not apply to  con­
       dition lines, which cannot be commented.

       A  line starting with ':' marks the beginning of a recipe.
       It has the following format:

              :0 [flags] [ : [locallockfile] ]
              <zero or more conditions (one per line)>
              <exactly one action line>

       Conditions start with a leading `*', everything after that
       character  is  passed  on to the internal egrep literally,
       except for leading and trailing whitespace.  These regular
       expressions   are  completely  compatible  to  the  normal
       egrep(1) extended regular expressions.  See also  Extended
       regular expressions.

       Conditions  are  anded;  if  there  are  no conditions the
       result will be true by default.

       Flags can be any of the following:

       H    Egrep the header (default).

       B    Egrep the body.

       D    Tell the internal egrep to distinguish between  upper
            and  lower  case (contrary to the default which is to
            ignore case).

       A    This recipe will not be executed  unless  the  condi­
            tions  on  the  last preceding recipe (on the current
            block-nesting level) without  the  `A'  or  `a'  flag
            matched  as  well.   This allows you to chain actions
            that depend on a common condition.

       a    Has the same meaning as the `A' flag, with the  addi­
            tional   condition  that  the  immediately  preceding
            recipe must have been successfully  completed  before
            this recipe is executed.

       E    This  recipe only executes if the immediately preced­
            ing recipe  was  not  executed.   Execution  of  this
            recipe   also   disables  any  immediately  following
            recipes with the 'E' flag.  This allows you to  spec­
            ify `else if' actions.

       e    This  recipe only executes if the immediately preced­
       f    Consider the pipe as a filter.

       c    Generate a carbon copy of this mail.  This only makes
            sense on delivering recipes.  The only non-delivering
            recipe  this  flag  has  an effect on is on a nesting
            block, in order to generate a carbon copy  this  will
            clone  the  running  procmail process (lockfiles will
            not be inherited), whereby the clone will proceed  as
            usual and the parent will jump across the block.

       w    Wait  for  the  filter or program to finish and check
            its exitcode (normally ignored);  if  the  filter  is
            unsuccessful,  then  the text will not have been fil­

       W    Has the same meaning as the `w' flag, but  will  sup­
            press any `Program failure' message.

       i    Ignore  any write errors on this recipe (i.e. usually
            due to an early closed pipe).

       r    Raw mode, do not try to ensure the mail ends with  an
            empty line, write it out as is.

       There are some special conditions you can use that are not
       straight regular expressions.  To select them, the  condi­
       tion must start with:

       !    Invert the condition.

       $    Evaluate the remainder of this condition according to
            sh(1) substitution rules inside double  quotes,  skip
            leading whitespace, then reparse it.

       ?    Use the exitcode of the specified program.

       <    Check if the total length of the mail is shorter than
            the specified (in decimal) number of bytes.

       >    Analogous to '<'.

       variablename ??
            Match the remainder of  this  condition  against  the
            value of this environment variable (which cannot be a
            pseudo variable).  A special case is if  variablename
            is equal to `B', `H', `HB' or `BH'; this merely over­
            rides the default header/body search area defined  by
            the initial flags on this recipe.

       \    To quote any of the above at the start of the line.

       '>>') and will append $LOCKEXT to it.

   Recipe action line
       The action line can start with the following characters:

       !      Forwards to all the specified mail addresses.

       |      Starts the specified program, possibly in $SHELL if
              any of the characters $SHELLMETAS are spotted.  You
              can optionally prepend this pipe symbol with  vari­
              able=, which will cause stdout of the program to be
              captured in the environment variable (procmail will
              not terminate processing the rcfile at this point).
              If you specify just this pipe symbol,  without  any
              program,  then  procmail will pipe the mail to std­

       {      Followed by at least one space, tab or newline will
              mark  the  start of a nesting block.  Everything up
              till the next closing brace will depend on the con­
              ditions specified for this recipe.  Unlimited nest­
              ing is permitted.  The closing brace exists  merely
              to delimit the block, it will not cause procmail to
              terminate in any way.  If the end  of  a  block  is
              reached processing will continue as usual after the
              block.  On a nesting block, the flags `H'  and  `B'
              only affect the conditions leading up to the block,
              the flags `h' and `b' have no effect whatsoever.

       Anything else will be taken as a mailbox  name  (either  a
       filename  or a directory, absolute or relative to the cur­
       rent directory (see MAILDIR)).  If it is a  (possibly  yet
       nonexistent) filename, the mail will be appended to it.

       If  it  is  a  directory,  the mail will be delivered to a
       newly created, guaranteed to be unique file named $MSGPRE­
       FIX* in the specified directory.  If the mailbox name ends
       in "/.", then this directory  is  presumed  to  be  an  MH
       folder;  i.e.,  procmail will use the next number it finds
       available.  If the mailbox name ends  in  "/",  then  this
       directory  is presumed to be a maildir folder; i.e., proc­
       mail will deliver the message to a file in a  subdirectory
       named  "tmp"  and  rename  it  to be inside a subdirectory
       named "new".  If the mailbox is  specified  to  be  an  MH
       folder  or maildir folder, procmail will create the neces­
       sary directories if they don't exist,  rather  than  treat
       the  mailbox as a non-existent filename.  When procmail is
       delivering to directories, you can specify multiple direc­
       tories  to  deliver  to  (procmail  will  do  so utilising

                             (Except during the processing of  an
                             /etc/procmailrc  file,  when it will
                             be    set    to    `/bin    :/usr/bin

       SHELLMETAS            &|<>~;?*[

       SHELLFLAGS            -c

       ORGMAIL               /var/spool/mail/$LOGNAME
                             (Unless  -m  has  been specified, in
                             which case it is unset)

       MAILDIR               $HOME/
                             (Unless the name of the  first  suc­
                             cessfully  opened rcfile starts with
                             `./' or if -m has been specified, in
                             which case it defaults to `.')

       DEFAULT               $ORGMAIL

       MSGPREFIX             msg.

       SENDMAIL              /usr/sbin/sendmail

       SENDMAILFLAGS         -oi

       HOST                  The current hostname

       COMSAT                no
                             (If  an  rcfile  is specified on the
                             command line)

       PROCMAIL_VERSION      3.15.1

       LOCKEXT               .lock

       Other cleared or preset environment variables are IFS, ENV
       and PWD.

       Before  you get lost in the multitude of environment vari­
       ables, keep in mind  that  all  of  them  have  reasonable

       MAILDIR     Current  directory while procmail is executing
                   (that means that all  paths  are  relative  to

       DEFAULT     Default  mailbox  file (if not told otherwise,
                   procmail will  dump  mail  in  this  mailbox).

       VERBOSE     You can turn on extended diagnostics  by  set­
                   ting  this  variable to `yes' or `on', to turn
                   it off again set it to `no' or `off'.

       LOGABSTRACT Just before procmail exits it logs an abstract
                   of  the  delivered message in $LOGFILE showing
                   the `From  '  and  `Subject:'  fields  of  the
                   header, what folder it finally went to and how
                   long (in bytes) the message was.   By  setting
                   this  variable  to  `no',  generation  of this
                   abstract is suppressed.   If  you  set  it  to
                   `all', procmail will log an abstract for every
                   successful delivering recipe it processes.

       LOG         Anything assigned to  this  variable  will  be
                   appended to $LOGFILE.

       ORGMAIL     Usually the system mailbox (ORiGinal MAILbox).
                   If, for some obscure reason (like  `filesystem
                   full')  the  mail could not be delivered, then
                   this mailbox will  be  the  last  resort.   If
                   procmail fails to save the mail in here (deep,
                   deep trouble :-), then the  mail  will  bounce
                   back to the sender.

       LOCKFILE    Global  semaphore  file.  If this file already
                   exists, procmail will wait until it  has  gone
                   before  proceeding,  and will create it itself
                   (cleaning it up when ready,  of  course).   If
                   more than one lockfile are specified, then the
                   previous one will be removed before trying  to
                   create the new one.  The use of a global lock­
                   file is  discouraged,  whenever  possible  use
                   locallockfiles   (on   a   per  recipe  basis)

       LOCKEXT     Default extension that is appended to a desti­
                   nation  file  to determine what local lockfile
                   to use (only if turned  on,  on  a  per-recipe

       LOCKSLEEP   Number  of  seconds procmail will sleep before
                   retrying  on  a  lockfile   (if   it   already
                   existed);  if  not specified, it defaults to 8

       LOCKTIMEOUT Number of seconds that  have  to  have  passed
                   since  a  lockfile  was  last modified/created
                   before procmail decides that this must  be  an
                   erroneously  leftover  lockfile  that  can  be
                   removed by force now.  If zero, then no  time­
                   used and procmail will wait forever until  the
                   child  has  terminated;  if  not specified, it
                   defaults to 960 seconds.

       MSGPREFIX   Filename prefix that is used  when  delivering
                   to  a directory (not used when delivering to a
                   maildir or an MH directory).

       HOST        If this is not the hostname  of  the  machine,
                   processing  of the current rcfile will immedi­
                   ately cease. If other rcfiles  were  specified
                   on  the command line, processing will continue
                   with  the  next  one.   If  all  rcfiles   are
                   exhausted,  the  program  will  terminate, but
                   will not generate an error (i.e. to the mailer
                   it  will  seem  that  the mail has been deliv­

       UMASK       The name says it all (if it doesn't, then for­
                   get  about this one :-).  Anything assigned to
                   UMASK is taken as an  octal  number.   If  not
                   specified,  the umask defaults to 077.  If the
                   umask permits o+x, all the mailboxes  procmail
                   delivers  to directly will receive an o+x mode
                   change.  This can be used to check if new mail

       SHELLMETAS  If any of the characters in SHELLMETAS appears
                   in the line specifying a  filter  or  program,
                   the  line  will  be  fed  to $SHELL instead of
                   being executed directly.

       SHELLFLAGS  Any invocation of $SHELL will be like:
                   "$SHELL" "$SHELLFLAGS" "$*";

       SENDMAIL    If you're not using  the  forwarding  facility
                   don't  worry about this one.  It specifies the
                   program being called to forward any mail.
                   It gets invoked as: "$SENDMAIL" $SENDMAILFLAGS

       NORESRETRY  Number  of  retries that are to be made if any
                   `process table full', `file table full',  `out
                   of memory' or `out of swap space' error should
                   occur.  If this number is negative, then proc­
                   mail  will  retry  indefinitely; if not speci­
                   fied, it defaults to  4  times.   The  retries
                   occur  with  a  $SUSPEND second interval.  The
                   idea behind this is, that  if  e.g.  the  swap
                   space  has been exhausted or the process table
                   is full, usually several other  programs  will
                   either  detect this as well and abort or crash

       LINEBUF     Length of the internal line buffers, cannot be
                   set smaller than 128.  All lines read from the
                   rcfile  should  not exceed $LINEBUF characters
                   before and after expansion.  If not specified,
                   it  defaults  to 2048.  This limit, of course,
                   does not apply to the mail itself,  which  can
                   have  arbitrary  line  lengths,  or could be a
                   binary file for that matter.  See  also  PROC­

       DELIVERED   If  set to `yes' procmail will pretend (to the
                   mail agent) the mail has been  delivered.   If
                   mail cannot be delivered after having met this
                   assignment (set to `yes'), the  mail  will  be
                   lost (i.e. it will not bounce).

       TRAP        When  procmail  terminates it will execute the
                   contents of this variable.  A copy of the mail
                   can  be  read from stdin.  Any output produced
                   by this command will be appended to  $LOGFILE.
                   Possible  uses for TRAP are: removal of tempo­
                   rary files, logging customised abstracts, etc.
                   See also EXITCODE and LOGABSTRACT.

       EXITCODE    When procmail terminates and this variable has
                   been set to a positive numeric value, procmail
                   will  use this as the exitcode.  If this vari­
                   able is set but empty, procmail will  set  the
                   exitcode to whatever the TRAP program returns.
                   If this variable has not  been  set,  procmail
                   will set it shortly before calling up the TRAP

       LASTFOLDER  This variable is assigned to by procmail when­
                   ever  it is delivering to a folder or program.
                   It always contains the name of the  last  file
                   (or  program)  procmail  delivered to.  If the
                   last delivery was to several directory folders
                   together  then  $LASTFOLDER  will  contain the
                   hardlinked  filenames  as  a  space  separated

       MATCH       This variable is assigned to by procmail when­
                   ever it is told to extract text from a  match­
                   ing  regular  expression.  It will contain all
                   text matching the regular expression past  the
                   `\/' token.

       SHIFT       Assigning  a  positive  value to this variable
                   has the same effect as the `shift' command  in
                   sh(1).  This command is most useful to extract
                   extra arguments passed to procmail when acting
                   ership  of  the  rcfile,  users  of  INCLUDERC
                   should make sure that only trusted users  have
                   write  access  to  the  included rcfile or the
                   directory it is in.

       SWITCHRC    Names  an  rcfile  (relative  to  the  current
                   directory)   to   which   processing  will  be
                   switched.  If the named rcfile  doesn't  exist
                   or  is  not a normal file or /dev/null then an
                   error will be logged and processing will  con­
                   tinue  in the current rcfile.  Otherwise, pro­
                   cessing of the current rcfile will be  aborted
                   and   the  named  rcfile  started.   Unsetting
                   SWITCHRC  aborts  processing  of  the  current
                   rcfile  as  if it had ended at the assignment.
                   As with INCLUDERC, no checking is done on  the
                   permissions or ownership of the rcfile.

                   The  version  number  of  the running procmail

                   This variable will be set to a non-empty value
                   if  procmail  detects  a buffer overflow.  See
                   the BUGS section below for  other  details  of
                   operation when overflow occurs.

       COMSAT      Comsat(8)/biff(1)   notification   is   on  by
                   default, it can be turned off by setting  this
                   variable to `no'.  Alternatively the biff-ser­
                   vice can be customised by setting it to either
                   `service@',   `@hostname',  or  `service@host­
                   name'.  When  not  specified  it  defaults  to

       DROPPRIVS   If  set to `yes' procmail will drop all privi­
                   leges it might have had (suid or sgid).   This
                   is  only  useful if you want to guarantee that
                   the bottom half of the /etc/procmailrc file is
                   executed on behalf of the recipient.

   Extended regular expressions
       The following tokens are known to both the procmail inter­
       nal egrep and the  standard  egrep(1)  (beware  that  some
       egrep  implementations  include  other non-standard exten­

       ^         Start of a line.

       $         End of a line.

       a?        Either zero or one a.

       [^-a-d]   Any character which is not either a dash, a,  b,
                 c, d or newline.

       de|abc    Either the sequence `de' or `abc'.

       (abc)*    Zero or more times the sequence `abc'.

       \.        Matches  a single dot; use \ to quote any of the
                 magic characters to get  rid  of  their  special
                 meaning.  See also $\ variable substitution.

       These  were only samples, of course, any more complex com­
       bination is valid as well.

       The following token meanings are special  procmail  exten­

       ^ or $    Match a newline (for multiline matches).

       ^^        Anchor  the  expression at the very start of the
                 search area, or if encountered at the end of the
                 expression,  anchor  it  at  the very end of the
                 search area.

       \< or \>  Match the character  before  or  after  a  word.
                 They are merely a shorthand for `[^a-zA-Z0-9_]',
                 but can also match newlines.  Since  they  match
                 actual  characters,  they  are  only suitable to
                 delimit words, not to delimit inter-word  space.

       \/        Splits  the expression in two parts.  Everything
                 matching the right part will be assigned to  the
                 MATCH environment variable.


       Look in the procmailex(5) man page.


       Continued lines in an action line that specifies a program
       always have to end in a backslash, even if the  underlying
       shell  would  not  need  or want the backslash to indicate
       continuation.  This is due to the two pass parsing process
       needed  (first procmail, then the shell (or not, depending
       on SHELLMETAS)).

       Don't put comments on  the  regular  expression  condition
       lines  in  a  recipe,  these lines are fed to the internal
       egrep literally (except for  continuation  backslashes  at
       the end of a line).

       line as arguments.

       The  /etc/procmailrc  file  cannot change the PATH setting
       seen by user rcfiles as the value is reset  when  procmail
       finishes  the /etc/procmailrc file.  While future enhance­
       ments are expected in this area, recompiling procmail with
       the  desired value is currently the only correct solution.

       Environment variables set inside the shell-interpreted-`|'
       action  part of a recipe will not retain their value after
       the recipe has finished since they are set in  a  subshell
       of  procmail.   To  make  sure the value of an environment
       variable is retained you have to put the assignment to the
       variable  before  the  leading `|' of a recipe, so that it
       can capture stdout of the program.

       If you specify only a `h' or a `b' flag  on  a  delivering
       recipe,  and the recipe matches, then, unless the `c' flag
       is present as well, the body respectively  the  header  of
       the mail will be silently lost.


       procmail(1), procmailsc(5), procmailex(5), sh(1), csh(1),
       mail(1), mailx(1), binmail(1), uucp(1), aliases(5),
       sendmail(8), egrep(1), regexp(5), grep(1), biff(1),
       comsat(8), lockfile(1), formail(1)


       The only substitutions of environment variables  that  can
       be  handled  by  procmail  itself  are  of the type $name,
       ${name},   ${name:-text},   ${name:+text},   ${name-text},
       ${name+text},  $\name,  $#,  $n,  $$,  $?,  $_, $- and $=;
       whereby $\name will be substituted by the  all-magic-regu­
       lar-expression-characters-disarmed equivalent of $name, $_
       by the name of the current rcfile, $- by  $LASTFOLDER  and
       $=  will  contain  the score of the last recipe.  Further­
       more, the result of $\name substituion will never be split
       on  whitespace.   When the -a or -m options are used, "$@"
       will expand to respectively the specified argument (list);
       but only when passed as in the argument list to a program,
       and then only one such occurence will be expanded.

       Unquoted variable expansions performed by procmail are al­
       ways  split on space, tab, and newline characters; the IFS
       variable is not used internally.

       Procmail does not support the expansion of `~'.

       A line buffer of length $LINEBUF is used  when  processing
       the rcfile, any expansions that don't fit within this lim­
       it will be truncated and PROCMAIL_OVERFLOW  will  be  set.
       If  the overflowing line is a condition or an action line,
       current directory has changed since the rcfile was opened,
       then  procmail  will  not be able to clone itself (remedy:
       use an absolute path to reference the rcfile or make  sure
       MAILDIR  contains  an  absolute  path  as  the  rcfile  is

       A locallockfile on the recipe that marks the  start  of  a
       non-forking nested block does not work as expected.

       When  capturing  stdout  from a recipe into an environment
       variable, exactly one trailing newline will be stripped.

       Some non-optimal and non-obvious regexps set MATCH  to  an
       incorrect value.  The regexp can be made to work by remov­
       ing one or more unneeded


       If the regular expression contains `^TO_' it will be  sub­
       stituted by `(^((Original-)?(Resent-)?(To|Cc|Bcc)|(X-
       which should catch all destination specifications
       containing a specific address.

       If the regular expression contains `^TO' it will  be  sub­
       stituted by `(^((Original-)?(Resent-)?(To|Cc|Bcc)|(X-
       Envelope|Apparently(-Resent)?)-To):(.*[^a-zA-Z])?)', which
       should catch all destination specifications containing a
       specific word.

       If the regular expression contains `^FROM_DAEMON' it  will
       be substituted by `(^(Mailing-List:|Precedence:.*(junk
       |bulk|list)|To: Multiple recipients of |(((Resent-)?(From
       |Sender)|X-Envelope-From):|>?From )([^>]*[^(.%@a-
       z0-9]*)?[%@>\t ][^<)]*(\(.*\).*)?)?$([^>]|$)))', which
       should catch mails coming from most daemons (how's that
       for a regular expression :-).

       If  the regular expression contains `^FROM_MAILER' it will
       be substituted by `(^(((Resent-)?(From|Sender)|X-Envelope-
       From):|>?From )([^>]*[^(.%@a-z0-9])?(Post(ma(st(er)?|n)
       z0-9]*)?[%@>\t ][^<)]*(\(.*\).*)?)?$([^>]|$))' (a stripped
       down version of `^FROM_DAEMON'), which should catch mails
       coming from most mailer-daemons.

       Since unquoted leading whitespace is generally ignored  in
       the rcfile you can indent everything to taste.

       The leading `|' on the action line to specify a program or
       filter is stripped before checking for $SHELLMETAS.

       Files included with the INCLUDERC directive containing on­
       ly environment variable assignments can be shared with sh.

       The current behavior of assignments on the command line to
       INCLUDERC  and  SWITCHRC  is  not  guaranteed  and  may be
       changed or removed in future releases.

       For really complicated processing you  can  even  consider
       calling procmail recursively.

       In  the  old  days, the `:0' that marks the beginning of a
       recipe, had to be changed to `:n', whereby `n' denotes the
       number of conditions that follow.


       Stephen R. van den Berg
       Philip A. Guenther

BuGless                     2001/01/08              PROCMAILRC(5)

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