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       xemacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ...  ]


       XEmacs is a version of Emacs, compatible with and contain­
       ing many improvements over GNU Emacs, written  by  Richard
       Stallman  of  the Free Software Foundation.  It was origi­
       nally based on an early release of GNU Emacs  Version  19,
       and  has  tracked subsequent releases of GNU Emacs as they
       have become available.

       The primary documentation of XEmacs is in the XEmacs  Ref­
       erence  Manual,  which  you can read on-line using Info, a
       subsystem of XEmacs.  Please look there for  complete  and
       up-to-date documentation.  Complete documentation on using
       Emacs Lisp is available on-line through  the  XEmacs  Lisp
       Programmer's Manual.  Both manuals also can be printed out
       nicely using the TeX formatting package.

       The user functionality of  XEmacs  encompasses  everything
       other  Emacs editors do, and it is easily extensible since
       its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       XEmacs has an extensive interactive help facility, but the
       facility  assumes  that  you know how to manipulate XEmacs
       windows and buffers.  CTRL-h  enters  the  Help  facility.
       Help  Tutorial (CTRL-h t) requests an interactive tutorial
       which can teach beginners the fundamentals of XEmacs in  a
       few  minutes.   Help  Apropos  (CTRL-h a) helps you find a
       command given its functionality, Help Key Binding  (CTRL-h
       k) describes a given key sequence's effect, and Help Func­
       tion (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function  specified
       by name.  You can also look up key sequences in the XEmacs
       Reference Manual using Lookup Key Binding (CTRL-h CTRL-k),
       and look up Lisp functions in the XEmacs Lisp Programmer's
       Manual using Lookup  Function  (CTRL-h  CTRL-f).   All  of
       these  help functions, and more, are available on the Help
       menu if you are using a window system.

       XEmacs has extensive GUI (graphical user  interface)  sup­
       port when running under a window system such as X, includ­
       ing multiple frames  (top-level  windows),  a  menubar,  a
       toolbar, horizontal and vertical scrollbars, dialog boxes,
       and extensive mouse support.

       XEmacs has full support for  multiple  fonts  and  colors,
       variable-width   fonts,  and  variable-height  lines,  and
       allows for pixmaps to be inserted into a buffer. (This  is
       used  in  the  W3  web-browsing package and in some of the
       debugger and outlining interfaces, among other things.)

       XEmacs's Undo can undo several steps  of  modification  to
       Emacsen should have little trouble adapting even without a
       copy.  Users new to Emacs will be able to use  basic  fea­
       tures  fairly  rapidly  by studying the tutorial and using
       the self-documentation features.

       XEmacs Options

       XEmacs accepts all standard X Toolkit command line options
       when  run  in  an X Windows environment.  In addition, the
       following options  are  accepted  (when  options  imply  a
       sequence  of actions to perform, they are performed in the
       order encountered):

       -t file Use specified file  as  the  terminal  instead  of
               using stdin/stdout.  This implies -nw.

       -batch  Edit in batch mode.  The editor will send messages
               to stdout.  You must use the  -l,  -f,  and  -eval
               options  to specify files to execute and functions
               to call.

       -nw     Inhibit the use of any window-system-specific dis­
               play code: use the current TTY.

               Enter  the debugger if an error occurs loading the
               init file.

               Do not map the initial frame.

               Do not load the  site-specific  init  file  (site-

       -q, -no-init-file
               Do not load an init file.

               Do not process the early packages.

               Load no extra files at startup.  Equivalent to the
               combination of -q , -no-site-file , and -no-early-

       -u user, -user user
               Load user's init file.

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go  to the line specified by number (do not insert
               Evaluate the Lisp form form.

       -i file, -insert file
               Insert file into the current buffer.

       -kill   Exit XEmacs (useful with -batch).

       Using XEmacs with X Windows

       XEmacs has been tailored to work well with  the  X  window
       system.   If  you run XEmacs from under X windows, it will
       create its own X window to display in.

       XEmacs can  be  started  with  the  following  standard  X

       -visual <visualname><bitdepth>
              Select  the visual that XEmacs will attempt to use.
              <visualname> should be one of the strings  "Static­
              Color",  "TrueColor", "GrayScale", "PseudoColor" or
              "DirectColor", and <bitdepth> should be the  number
              of  bits  per pixel (example, "-visual TrueColor24"
              for a 24bit TrueColor visual)  See  X(1)  for  more

              Require XEmacs to create and use a private colormap
              for display.  This will  keep  XEmacs  from  taking
              colors  from  the default colormap and keeping them
              from other clients, at the cost of causing annoying
              flicker  when  the  focus changes.  Use this option
              only if your X server does not support 24 bit visu­

       -geometry ##x##+##+##
              Specify  the  geometry  of the initial window.  The
              ##'s represent a number; the four numbers are width
              (characters),  height  (characters), X offset (pix­
              els), and Y offset (pixels), respectively.  Partial
              specifications of the form ##x## or +##+## are also
              allowed. (The  geometry  specification  is  in  the
              standard  X format; see X(1) for more information.)

              Specifies that the initial window should  initially
              appear iconified.

       -name name
               Specifies  the  program  name which should be used
               when  looking  up  defaults  in   the   user's   X

               probably look better with a fixed-width font.

       -scrollbar-width pixels
               Specify the width of the vertical scrollbars.

       -scrollbar-height pixels
               Specify the height of the horizontal scrollbars.

       -bw pixels, -borderwidth pixels
               Set the XEmacs window's border width to the number
               of  pixels  specified  by pixels.  Defaults to one
               pixel on each side of the window.

       -ib pixels, -internal-border-width pixels
               Specify the width between a frame's border and its
               text,  in  pixels.   Defaults to one pixel on each
               side of the window.

       -fg color, -foreground color
               Sets the color of the text.

               See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for  a  list  of
               valid color names.

       -bg color, -background color
               Sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color, -bordercolor color
               Sets the color of the window's border.

       -mc color
               Sets the color of the mouse pointer.

       -cr color
               Sets the color of the text cursor.

       -rv, -reverse
               Reverses  the  foreground  and  background  colors
               (reverse video).  Consider explicitly setting  the
               foreground  and background colors instead of using
               this option.

       -xrm argument
               This allows you to set an  arbitrary  resource  on
               the  command  line.  argument should be a resource
               specification, as might be  found  in  your  .Xre­
               sources or .Xdefaults file.

       You  can  also  set resources, i.e.  X default values, for
       your XEmacs windows in your .Xresources or .Xdefaults file
       (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:

       where framename is the resource name assigned to that par­
       ticular frame.  (Certain packages, such as VM, give  their
       frames unique resource names, in this case "VM".)

       XEmacs  lets you set default values for the following key­

       default.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
               Sets the window's text font.

       default.attributeForeground   (class   Face.AttributeFore­
               Sets the window's text color.

       default.attributeBackground   (class   Face.AttributeBack­
               Sets the window's background color.

       face.attributeFont (class Face.AttributeFont)
               Sets the font for face, which should be  the  name
               of a face.  Common face names are

               FACE            PURPOSE
               default         Normal text.
               bold            Bold text.
               italic          Italicized text.
               bold-italic     Bold and italicized text.
               modeline        Modeline text.
               zmacs-region    Text selected with the mouse.
               highlight       Text  highlighted  when  the mouse
                               passes over.
               left-margin     Text in the left margin.
               right-margin    Text in the right margin.
               isearch         Text highlighted during  incremen­
                               tal search.
               info-node       Text of Info menu items.
               info-xref       Text of Info cross references.

       face.attributeForeground (class Face.AttributeForeground)
               Sets the foreground color for face.

       face.attributeBackground (class Face.AttributeBackground)
               Sets the background color for face.

       face.attributeBackgroundPixmap  (class Face.AttributeBack­
               Sets the background pixmap (stipple) for face.

       face.attributeUnderline (class Face.AttributeUnderline)
               Whether face should be underlined.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
       cursorColor (class Foreground)
               Sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
               Sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       emacsVisual (class EmacsVisual)
               Sets the default visual XEmacs will try to use (as
               described above).

       privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
               If set, XEmacs will default  to  using  a  private

       geometry (class Geometry)
               Sets   the  geometry  of  the  XEmacs  window  (as
               described above).

       iconic (class Iconic)
               If set to on, the  XEmacs  window  will  initially
               appear as an icon.

       menubar (class Menubar)
               Whether  the  XEmacs  window  will have a menubar.
               Defaults to true.

       initiallyUnmapped (class InitiallyUnmapped)
               Whether  XEmacs  will  leave  the  initial   frame
               unmapped when it starts up.

       barCursor (class BarCursor)
               Whether  the cursor should be a bar instead of the
               traditional box.

       title (class Title)
               Sets the title of the XEmacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
               Sets the icon name for the XEmacs window icon.

       scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
               Sets the width of the vertical scrollbars, in pix­
               els.  A width of 0 means no vertical scrollbars.

       scrollBarHeight (class ScrollBarHeight)
               Sets  the  height of the horizontal scrollbars, in
               pixels.  A height of 0 means no horizontal scroll­

       scrollBarPlacement (class ScrollBarPlacement)
               Sets  the  position  of  vertical  and  horizontal
               scrollbars.   Should be one of the  strings  "top-
               Sets the width of the left toolbar, in pixels.   0
               means no left toolbar.

       rightToolBarWidth (class RightToolBarWidth)
               Sets the width of the right toolbar, in pixels.  0
               means no right toolbar.

       topToolBarShadowColor (class TopToolBarShadowColor)
               Sets the color of the top shadows  for  the  tool­
               bars.  (For  all toolbars, not just the toolbar at
               the top of the frame.)

       bottomToolBarShadowColor (class BottomToolBarShadowColor)
               Sets the color of the bottom shadows for the tool­
               bars.  (For  all toolbars, not just the toolbar at
               the bottom of the frame.)

       topToolBarShadowPixmap (class TopToolBarShadowPixmap)
               Sets the pixmap of the top shadows for  the  tool­
               bars.  (For  all toolbars, not just the toolbar at
               the top of the frame.) If set, this resource over­
               rides the corresponding color resource.

       bottomToolBarShadowPixmap    (class   BottomToolBarShadow­
               Sets  the  pixmap  of  the  bottom shadows for the
               toolbars. (For all toolbars, not just the  toolbar
               at the bottom of the frame.) If set, this resource
               overrides the corresponding color resource.

       toolBarShadowThickness (class ToolBarShadowThickness)
               Thickness of the shadows around the  toolbars,  in

       visualBell (class VisualBell)
               Whether XEmacs should flash the screen rather than
               making an audible beep.

       bellVolume (class BellVolume)
               Volume of the audible beep.  Range  is  0  through

       useBackingStore (class UseBackingStore)
               Whether   XEmacs   should  set  the  backing-store
               attribute of  the  X  windows  it  creates.   This
               increases  the  memory  usage  of the X server but
               decreases the amount of  X  traffic  necessary  to
               update  the screen, and is useful when the connec­
               tion to the X server  goes  over  a  low-bandwidth
               line such as a modem connection.

       textPointer (class Cursor)

       gcPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to display when a garbage-collection is
               in progress.

       scrollbarPointer (class Cursor)
               The cursor to use  when  the  mouse  is  over  the

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
               The foreground color of the mouse cursor.

       pointerBackground (class Background)
               The background color of the mouse cursor.

       Using the Mouse

       The  following  lists  the  mouse  button bindings for the
       XEmacs window under X11.

       left                 Set point or make a text selection.
       middle               Paste text.
       right                Pop up a menu of options.
       SHIFT-left           Extend a selection.
       CTRL-left            Make a selection  and  insert  it  at
       CTRL-middle          Set  point  and  move  selected  text
       CTRL-SHIFT-left      Make  a  selection,  delete  it,  and
                            insert it at point.
       META-left            Make a rectangular selection.


       Lisp  code  is  read at startup from the user's init file,

       /usr/local/info - files for the Info documentation browser
       (a subsystem of XEmacs) to refer to.  The complete text of
       the XEmacs Reference Manual and the XEmacs  Lisp  Program­
       mer's  Manual  is included in a convenient tree structured

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/info - the Info  files  may
       be here instead.

       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/lisp/*  - Lisp source files
       and compiled files that define most editing commands.  The
       files  are  contained  in  subdirectories,  categorized by
       function or individual package.  Some are preloaded;  oth­
       ers are autoloaded from these directories when used.


       There is a  newsgroup,  comp.emacs.xemacs,  for  reporting
       XEmacs  bugs  and  fixes  and requesting help.  But before
       reporting something as a bug, please try to be  sure  that
       it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.  We ask  you  to  read  the  section  ``Reporting
       XEmacs  Bugs''  near  the  end of the reference manual (or
       Info system) for hints on how and  when  to  report  bugs.
       Also,  include  the  version  number of the XEmacs you are
       running and the system you are running it on in every  bug
       report  that  you send in.  Finally, the more you can iso­
       late the cause of a bug  and  the  conditions  it  happens
       under,  the  more likely it is to be fixed, so please take
       the time to do so.

       The newsgroup is bidirectionally gatewayed to and from the
       mailing  list  xemacs@xemacs.org.   You  can read the list
       instead of the newsgroup if you  do  not  have  convenient
       Usenet news access.  To request to be added to the mailing
       list, send mail to xemacs-request@xemacs.org. (Do not send
       mail to the list itself.)

       The  XEmacs  maintainers  read the newsgroup regularly and
       will attempt to fix bugs reported  in  a  timely  fashion.
       However, not every message will get a response from one of
       the maintainers.  Note that there are  many  people  other
       than the maintainers who read the newsgroup, and will usu­
       ally be of assistance in helping with any problems encoun­

       If  you need more personal assistance than can be provided
       by the newsgroup, look in the SERVICE file (see above) for
       a list of people who offer it.

       For  more  information about XEmacs mailing lists, see the
       file /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS.


       XEmacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies  of  XEmacs
       to  anyone  under  the  terms stated in the XEmacs General
       Public License, a copy of which accompanies each  copy  of
       XEmacs and which also appears in the reference manual.

       Copies  of  XEmacs may sometimes be received packaged with
       distributions of Unix systems, but it is never included in
       the  scope  of  any  license covering those systems.  Such
       inclusion violates the terms on which distribution is per­
       mitted.   In fact, the primary purpose of the General Pub­
       lic License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other
       restrictions to redistribution of XEmacs.
       was originally written by Lucid, Inc.  (now  defunct)  and
       was called Lucid Emacs.

       Chuck  Thompson  wrote  the XEmacs redisplay engine, main­
       tains the XEmacs FTP and WWW sites, and has  put  out  all
       releases  of  XEmacs since 19.11 (the first release called
       XEmacs).  Ben Wing wrote the Asian-language  support,  the
       on-line documentation (including this man page and much of
       the FAQ),  the  external  widget  code,  and  retooled  or
       rewrote  most  of  the basic, low-level XEmacs subsystems.
       Jamie Zawinski put out all releases of Lucid  Emacs,  from
       the  first  (19.0)  through  the last (19.10), and was the
       primary  code  contributor  for  all  of  these  releases.
       Richard Mlynarik rewrote the XEmacs Lisp-object allocation
       system, improved the keymap and minibuffer code,  and  did
       the  initial synching of XEmacs with GNU Emacs Version 19.

       Many others have also contributed significantly.  For more
       detailed  information,  including a long history of XEmacs
       from multiple viewpoints and pretty pictures and  bios  of
       the  major  XEmacs contributors, see the XEmacs About Page
       (the About XEmacs option on the Help menu).


       For more information about XEmacs, see  the  XEmacs  About
       Page    (mentioned    above),    look    in    the    file
       /usr/local/lib/xemacs-$VERSION/etc/NEWS, or point your Web
       browser at


       for up-to-the-minute information about XEmacs.

       The  XEmacs  FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) can be found
       at the Web site just listed.  A possibly out-of-date  ver­
       sion  is also accessible through the Info system inside of

       The latest version  of  XEmacs  can  be  downloaded  using
       anonymous FTP from


       or  from  a mirror site near you.  Mirror sites are listed
       in the file etc/FTP in the XEmacs distribution or see  the
       Web site for an up-to-date list of mirror sites.

                            2000-09-20                  XEMACS(1)

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