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       sed  [OPTION]...  {script-only-if-no-other-script} [input-


       Sed is a stream editor.  A stream editor is used  to  per­
       form basic text transformations on an input stream (a file
       or input from a pipeline).  While in some ways similar  to
       an  editor  which permits scripted edits (such as ed), sed
       works by making only one pass over the  input(s),  and  is
       consequently  more  efficient.  But it is sed's ability to
       filter text in a pipeline which particularly distinguishes
       it from other types of editors.

       -n, --quiet, --silent

              suppress automatic printing of pattern space

       -e script, --expression=script

              add the script to the commands to be executed

       -f script-file, --file=script-file

              add  the contents of script-file to the commands to
              be executed

       -i[suffix], --in-place[=suffix]

              edit files in place (makes backup if extension sup­

       -l N, --line-length=N

              specify  the  desired  line-wrap length for the `l'

       -r, --regexp-extended

              use extended regular expressions in the script.

       -s, --separate

              consider files as separate rather than as a  single
              continuous long stream.

       -u, --unbuffered

              load  minimal  amounts of data from the input files
              and flush the output buffers more often

       --help display this help and exit


       This is just a brief synopsis of sed commands to serve  as
       a reminder to those who already know sed; other documenta­
       tion (such as the texinfo document) must be consulted  for
       fuller descriptions.

   Zero-address ``commands''
       : label
              Label for b and t commands.

              The  comment extends until the next newline (or the
              end of a -e script fragment).

       }      The closing bracket of a { } block.

   Zero- or One- address commands
       =      Print the current line number.

       a \

       text   Append text, which has each embedded  newline  pre­
              ceded by a backslash.

       i \

       text   Insert  text,  which has each embedded newline pre­
              ceded by a backslash.

       q      Immediately quit the sed script without  processing
              any  more  input,  except that if auto-print is not
              disabled the current pattern space will be printed.

       Q      Immediately  quit the sed script without processing
              any more input.

       r filename
              Append text read from filename.

       R filename
              Append a line read from filename.

   Commands which accept address ranges
       {      Begin a block of commands (end with a }).

       b label
              Branch to label; if label is omitted, branch to end
              of script.

       t label
              If  a s/// has done a successful substitution since
              the last input line was read and since the  last  t

       d      Delete pattern space.  Start next cycle.

       D      Delete up to the first embedded newline in the pat­
              tern  space.   Start  next  cycle, but skip reading
              from the input if there is still data in  the  pat­
              tern space.

       h H    Copy/append pattern space to hold space.

       g G    Copy/append hold space to pattern space.

       x      Exchange  the  contents  of  the  hold  and pattern

       l      List out the current line in a ``visually unambigu­
              ous'' form.

       n N    Read/append the next line of input into the pattern

       p      Print the current pattern space.

       P      Print up to the first embedded newline of the  cur­
              rent pattern space.

              Attempt  to match regexp against the pattern space.
              If successful, replace that  portion  matched  with
              replacement.   The replacement may contain the spe­
              cial character & to refer to that  portion  of  the
              pattern   space  which  matched,  and  the  special
              escapes \1 through \9 to refer to the corresponding
              matching sub-expressions in the regexp.

       w filename
              Write the current pattern space to filename.

       W filename
              Write  the  first line of the current pattern space
              to filename.

              Transliterate the characters in the  pattern  space
              which appear in source to the corresponding charac­
              ter in dest.


       Sed commands can be given with no addresses, in which case
       the command will be executed for all input lines; with one
       address, in which case the command will only  be  executed
       for  input  lines  which  match  that address; or with two
       addresses, in which case the command will be executed  for
       The following address types are supported:

       number Match only the specified line number.

              Match  every step'th line starting with line first.
              For example, ``sed -n 1~2p''  will  print  all  the
              odd-numbered  lines  in  the  input stream, and the
              address 2~5 will match every fifth  line,  starting
              with the second. (This is an extension.)

       $      Match the last line.

              Match lines matching the regular expression regexp.

              Match lines matching the regular expression regexp.
              The c may be any character.

       GNU sed also supports some special 2-address forms:

              Start  out  in "matched first address" state, until
              addr2 is found.  This is similar to 1,addr2, except
              that  if addr2 matches the very first line of input
              the 0,addr2 form will be at the end of  its  range,
              whereas  the  1,addr2  form  will  still  be at the
              beginning of its range.

              Will match addr1 and the N lines following addr1.

              Will match addr1  and  the  lines  following  addr1
              until  the  next  line whose input line number is a
              multiple of N.


       POSIX.2 BREs should be supported,  but  they  aren't  com­
       pletely  because of performance problems.  The \n sequence
       in a regular expression matches the newline character, and
       similarly for \a, \t, and other sequences.


       E-mail bug reports to bonzini@gnu.org.  Be sure to include
       the word ``sed''  somewhere  in  the  ``Subject:''  field.
       Also,  please  include  the output of ``sed --version'' in
       the body of your report if at all possible.


       Copyright © 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
              info sed

       should give you access to the complete manual.

sed version 4.0.6         September 2003                   SED(1)



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