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       traceroute [-46FnrRV] [-f first_ttl] [-p port]
               [-m max_hops] [-N concurrent_hops]
               [-t tos] [-w timeout] [-q nqueries]
               [-S source_addr] [-I interface]
               [-g gateway] host [packetlen]
       traceroute6  [options]


       traceroute  tracks  the route packets take across a TCP/IP
       network on their way to a given host. It utilizes  the  IP
       protocol's time to live (TTL) field and attempts to elicit
       an ICMP TIME_EXCEEDED response from each gateway along the
       path to the host.

       traceroute6 is just another name for the same program, and
       is equivalent to invoking traceroute with the -6 option.


       The only required parameter is the name or IP  address  of
       the  destination  host.  This paremeter can be followed by
       the size of the probing packet sent to that  host  (40  by
       default).  Varying  the  size of the packet in conjunction
       with the -F parameter can be used  to  obtain  information
       about the MTU of individual network hops.

       Additional options are:

       -6, -4 Explicitly  force  IPv4  or  IPv6  traceouting.  By
              default, the program will try to resolve  the  name
              given, and choose the appropriate protocol automat­
              ically. If resolving a host name returns both  IPv4
              and  IPv6  addresses,  traceroute  will  use  IPv4.
              Invoking the program as traceroute6 is the same  as
              using the -6 option.

       -F     Set the "Don't Fragment" bit. This tells intermedi­
              ate routers not to fragment the  packet  when  they
              find it's too big for a network hop's MTU.

       -f first_ttl
              Specifies with what TTL to start. Defaults to 1.

       -g gateway
              Tells traceroute to add an IP source routing option
              to the outgoing packet that tells  the  network  to
              route  the  packet  through  the specified gateway.
              Not very useful, because most routers have disabled
              source routing for security reasons.

       -I interface
              Specifies the interface through which to traceroute
              throttling),  and  traceroute  will  be  unable  to
              detect  the final hope reliably.  The default value
              is 6.

       -n     Do not try to map IP addresses to host  names  when
              displaying them.

       -p port
              Specifies  the UDP destination port base traceroute
              will use. When sending its UDP  probe  packets,  it
              will  send  them to port + hop - 1 for each hop. If
              there are ports in this range in use on the  desti­
              nation  host,  traceroute will not be able to iden­
              tify reliably when it has reached  the  destination
              host  (probes will appear to time out). The default
              port is 33434; you can use -p to change this  to  a
              different value.

       -t tos Set  the  IP  Type  of Service (TOS) and Precedence
              value. Useful values are 16 (low delay) and 8 (high
              throughput).  Note  that  in  order to use some TOS
              precendence values, you have to be super user.

       -w sec Wait for sec seconds before sending the next  probe

              Note  that  unlike  older traceroute versions, this
              implementation will transmit several probe  packets
              in  parallel, for different hop values. However, it
              will never send more than 1 packet per hop value at
              the same time.

       -q numqueries
              Sets  the  number  of  probe  packets  per hop. The
              default value is 3.

       -r     Bypass the normal routing tables and send  directly
              to  a  host on an attached network.  If the host is
              not on a directly-attached  network,  an  error  is
              returned.   This option can be used to ping a local
              host through an interface that has no route through

       -R     Set the loose source route option on outgoing pack­
              ets, asking intermediate routers  to  record  their
              address  as  the packet passes.  This can be useful
              if you want to find the address of an  intermediate
              router  that  has been configured to not respond to
              traceroute packets.

              This feature hasn't been implemented yet.

       This  implentation  is  a  complete  rewrite and redesign,
       written   and    copyright    (C)    2000    Olaf    Kirch

                         6 December 2000            TRACEROUTE(1)

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