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zip




SYNOPSIS

       zip    [-aABcdDeEfFghjkKlLmoOqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$]    [-b path]
       [-n suffixes]  [-t mmddyyyy]  [-tt mmddyyyy]  [  zipfile [
       file1 file2 ...]] [-xi list]

       zipcloak [-dhL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipnote [-hwL] [-b path] zipfile

       zipsplit [-hiLpst] [-n size] [-b path] zipfile


DESCRIPTION

       zip is a compression and file packaging utility for  Unix,
       VMS,  MSDOS, OS/2, Windows NT, Minix, Atari and Macintosh,
       Amiga and Acorn RISC OS.

       It is analogous to a  combination  of  the  UNIX  commands
       tar(1)  and compress(1) and is compatible with PKZIP (Phil
       Katz's ZIP for MSDOS systems).

       A companion program  (unzip(1L)),  unpacks  zip  archives.
       The zip and unzip(1L) programs can work with archives pro­
       duced by PKZIP,  and  PKZIP  and  PKUNZIP  can  work  with
       archives  produced  by zip.  zip version 2.3 is compatible
       with PKZIP 2.04.  Note that PKUNZIP  1.10  cannot  extract
       files  produced  by  PKZIP  2.04  or zip 2.3. You must use
       PKUNZIP 2.04g  or  unzip  5.0p1  (or  later  versions)  to
       extract them.

       For a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without speci­
       fying any parameters on the command line.

       The program is useful for packaging a  set  of  files  for
       distribution;  for  archiving  files;  and for saving disk
       space by temporarily compressing unused files or  directo­
       ries.

       The  zip  program puts one or more compressed files into a
       single zip archive, along with information about the files
       (name,  path, date, time of last modification, protection,
       and check  information  to  verify  file  integrity).   An
       entire  directory  structure  can  be  packed  into  a zip
       archive with a single command.  Compression ratios of  2:1
       to 3:1 are common for text files.  zip has one compression
       method (deflation) and can also store files  without  com­
       pression.  zip automatically chooses the better of the two
       for each file to be compressed.

       When given the name of an existing zip archive,  zip  will
       replace  identically  named  entries in the zip archive or
       add entries for new names.  For example, if foo.zip exists
       archive  all  the  C source files in the current directory
       and its subdirectories:

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to  keep  the  shell
       from  expanding  it).   zip will also accept a single dash
       ("-") as the zip file name, in which case  it  will  write
       the zip file to standard output, allowing the output to be
       piped to another program. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would write the zip output directly to  a  tape  with  the
       specified  block  size  for  the purpose of backing up the
       current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file
       to be compressed, in which case it will read the file from
       standard input, allowing zip to take  input  from  another
       program. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would  compress the output of the tar command for the pur­
       pose of backing up the current directory.  This  generally
       produces  better  compression  than  the  previous example
       using the -r option, because zip  can  take  advantage  of
       redundancy between files. The backup can be restored using
       the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When no zip file name is given and stdout is not a  termi­
       nal,  zip  acts as a filter, compressing standard input to
       standard output.  For example,

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted  with
       the program funzip which is provided in the unzip package,
       or by gunzip which is provided in the  gzip  package.  For
       example:

       dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       When  changing  an  existing zip archive, zip will write a
       temporary file with the new contents, and only replace the
              prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. The
              -A  option  tells  zip  to adjust the entry offsets
              stored in the archive to  take  into  account  this
              "preamble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special
       case.  At present, only the Amiga port of Zip  is  capable
       of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. -J
       can be used to remove the SFX stub if other  updates  need
       to be made.

       -B     [VM/CMS  and  MVS]  force  file  to  be read binary
              (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options  with
              n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  1:  Use  LF  rather  than  CR/LF  as delimiter
              (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record  length
              (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit  8:  Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstruc­
              tured files

       -b path
              Use  the  specified  path  for  the  temporary  zip
              archive. For example:

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will put the temporary zip archive in the directory
              /tmp, copying over stuff.zip to the current  direc­
              tory  when  done.  This  option is only useful when
              updating an existing archive, and the  file  system
              containing  this  old  archive does not have enough
              space to hold both old and new archives at the same
              time.

       -c     Add  one-line  comments for each file.  File opera­
              tions (adding, updating) are done  first,  and  the
              user  is  then  prompted for a one-line comment for
              each file.  Enter the comment followed  by  return,
              or just return for no comment.

       -d     Remove  (delete)  entries  from a zip archive.  For
              example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will remove the  entry  foo/tom/junk,  all  of  the
              files  that  start  with foo/harry/, and all of the
              operating-systems.  Resource-forks will be  ignored
              at all.

       -D     Do not create entries in the zip archive for direc­
              tories.  Directory entries are created  by  default
              so  that  their  attributes can be saved in the zip
              archive.  The environment variable  ZIPOPT  can  be
              used  to  change  the  default options. For example
              under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The variable ZIPOPT can be  used  for  any  option
              except  -i and -x and can include several options.)
              The option -D is a shorthand for -x  "*/"  but  the
              latter cannot be set as default in the ZIPOPT envi­
              ronment variable.

       -e     Encrypt the contents of the  zip  archive  using  a
              password  which  is  entered  on  the  terminal  in
              response to a prompt (this will not be  echoed;  if
              standard  error is not a tty, zip will exit with an
              error).  The password prompt is  repeated  to  save
              the user from typing errors.

       -E     [OS/2]  Use  the  .LONGNAME  Extended Attribute (if
              found) as filename.

       -f     Replace (freshen) an  existing  entry  in  the  zip
              archive  only if it has been modified more recently
              than the version already in the zip archive; unlike
              the update option (-u) this will not add files that
              are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This command should be run from the same  directory
              from  which the original zip command was run, since
              paths stored in zip archives are always relative.

              Note that  the  timezone  environment  variable  TZ
              should  be  set  according to the local timezone in
              order for the -f , -u and -o options to  work  cor­
              rectly.

              The  reasons  behind  this  are somewhat subtle but
              have to do with the differences between  the  Unix-
              format  file  times (always in GMT) and most of the
              other operating systems (always local time) and the
              necessity  to  compare the two.  A typical TZ value
              is ``MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time  with  auto­
              matic  adjustment  for  ``summertime''  or Daylight

              Neither option will recover archives that have been
              incorrectly transferred in ascii  mode  instead  of
              binary.  After  the  repair, the -t option of unzip
              may show that some files have a bad CRC. Such files
              cannot  be  recovered; you can remove them from the
              archive using the -d option of zip.

       -g     Grow (append to) the specified zip archive, instead
              of creating a new one. If this operation fails, zip
              attempts to restore the  archive  to  its  original
              state.  If the restoration fails, the archive might
              become  corrupted.  This  option  is  ignored  when
              there's  no  existing  archive or when at least one
              archive member must be updated or deleted.

       -h     Display the zip help information (this also appears
              if zip is run with no arguments).

       -i files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which will include only the files that end in .c in
              the current directory and its subdirectories. (Note
              for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other
              than the current one.)  The  backslash  avoids  the
              shell  filename  substitution,  so  that  the  name
              matching is performed by zip at all directory  lev­
              els.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i@include.lst

              which  will  only  include the files in the current
              directory and its  subdirectories  that  match  the
              patterns in the file include.lst.

       -I     [Acorn  RISC  OS]  Don't  scan through Image files.
              When used, zip will not consider Image  files  (eg.
              DOS  partitions  or  Spark archives when SparkFS is
              loaded) as directories but will store them as  sin­
              gle files.

              For  example, if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a
              Spark archive will result in a zipfile containing a

       -J     Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the
              archive.

       -k     Attempt  to  convert the names and paths to conform
              to MSDOS, store only the MSDOS attribute (just  the
              user write attribute from UNIX), and mark the entry
              as made under MSDOS (even though it was  not);  for
              compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS which cannot
              handle certain names such as those with  two  dots.
              Conversion from ISO8859-1 to IBM PC CP 852 is used.
              See also -O

       -K     Attempt to convert the names and paths  to  conform
              to  MS  Windows.  Behaviour  similar to -k but long
              names are used.

       -l     Translate the Unix end-of-line  character  LF  into
              the  MSDOS convention CR LF. This option should not
              be used on binary files.  This option can  be  used
              on  Unix  if  the  zip file is intended for PKUNZIP
              under MSDOS. If the input files already contain  CR
              LF,  this option adds an extra CR. This ensure that
              unzip -a on Unix will get back an exact copy of the
              original file, to undo the effect of zip -l.

       -ll    Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.
              This option should not be  used  on  binary  files.
              This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is
              intended for unzip under Unix.

       -L     Display the zip license.

       -m     Move the specified  files  into  the  zip  archive;
              actually, this deletes the target directories/files
              after making the specified zip archive. If a direc­
              tory  becomes empty after removal of the files, the
              directory is also removed. No  deletions  are  done
              until  zip  has  created the archive without error.
              This is useful for conserving disk  space,  but  is
              potentially  dangerous  so it is recommended to use
              it in combination  with  -T  to  test  the  archive
              before removing all input files.

       -n suffixes
              Do  not  attempt  to  compress files named with the
              given suffixes.  Such files are simply  stored  (0%
              compression)  in  the  output zip file, so that zip
              doesn't waste its time  trying  to  compress  them.
              The  suffixes  are  separated  by  either colons or
              semicolons.  For example:


              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The  maximum  compression  option  -9 also attempts
              compression on all files regardless of extension.

              On Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are  actually
              filetypes  (3  hex  digit  format). By default, zip
              does not compress files with filetypes in the  list
              DDC:D96:68E  (i.e.  Archives, CFS files and PackDir
              files).

       -N     [Amiga, MacOS] Save Amiga  or  MacOS  filenotes  as
              zipfile comments. They can be restored by using the
              -N option of unzip. If -c is  used  also,  you  are
              prompted  for comments only for those files that do
              not have filenotes.

       -o     Set the "last modified" time of the zip archive  to
              the  latest  (oldest)  "last  modified"  time found
              among the entries in the zip archive.  This can  be
              used without any other operations, if desired.  For
              example:

              zip -o foo

              will change the last modified time  of  foo.zip  to
              the latest time of the entries in foo.zip.

       -O     File names will be converted from ISO8859-2 instead
              of from ISO8859-1. See -k for details.

       -P password
              use password to encrypt zipfile entries  (if
              any).   THIS  IS  INSECURE!  Many multi-user
              operating systems provide ways for any  user
              to see the current command line of any other
              user; even on stand-alone systems  there  is
              always the threat of over-the-shoulder peek­
              ing.  Storing the plaintext password as part
              of  a command line in an automated script is
              even worse.  Whenever possible, use the non-
              echoing,  interactive  prompt to enter pass­
              words.  (And where security is truly  impor­
              tant,  use  strong encryption such as Pretty
              Good Privacy instead of the relatively  weak
              encryption   provided  by  standard  zipfile
              utilities.)

                     zip -r foo foo

              In  this case, all the files and directories
              in foo are saved  in  a  zip  archive  named
              foo.zip, including files with names starting
              with ".", since the recursion does  not  use
              the  shell's  file-name  substitution mecha­
              nism.  If you wish to include  only  a  spe­
              cific  subset  of the files in directory foo
              and its subdirectories, use the -i option to
              specify the pattern of files to be included.
              You should not use -r with  the  name  ".*",
              since  that matches ".."  which will attempt
              to zip up the parent directory (probably not
              what was intended).

       -R     Travel  the  directory structure recursively
              starting at the current directory; for exam­
              ple:

                     zip -R foo '*.c'

              In  this case, all the files matching *.c in
              the tree starting at the  current  directory
              are stored into a zip archive named foo.zip.
              Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command
              is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

       -S     [MSDOS,  OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include sys­
              tem and hidden files.
              [MacOS]  Includes  finder  invisible  files,
              which are ignored otherwise.

       -t mmddyyyy
              Do  not  operate  on files modified prior to
              the specified date, where mm  is  the  month
              (0-12),  dd  is the day of the month (1-31),
              and yyyy is the year.   The  ISO  8601  date
              format  yyyy-mm-dd  is  also  accepted.  For
              example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdi­
              rectories  that  were  last  modified  on or
              after 7 December 1991, to  the  zip  archive
              infamy.zip.

              30  November  1995,  to  the   zip   archive
              infamy.zip.

       -T     Test  the  integrity of the new zip file. If
              the  check  fails,  the  old  zip  file   is
              unchanged  and (with the -m option) no input
              files are removed.

       -u     Replace (update) an existing  entry  in  the
              zip  archive  only  if  it has been modified
              more recently than the  version  already  in
              the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will add any new files in the current direc­
              tory, and update any files which  have  been
              modified since the zip archive stuff.zip was
              last created/modified (note  that  zip  will
              not  try  to pack stuff.zip into itself when
              you do this).

              Note that the -u option  with  no  arguments
              acts like the -f (freshen) option.

       -v     Verbose  mode  or  print  diagnostic version
              info.

              Normally, when applied to  real  operations,
              this   option   enables  the  display  of  a
              progress indicator  during  compression  and
              requests  verbose diagnostic info about zip­
              file structure oddities.

              When -v is the only command  line  argument,
              and  stdout  is  not redirected to a file, a
              diagnostic screen is printed. In addition to
              the  help  screen  header with program name,
              version, and release date, some pointers  to
              the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites are
              given. Then, it shows information about  the
              target  environment  (compiler type and ver­
              sion, OS version, compilation date  and  the
              enabled optional features used to create the
              zip executable.

       -V     [VMS]  Save  VMS   file   attributes.    zip
              archives  created with this option will gen­
              erally not be usable on other systems.

       -w     [VMS] Append the version number of the files
              to  the name, including multiple versions of
              tory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x@exclude.lst

              which  will  include  the contents of foo in
              foo.zip while excluding all the  files  that
              match  the patterns in the file exclude.lst.

       -X     Do not save extra file attributes  (Extended
              Attributes  on  OS/2, uid/gid and file times
              on Unix).

       -y     Store symbolic links  as  such  in  the  zip
              archive,  instead of compressing and storing
              the file  referred  to  by  the  link  (UNIX
              only).

       -z     Prompt  for  a  multi-line  comment  for the
              entire zip archive.  The comment is ended by
              a  line  containing just a period, or an end
              of file condition (^D on UNIX, ^Z on  MSDOS,
              OS/2,  and  VAX/VMS).   The  comment  can be
              taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -#     Regulate the speed of compression using  the
              specified  digit  #,  where  -0 indicates no
              compression (store all files), -1  indicates
              the  fastest  compression  method (less com­
              pression) and -9 indicates the slowest  com­
              pression    method   (optimal   compression,
              ignores the suffix list). The  default  com­
              pression level is -6.

       -!     [WIN32]   Use  priviliges  (if  granted)  to
              obtain all aspects of WinNT security.

       -@     Take the list of input files  from  standard
              input. Only one filename per line.

       -$     [MSDOS,  OS/2,  WIN32]  Include  the  volume
              label for the the drive  holding  the  first
              file  to  be  compressed.   If  you  want to
              include only the volume label or to force  a
              specific  drive, use the drive name as first
              file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

       tution, files starting with "." are  not  included;
       to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even  this will not include any subdirectories from
       the current directory.

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates the archive  foo.zip,  containing  all  the
       files  and directories in the directory foo that is
       contained within the current directory.

       You may want to make a zip  archive  that  contains
       the  files  in foo, without recording the directory
       name, foo.  You can use the -j option to leave  off
       the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If  you are short on disk space, you might not have
       enough room to hold both the original directory and
       the  corresponding compressed zip archive.  In this
       case, you can create the archive in steps using the
       -m option.  If foo contains the subdirectories tom,
       dick, and harry, you can:

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates  foo.zip,  and  the
       next  two add to it.  At the completion of each zip
       command, the last created archive is deleted,  mak­
       ing room for the next zip command to function.


PATTERN MATCHING

       This  section  applies  only  to  UNIX.  Watch this
       space for details on MSDOS and VMS operation.

       The UNIX shells (sh(1) and csh(1)) do filename sub­
       stitution  on command arguments.  The special char­
       acters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number  of  characters  (including
              none)

       to do the name expansion.   In  general,  when  zip
       encounters  a  name  in the list of files to do, it
       first looks for the name in the file system.  If it
       finds  it,  it then adds it to the list of files to
       do.  If it does not find it, it looks for the  name
       in  the  zip archive being modified (if it exists),
       using the  pattern  matching  characters  described
       above,  if  present.   For  each match, it will add
       that name to the list of  files  to  be  processed,
       unless  this  name  matches  one  given with the -x
       option, or does not match any name given  with  the
       -i option.

       The pattern matching includes the path, and so pat­
       terns like \*.o match names that end  in  ".o",  no
       matter  what  the  path  prefix  is.  Note that the
       backslash  must  precede  every  special  character
       (i.e.   ?*[]),  or  the  entire  argument  must  be
       enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In general, use backslash to make zip do  the  pat­
       tern matching with the -f (freshen) and -d (delete)
       options,  and  sometimes  after  the  -x  (exclude)
       option  when  used  with  an  appropriate operation
       (add, -u, -f, or -d).


ENVIRONMENT

       ZIPOPT contains default options that will  be  used
              when running zip

       ZIP    [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

       Zip$Options
              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

       Zip$Exts
              [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a
              : that will cause native filenames with  one
              of  the  specified extensions to be added to
              the zip file  with  basename  and  extension
              swapped.  zip

       ZIP_OPTS
              [VMS] see ZIPOPT


SEE ALSO

       compress(1), shar(1L), tar(1), unzip(1L), gzip(1L)


DIAGNOSTICS

       The  exit  status (or error level) approximates the
       exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes on the  fol­
       lowing values, except under VMS:
                     initialization.

              5      a severe error in the zipfile  format
                     was  detected.   Processing  probably
                     failed immediately.

              6      entry too large to be split with zip­
                     split

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user aborted zip prematurely with
                     control-C (or similar)

              10     zip encountered an error while  using
                     a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip  was  unable  to create a file to
                     write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a  specified  file
                     to read

       VMS  interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values
       as other, scarier-looking things,  so  zip  instead
       maps them into VMS-style status codes.  The current
       mapping is as follows:    1  (success)  for  normal
       exit,
        and  (0x7fff000?  + 16*normal_zip_exit_status) for
       all errors, where the `?' is 0  (warning)  for  zip
       value  12, 2 (error) for the zip values 3, 6, 7, 9,
       13, 16, 18, and 4 (fatal error) for  the  remaining
       ones.


BUGS

       zip  2.3  is  not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use
       zip 1.1 to produce zip files which can be extracted
       by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip  files  produced by zip 2.3 must not be updated
       sion of zip handles some of the  conversion  inter­
       nally.   When  using  Kermit  to transfer zip files
       from Vax to MSDOS, type "set file  type  block"  on
       the  Vax.  When transfering from MSDOS to Vax, type
       "set file type fixed" on the Vax.  In  both  cases,
       type "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under  VMS,  zip  hangs for file specification that
       uses DECnet syntax foo::*.*.

       On OS/2, zip cannot match some names, such as those
       including an exclamation mark or a hash sign.  This
       is a  bug  in  OS/2  itself:  the  32-bit  DosFind­
       First/Next  don't  find such names.  Other programs
       such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes  dis­
       played  by  DIR  is  (for compatibility) the amount
       returned  by  the  16-bit  version   of   DosQuery­
       PathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2 1.3 and 2.0 would report
       different EA sizes when DIRing  a  file.   However,
       the  structure  layout  returned by the 32-bit Dos­
       QueryPathInfo() is a bit different, it  uses  extra
       padding  bytes  and  link  pointers  (it's a linked
       list) to have all fields on 4-byte  boundaries  for
       portability to future RISC OS/2 versions. Therefore
       the value reported by zip (which uses this  32-bit-
       mode  size) differs from that reported by DIR.  zip
       stores the 32-bit format for portability, even  the
       16-bit  MS-C-compiled  version running on OS/2 1.3,
       so even this one shows the 32-bit-mode size.


AUTHORS

       Copyright (C)  1990-1997  Mark  Adler,  Richard  B.
       Wales,  Jean-loup  Gailly, Onno van der Linden, Kai
       Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush  and  Paul
       Kienitz.   Permission  is granted to any individual
       or institution to use, copy, or  redistribute  this
       software  so  long as all of the original files are
       included, that it is not sold for profit, and  that
       this copyright notice is retained.

       LIKE ANYTHING ELSE THAT'S FREE, ZIP AND ITS ASSOCI­
       ATED UTILITIES ARE PROVIDED AS IS AND COME WITH  NO
       WARRANTY  OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED.
       IN NO EVENT WILL THE COPYRIGHT  HOLDERS  BE  LIABLE
       FOR  ANY  DAMAGES  RESULTING  FROM  THE USE OF THIS
       SOFTWARE.

       Please send bug reports and comments by  email  to:
       zip-bugs@lists.wku.edu.   For  bug  reports, please
       include the version of zip (see zip-h ),  the  make
       algorithm; to Keith Petersen,  Rich  Wales,  Hunter
       Goatley and Mark Adler for providing a mailing list
       and ftp site for the Info-ZIP  group  to  use;  and
       most  importantly,  to  the  Info-ZIP  group itself
       (listed in  the  file  infozip.who)  without  whose
       tireless  testing and bug-fixing efforts a portable
       zip would  not  have  been  possible.   Finally  we
       should  thank (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator,
       David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this mess  in
       the first place.  The manual page was rewritten for
       UNIX by R. P. C. Rodgers.

Info-ZIP              14 August 1999 (v2.3)               ZIP(1L)
  




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