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shred




SYNOPSIS

       shred [OPTIONS] FILE [...]


DESCRIPTION

       Overwrite the specified FILE(s) repeatedly,  in  order  to
       make it harder for even very expensive hardware probing to
       recover the data.

       Mandatory arguments to  long  options  are  mandatory  for
       short options too.

       -f, --force
              change permissions to allow writing if necessary

       -n, --iterations=N
              Overwrite N times instead of the default (25)

       -s, --size=N
              shred  this  many  bytes  (suffixes  like  K,  M, G
              accepted)

       -u, --remove
              truncate and remove file after overwriting

       -v, --verbose
              show progress

       -x, --exact
              do not round file sizes up to the next full block;

              this is the default for non-regular files

       -z, --zero
              add a final overwrite with zeros to hide shredding

       -      shred standard output

       --help display this help and exit

       --version
              output version information and exit

       Delete FILE(s) if --remove (-u) is specified.  The default
       is not to remove the files because it is common to operate
       on device files like /dev/hda,  and  those  files  usually
       should  not  be removed.  When operating on regular files,
       most people use the --remove option.

       CAUTION: Note  that  shred  relies  on  a  very  important
       assumption:  that the filesystem overwrites data in place.
       This is the traditional way to do things, but many  modern

       * filesystems that make snapshots, such as Network  Appli­
       ance's NFS server

       *  filesystems  that cache in temporary locations, such as
       NFS

              version 3 clients

       * compressed filesystems

       In addition, file system backups and  remote  mirrors  may
       contain  copies  of  the  file that cannot be removed, and
       that will allow a shredded file to be recovered later.


AUTHOR

       Written by Colin Plumb.


REPORTING BUGS

       Report bugs to <bug-coreutils@gnu.org>.


COPYRIGHT

       Copyright © 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
       This is free software; see the source for  copying  condi­
       tions.  There is NO warranty; not even for MERCHANTABILITY
       or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.


SEE ALSO

       The full documentation for shred is maintained as  a  Tex­
       info  manual.  If the info and shred programs are properly
       installed at your site, the command

              info shred

       should give you access to the complete manual.

shred (coreutils) 5.0       March 2003                   SHRED(1)
  




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