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       screen [ -options ] [ cmd [ args ] ]
       screen -r [[pid.]tty[.host]]
       screen -r sessionowner/[[pid.]tty[.host]]


       Screen is a full-screen window manager that multiplexes  a
       physical  terminal  between  several  processes (typically
       interactive shells).  Each virtual terminal  provides  the
       functions  of  a DEC VT100 terminal and, in addition, sev­
       eral control functions from the ISO 6429  (ECMA  48,  ANSI
       X3.64) and ISO 2022 standards (e.g. insert/delete line and
       support for multiple character sets).  There is a  scroll­
       back  history buffer for each virtual terminal and a copy-
       and-paste  mechanism  that  allows  moving  text   regions
       between windows.

       When  screen  is called, it creates a single window with a
       shell in it (or the specified command) and then  gets  out
       of  your  way  so that you can use the program as you nor­
       mally would.  Then, at any time, you can create new (full-
       screen)  windows  with  other  programs in them (including
       more shells), kill existing windows, view a list  of  win­
       dows,  turn output logging on and off, copy-and-paste text
       between  windows,  view  the  scrollback  history,  switch
       between windows in whatever manner you wish, etc. All win­
       dows run their programs  completely  independent  of  each
       other.  Programs continue to run when their window is cur­
       rently not visible and even when the whole screen  session
       is detached from the user's terminal.  When a program ter­
       minates, screen (per default) kills the window  that  con­
       tained it.  If this window was in the foreground, the dis­
       play switches to the previous window; if  none  are  left,
       screen exits.

       Everything  you type is sent to the program running in the
       current window.  The only exception to  this  is  the  one
       keystroke that is used to initiate a command to the window
       manager.  By default, each command begins with a control-a
       (abbreviated  C-a  from  now  on),  and is followed by one
       other keystroke.  The command character and  all  the  key
       bindings  can be fully customized to be anything you like,
       though they are always two characters in length.

       Screen does not understand the prefix "C-"  to  mean  con­
       trol.   Please use the caret notation ("^A" instead of "C-
       a") as arguments to e.g. the  escape  command  or  the  -e
       option.   Screen will also print out control characters in
       from a shell prompt within a  previously  created  window.
       This will not run another copy of screen, but will instead
       supply the command name and its arguments  to  the  window
       manager  (specified  in the $STY environment variable) who
       will use it to create the new window.  The  above  example
       would  start  the emacs editor (editing prog.c) and switch
       to its window.

       If "/etc/utmp"  is  writable  by  screen,  an  appropriate
       record  will  be written to this file for each window, and
       removed when the window is terminated.  This is useful for
       working with "talk", "script", "shutdown", "rsend", "sccs"
       and other similar programs  that  use  the  utmp  file  to
       determine who you are. As long as screen is active on your
       terminal, the terminal's own record is  removed  from  the
       utmp file. See also "C-a L".


       Before  you  begin  to use screen you'll need to make sure
       you have correctly selected your terminal  type,  just  as
       you  would  for  any other termcap/terminfo program.  (You
       can do this by using tset for example.)

       If you're impatient and want to get started without  doing
       a  lot more reading, you should remember this one command:
       "C-a ?".  Typing these two characters will display a  list
       of  the available screen commands and their bindings. Each
       keystroke is discussed in the section "DEFAULT  KEY  BIND­
       INGS".  The  manual section "CUSTOMIZATION" deals with the
       contents of your .screenrc.

       If your terminal is  a  "true"  auto-margin  terminal  (it
       doesn't  allow  the  last  position  on  the  screen to be
       updated without scrolling the  screen)  consider  using  a
       version of your terminal's termcap that has automatic mar­
       gins turned off. This will ensure an accurate and  optimal
       update  of the screen in all circumstances. Most terminals
       nowadays have  "magic"  margins  (automatic  margins  plus
       usable last column). This is the VT100 style type and per­
       fectly suited for screen.  If all you've got is  a  "true"
       auto-margin terminal screen will be content to use it, but
       updating a character put into the  last  position  on  the
       screen may not be possible until the screen scrolls or the
       character is moved into a safe position in some other way.
       This  delay  can  be  shortened  by  using a terminal with
       insert-character capability.


            override   the   default   configuration   file  from
            "$HOME/.screenrc" to file.

       -d|-D [pid.tty.host]
            does not start screen,  but  detaches  the  elsewhere
            running  screen  session.  It  has the same effect as
            typing "C-a d" from screen's controlling terminal. -D
            is  the  equivalent  to  the power detach key.  If no
            session can be detached, this option is  ignored.  In
            combination  with  the  -r/-R  option  more  powerful
            effects can be achieved:

       -d -r   Reattach a session  and  if  necessary  detach  it

       -d -R   Reattach a session and if necessary detach or even
               create it first.

       -d -RR  Reattach a session and if necessary detach or cre­
               ate  it.  Use  the  first session if more than one
               session is available.

       -D -r   Reattach a session. If necessary detach and logout
               remotely first.

       -D -R   Attach  here  and  now. In detail this means: If a
               session is running, then  reattach.  If  necessary
               detach  and  logout remotely first.  If it was not
               running create it and notify the user. This is the
               author's favorite.

       -D -RR  Attach  here and now. Whatever that means, just do

            Note: It is always a good idea to check the status of
            your sessions by means of "screen -list".

       -e xy
            specifies the command character to be x and the char­
            acter generating a literal  command  character  to  y
            (when   typed  after  the  command  character).   The
            default is "C-a" and `a', which can be  specified  as
            "-e^Aa".  When creating a screen session, this option
            sets the default command character.  In  a  multiuser
            session all users added will start off with this com­
            mand character. But when attaching to an already run­
            ning  session,  this  option changes only the command
            character of the  attaching  user.   This  option  is
            equivalent  to  either  the  commands  "defescape" or
            "escape" respectively.

       -f, -fn, and -fa
            turns login mode on or off (for /etc/utmp  updating).
            This  can  also  be  defined  through  the "deflogin"
            .screenrc command.

       -ls and -list
            does  not  start  screen,  but  prints  a   list   of
            pid.tty.host  strings  identifying  your  screen ses­
            sions.  Sessions marked  `detached'  can  be  resumed
            with "screen -r". Those marked `attached' are running
            and have a controlling terminal. If the session  runs
            in  multiuser  mode,  it  is marked `multi'. Sessions
            marked as `unreachable' either live  on  a  different
            host  or  are `dead'.  An unreachable session is con­
            sidered dead, when its name matches either  the  name
            of  the  local  host,  or the specified parameter, if
            any.  See the -r flag for a description how  to  con­
            struct  matches.  Sessions marked as `dead' should be
            thoroughly checked  and  removed.   Ask  your  system
            administrator  if  you  are not sure. Remove sessions
            with the -wipe option.

       -L   tells screen to turn on automatic output logging  for
            the windows.

       -m   causes  screen  to  ignore the $STY environment vari­
            able. With "screen -m" creation of a new  session  is
            enforced,  regardless  whether  screen is called from
            within another screen session or not. This flag has a
            special meaning in connection with the `-d' option:

       -d -m   Start  screen  in  "detached" mode. This creates a
               new session but doesn't attach to it. This is use­
               ful for system startup scripts.

       -D -m   This  also  starts  screen in "detached" mode, but
               doesn't fork a new process. The command  exits  if
               the session terminates.

       -O   selects  a more optimal output mode for your terminal
            rather than true VT100 emulation (only affects  auto-
            margin terminals without `LP').  This can also be set
            in your .screenrc by specifying `OP' in  a  "termcap"

       -p number_or_name
            Preselect  a window. This is usefull when you want to
            reattach to a specific windor or you want to  send  a
            command  via the "-X" option to a specific window. As
            with screen's select commant, "-" selects  the  blank
            window. As a special case for reattach, "=" brings up
            the windowlist on the blank window.

            (except combinations with -d/-D)  may  be  specified,
            though  an  optional  prefix of [pid.]tty.host may be
            needed  to  distinguish  between  multiple   detached
            screen  sessions.  The second form is used to connect
            to another user's screen session which runs  in  mul­
            tiuser  mode.  This indicates that screen should look
            for  sessions  in  another  user's  directory.   This
            requires setuid-root.

       -R   attempts  to resume the first detached screen session
            it finds.   If  successful,  all  other  command-line
            options  are ignored.  If no detached session exists,
            starts a new session  using  the  specified  options,
            just  as  if -R had not been specified. The option is
            set by default if screen  is  run  as  a  login-shell
            (actually screen uses "-xRR" in that case).  For com­
            binations with the -d/-D option see there.

       -s   sets the default  shell  to  the  program  specified,
            instead  of  the  value  in  the environment variable
            $SHELL (or "/bin/sh" if not defined).  This can  also
            be defined through the "shell" .screenrc command.

       -S sessionname
            When  creating a new session, this option can be used
            to specify a meaningful name for  the  session.  This
            name  identifies  the  session for "screen -list" and
            "screen  -r"  actions.  It  substitutes  the  default
            [tty.host] suffix.

       -t name
            sets  the  title  (a.k.a.)  for  the default shell or
            specified  program.   See   also   the   "shelltitle"
            .screenrc command.

       -U   Run  screen  in  UTF-8 mode. This option tells screen
            that  your  terminal  sends  and  understands   UTF-8
            encoded characters. It also sets the default encoding
            for new windows to `utf8'.

       -v   Print version number.

       -wipe [match]
            does the same as "screen -ls", but removes  destroyed
            sessions  instead  of  marking  them  as  `dead'.  An
            unreachable session is considered dead, when its name
            matches  either  the  name  of the local host, or the
            explicitly given parameter, if any.  See the -r  flag
            for a description how to construct matches.

       -x   Attach  to a not detached screen session. (Multi dis­
            play mode).

       exception of "C-a a"; see below), thus, "C-a c" as well as
       "C-a  C-c"  can  be  used  to create a window. See section
       "CUSTOMIZATION" for a description of the command.

       The following table shows the default key bindings:

       C-a '       (select)      Prompt for a window name or num­
                                 ber to switch to.

       C-a "       (windowlist -b)
                                 Present  a  list  of all windows
                                 for selection.

       C-a 0       (select 0)
        ...           ...
       C-a 9       (select 9)
       C-a -       (select -)    Switch to window number 0  -  9,
                                 or to the blank window.

       C-a tab     (focus)       Switch  the  input  focus to the
                                 next region.

       C-a C-a     (other)       Toggle to the  window  displayed
                                 previously.    Note   that  this
                                 binding defaults to the  command
                                 character  typed  twice,  unless
                                 overridden.   For  instance,  if
                                 you  use the option "-e]x", this
                                 command becomes "]]".

       C-a a       (meta)        Send the command character (C-a)
                                 to window. See escape command.

       C-a A       (title)       Allow  the  user to enter a name
                                 for the current window.

       C-a b
       C-a C-b     (break)       Send a break to window.

       C-a B       (pow_break)   Reopen  the  terminal  line  and
                                 send a break.

       C-a c
       C-a C-c     (screen)      Create a new window with a shell
                                 and switch to that window.

       C-a C       (clear)       Clear the screen.

       C-a d
       C-a C-d     (detach)      Detach screen from  this  termi­

       C-a H       (log)         Begins/ends  logging of the cur­
                                 rent window to the file "screen­

       C-a i
       C-a C-i     (info)        Show info about this window.

       C-a k
       C-a C-k     (kill)        Destroy current window.

       C-a l
       C-a C-l     (redisplay)   Fully refresh current window.

       C-a L       (login)       Toggle  this windows login slot.
                                 Available only if screen is con­
                                 figured   to   update  the  utmp

       C-a m
       C-a C-m     (lastmsg)     Repeat  the  last  message  dis­
                                 played in the message line.

       C-a M       (monitor)     Toggles  monitoring  of the cur­
                                 rent window.

       C-a space
       C-a n
       C-a C-n     (next)        Switch to the next window.

       C-a N       (number)      Show the number (and  title)  of
                                 the current window.

       C-a backspace
       C-a h
       C-a p
       C-a C-p     (prev)        Switch  to  the  previous window
                                 (opposite of C-a n).

       C-a q
       C-a C-q     (xon)         Send a control-q to the  current

       C-a Q       (only)        Delete  all regions but the cur­
                                 rent one.

       C-a r
       C-a C-r     (wrap)        Toggle  the   current   window's
                                 line-wrap setting (turn the cur­
                                 rent window's automatic  margins
                                 on and off).

       C-a w
       C-a C-w     (windows)     Show a list of window.

       C-a W       (width)       Toggle 80/132 columns.

       C-a x
       C-a C-x     (lockscreen)  Lock this terminal.

       C-a X       (remove)      Kill the current region.

       C-a z
       C-a C-z     (suspend)     Suspend  screen.   Your   system
                                 must  support BSD-style job-con­

       C-a Z       (reset)       Reset the  virtual  terminal  to
                                 its "power-on" values.

       C-a .       (dumptermcap) Write out a ".termcap" file.

       C-a ?       (help)        Show key bindings.

       C-a C-\     (quit)        Kill  all  windows and terminate

       C-a :       (colon)       Enter command line mode.

       C-a [
       C-a C-[
       C-a esc     (copy)        Enter copy/scrollback mode.

       C-a ]       (paste .)     Write the contents of the  paste
                                 buffer to the stdin queue of the
                                 current window.

       C-a {
       C-a }       (history)     Copy and paste a previous  (com­
                                 mand) line.

       C-a >       (writebuf)    Write paste buffer to a file.

       C-a <       (readbuf)     Reads  the  screen-exchange file
                                 into the paste buffer.

       C-a =       (removebuf)   Removes the file used by  C-a  <
                                 and C-a >.

       C-a ,       (license)     Shows  where  screen comes from,
                                 where it went to and why you can
                                 use it.

       not running setuid-root, the user can specify any mode 700
       directory in the environment variable $SCREENDIR.

       When  screen  is  invoked, it executes initialization com­
       mands  from  the   files   "/usr/local/etc/screenrc"   and
       ".screenrc"  in  the  user's home directory. These are the
       "programmer's defaults" that can be overridden in the fol­
       lowing  ways: for the global screenrc file screen searches
       for the environment variable $SYSSCREENRC  (this  override
       feature  may  be  disabled at compile-time). The user spe­
       cific  screenrc  file  is  searched  in  $SCREENRC,   then
       $HOME/.screenrc.   The command line option -c takes prece­
       dence over the above user screenrc files.

       Commands in these files are  used  to  set  options,  bind
       functions  to  keys, and to automatically establish one or
       more windows at the  beginning  of  your  screen  session.
       Commands  are  listed one per line, with empty lines being
       ignored.  A command's arguments are separated by  tabs  or
       spaces,  and may be surrounded by single or double quotes.
       A `#' turns the rest of the line into a comment, except in
       quotes.    Unintelligible   lines  are  warned  about  and
       ignored.  Commands may contain references  to  environment
       variables.  The  syntax  is  the  shell-like  "$VAR  "  or
       "${VAR}". Note that this causes incompatibility with  pre­
       vious  screen versions, as now the '$'-character has to be
       protected with '\' if no variable  substitution  shall  be
       performed.  A  string  in  single-quotes is also protected
       from variable substitution.

       Two configuration files are shipped as examples with  your
       screen distribution: "etc/screenrc" and "etc/etcscreenrc".
       They contain a number of useful examples for various  com­

       Customization  can  also  be  done 'on-line'. To enter the
       command mode type `C-a :'.  Note  that  commands  starting
       with "def" change default values, while others change cur­
       rent settings.

       The following commands are available:

       acladd usernames [crypted-pw]
       addacl usernames

       Enable users to fully access this  screen  session.  User­
       names  can be one user or a comma separated list of users.
       This command enables to attach to the screen  session  and
       performs  the  equivalent of `aclchg usernames +rwx "#?"'.
       executed. To add a user with restricted  access,  use  the
       `aclchg'  command  below.  If an optional second parameter
       is supplied, it should be a crypted password for the named
       user has the `x' bit for it.  The user can type input to a
       window  when  he  has  its  `w'  bit set and no other user
       obtains a writelock for this window.  Other bits are  cur­
       rently  ignored.   To  withdraw the writelock from another
       user in window 2: `aclchg  username  -w+w  2'.   To  allow
       read-only access to the session: `aclchg username -w "#"'.
       As soon as a user's name is known to screen he can  attach
       to  the session and (per default) has full permissions for
       all command and windows. Execution permission for the  acl
       commands,  `at'  and  others should also be removed or the
       user may be able to regain write  permission.   Rights  of
       the  special  username  nobody  cannot be changed (see the
       "su" command).  `Chacl' is a synonym to  `aclchg'.   Multi
       user mode only.

       acldel username

       Remove  a  user from screen's access control list. If cur­
       rently attached, all the user's displays are detached from
       the  session.  He  cannot  attach  again.  Multi user mode

       aclgrp username [groupname]

       Creates groups of users that share common  access  rights.
       The name of the group is the username of the group leader.
       Each member of the group inherits the permissions that are
       granted  to  the group leader. That means, if a user fails
       an access check, another  check  is  made  for  the  group
       leader.   A  user  is  removed from all groups the special
       value "none" is used for groupname.  If the second parame­
       ter is omitted all groups the user is in are listed.

       aclumask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]
       umask [[users]+bits |[users]-bits .... ]

       This specifies the access other users have to windows that
       will be created by the caller of the command.   Users  may
       be  no,  one or a comma separated list of known usernames.
       If no users are specified, a list of all  currently  known
       users  is assumed.  Bits is any combination of access con­
       trol bits allowed defined with the "aclchg"  command.  The
       special  username  "?"  predefines the access that not yet
       known users will be granted to any window initially.   The
       special  username  "??" predefines the access that not yet
       known users are granted to any  command.   Rights  of  the
       special  username  nobody  cannot be changed (see the "su"
       command).  `Umask' is a synonym to `aclumask'.

       activity message

       When any activity occurs in a background  window  that  is
       allpartial on|off

       If set to on, only the current cursor line is refreshed on
       window change.  This affects all windows and is useful for
       slow  terminal lines. The previous setting of full/partial
       refresh for each window is restored with "allpartial off".
       This is a global flag that immediately takes effect on all
       windows overriding the "partial"  settings.  It  does  not
       change  the  default redraw behavior of newly created win­

       altscreen on|off

       If set to on, "alternate screen"  support  is  enabled  in
       virtual terminals, just like in xterm.  Initial setting is

       at [identifier][#|*|%] command [args ... ]

       Execute a command at other displays or windows  as  if  it
       had  been  entered  there.   "At" changes the context (the
       `current window' or `current display' setting) of the com­
       mand.  If  the first parameter describes a non-unique con­
       text, the command will be executed multiple times. If  the
       first  parameter is of the form `identifier*' then identi­
       fier is matched against user names.  The command  is  exe­
       cuted  once  for  each display of the selected user(s). If
       the first parameter is of the form  `identifier%'  identi­
       fier is matched against displays. Displays are named after
       the ttys they attach. The prefix `/dev/' or `/dev/tty' may
       be  omitted  from the identifier.  If identifier has a `#'
       or nothing appended it is matched against  window  numbers
       and  titles.  Omitting  an identifier in front of the `#',
       `*' or `%'-character selects all users, displays  or  win­
       dows because a prefix-match is performed. Note that on the
       affected display(s) a short  message  will  describe  what
       happened.  Permission is checked for initiator of the "at"
       command, not for the owners of  the  affected  display(s).
       Note  that the '#' character works as a comment introducer
       when it is preceded by whitespace. This can be escaped  by
       prefixing  a '\'.  Permission is checked for the initiator
       of the "at" command, not for the owners  of  the  affected
       Caveat: When matching against windows, the command is exe­
       cuted at least once per window. Commands that  change  the
       internal  arrangement  of  windows  (like  "other") may be
       called again.  In  shared  windows  the  command  will  be
       repeated  for  each attached display. Beware, when issuing
       toggle commands like "login"!  Some commands  (e.g.  "pro­
       cess")  require that a display is associated with the tar­
       get windows.  These commands may not work correctly  under
       "at" looping over windows.
              attrcolor b "R"

       Change the color to bright red  if  bold  text  is  to  be

              attrcolor u "-u b"

       Use blue text instead of underline.

              attrcolor b ".I"

       Use  bright  colors for bold text. Most terminal emulators
       do this already.

              attrcolor i "+b"

       Make bright colored text also bold.

       autodetach on|off

       Sets whether screen will automatically detach upon hangup,
       which  saves  all  your  running  programs  until they are
       resumed with a screen -r  command.   When  turned  off,  a
       hangup  signal will terminate screen and all the processes
       it contains. Autodetach is on by default.

       autonuke on|off

       Sets whether a clear screen sequence should nuke  all  the
       output that has not been written to the terminal. See also

       backtick id lifespan autorefresh cmd args...
       backtick id

       Program the backtick command with  the  numerical  id  id.
       The  output  of such a command is used for substitution of
       the "%`" string escape. The specified lifespan is the num­
       ber  of seconds the output is considered valid. After this
       time, the command is run again if a  corresponding  string
       escape is encountered.  The autorefresh parameter triggers
       an automatic refresh for caption  and  hardstatus  strings
       after  the specified number of seconds. Only the last line
       of output is used for substitution.
       If both the lifespan and the  autorefresh  parameters  are
       zero,  the  backtick  program  is  expected to stay in the
       background and generate output once in a while.   In  this
       case, the command is executed right away and screen stores
       the last line of output. If a new line gets printed screen
       will automatically refresh the hardstatus or the captions.
       The second form of the command deletes the  backtick  com­
       mand with the numerical id id.
       ber of the window to which a bell has been sent, and  each
       occurrence  of `^G' is replaced by the definition for bell
       in your termcap (usually an audible  bell).   The  default
       message is

                   'Bell in window %n'

       An empty message can be supplied to the "bell_msg" command
       to suppress output of a message line (bell_msg "").  With­
       out parameter, the current message is shown.

       bind [-c class] key [command [args]]

       Bind a command to a key.  By default, most of the commands
       provided by screen are bound to one or more keys as  indi­
       cated in the "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section, e.g. the com­
       mand to create a new window is bound  to  "C-c"  and  "c".
       The  "bind"  command can be used to redefine the key bind­
       ings and to define new  bindings.   The  key  argument  is
       either a single character, a two-character sequence of the
       form "^x" (meaning "C-x"),  a  backslash  followed  by  an
       octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),
       or a backslash followed by a  second  character,  such  as
       "\^"  or  "\\".   The  argument can also be quoted, if you
       like.  If no further argument  is  given,  any  previously
       established  binding for this key is removed.  The command
       argument can be any command listed in this section.

       If a command class is specified via the "-c"  option,  the
       key  is  bound  for the specified class. Use the "command"
       command to activate a class. Command classes can  be  used
       to  create  multiple command keys or multi-character bind­

       Some examples:

                   bind ' ' windows
                   bind ^k
                   bind k
                   bind K kill
                   bind ^f screen telnet foobar
                   bind \033 screen -ln -t root -h 1000 9 su

       would bind the space key to the command  that  displays  a
       list  of  windows  (so that the command usually invoked by
       "C-a C-w" would also be available  as  "C-a  space").  The
       next three lines remove the default kill binding from "C-a
       C-k" and "C-a k".  "C-a K" is then bound to the kill  com­
       mand.  Then it binds "C-f" to the command "create a window
       with a TELNET connection to foobar", and bind "escape"  to
       the  command  that creates an non-login window with a.k.a.
       "root" in slot #9, with a superuser shell and a scrollback
       makes  "C-a  -  0"  select window 10, "C-a - 1" window 11,

       bindkey [-d] [-m] [-a] [[-k|-t] string [cmd args]]

       This command manages screen's  input  translation  tables.
       Every entry in one of the tables tells screen how to react
       if a certain sequence of characters is encountered.  There
       are  three  tables:  one  that should contain actions pro­
       grammed by the user, one for the default actions used  for
       terminal  emulation  and  one for screen's copy mode to do
       cursor movement. See section  "INPUT  TRANSLATION"  for  a
       list of default key bindings.
       If  the  -d  option is given, bindkey modifies the default
       table, -m changes the copy mode  table  and  with  neither
       option the user table is selected.  The argument string is
       the sequence of characters to which an  action  is  bound.
       This  can  either  be a fixed string or a termcap keyboard
       capability name (selectable with the -k option).
       Some keys on a VT100 terminal can send a different  string
       if  application  mode  is turned on (e.g the cursor keys).
       Such keys have two entries in the translation  table.  You
       can select the application mode entry by specifying the -a
       The -t option tells screen not to do inter-character  tim­
       ing.  One cannot turn off the timing if a termcap capabil­
       ity is used.
       Cmd can be any of screen's commands with an arbitrary num­
       ber of args.  If cmd is omitted the key-binding is removed
       from the table.
       Here are some examples of keyboard bindings:

               bindkey -d
       Show all of the default key bindings. The application mode
       entries are marked with [A].

               bindkey -k k1 select 1
       Make the "F1" key switch to window one.

               bindkey -t foo stuff barfoo
       Make  "foo"  an abbreviation of the word "barfoo". Timeout
       is disabled so that users can type slowly.

               bindkey "\024" mapdefault
       This key-binding makes "^T" an escape character  for  key-
       bindings. If you did the above "stuff barfoo" binding, you
       can enter the word "foo" by typing "^Tfoo". If you want to
       insert a "^T" you have to press the key twice (i.e. escape
       the escape binding).

               bindkey -k F1 command
       Make the F11 (not F1!) key an  alternative  screen  escape
       If  no  blanker  program  is defined, the cursor is turned
       off, otherwise, the program is started and it's output  is
       written  to the screen.  The screen blanker is killed with
       the first keypress, the read key is discarded.
       This command is normally used  together  with  the  "idle"

       blankerprg [program args]

       Defines a blanker program. Disables the blanker program if
       no arguments are given.

       breaktype [tcsendbreak|TIOCSBRK |TCSBRK]

       Choose one of the available methods of generating a  break
       signal  for  terminal  devices. This command should affect
       the current window only.  But it still  behaves  identical
       to  "defbreaktype".  This  will  be changed in the future.
       Calling "breaktype" with no parameter displays  the  break
       method for the current window.

       bufferfile [exchange-file]

       Change  the filename used for reading and writing with the
       paste buffer.  If the optional argument  to  the  "buffer­
       file"    command   is   omitted,   the   default   setting
       ("/tmp/screen-exchange") is  reactivated.   The  following
       example  will  paste  the  system's password file into the
       screen window  (using  the  paste  buffer,  where  a  copy

                   C-a : bufferfile /etc/passwd
                   C-a < C-a ]
                   C-a : bufferfile

       c1 [on|off]

       Change  c1  code processing. "C1 on" tells screen to treat
       the input characters between 128 and 159 as control  func­
       tions.   Such  an  8-bit  code is normally the same as ESC
       followed by the corresponding 7-bit code. The default set­
       ting  is  to  process c1 codes and can be changed with the
       "defc1" command.  Users with fonts that have usable  char­
       acters in the c1 positions may want to turn this off.

       caption always|splitonly [string]
       caption string [string]

       This  command controls the display of the window captions.
       Normally a caption is only used if more than one window is
       shown  on the display (split screen mode). But if the type
       is set to always screen shows a caption even if  only  one
       character  must  be  in range '0' to '3' and set the GL/GR
       charset mapping. On every position a '.' may  be  used  to
       indicate that the corresponding charset/mapping should not
       be changed (set is padded to six characters internally  by
       appending  '.'   chars).  New  windows  have  "BBBB02"  as
       default charset, unless a "encoding" command is active.
       The current setting can be viewed with the "info" command.

       chdir [directory]

       Change  the  current  directory of screen to the specified
       directory or, if called without an argument, to your  home
       directory  (the  value of the environment variable $HOME).
       All windows that are created by means of the "screen" com­
       mand  from within ".screenrc" or by means of "C-a : screen
       ..." or "C-a c"  use  this  as  their  default  directory.
       Without  a chdir command, this would be the directory from
       which screen was invoked.   Hardcopy  and  log  files  are
       always  written to the window's default directory, not the
       current directory of the process running  in  the  window.
       You  can use this command multiple times in your .screenrc
       to start various windows in different default directories,
       but  the  last chdir value will affect all the windows you
       create interactively.


       Clears the current window  and  saves  its  image  to  the
       scrollback buffer.

       colon [prefix]

       Allows  you to enter ".screenrc" command lines. Useful for
       on-the-fly modification of key bindings,  specific  window
       creation  and  changing settings. Note that the "set" key­
       word no longer exists! Usually commands affect the current
       window  rather  than  default settings for future windows.
       Change defaults with commands starting with 'def...'.

       If you consider this as the `Ex command mode'  of  screen,
       you  may  regard  "C-a esc" (copy mode) as its `Vi command

       command [-c class]

       This command has the same  effect  as  typing  the  screen
       escape  character (^A). It is probably only useful for key
       bindings.  If the "-c" option is given, select the  speci­
       fied command class.  See also "bind" and "bindkey".

       compacthist [on|off]

       buffer.  In  this  mode  a vi-like `full screen editor' is
       Movement keys:
         h, j, k, l move the cursor line by  line  or  column  by
         0,  ^ and $ move to the leftmost column, to the first or
           last non-whitespace character on the line.
         H, M and L move the cursor to the leftmost column of the
           top, center or bottom line of the window.
         + and - positions one line up and down.
         G  moves to the specified absolute line (default: end of
         | moves to the specified absolute column.
         w, b, e move the cursor word by word.
         B, E move the cursor WORD by WORD (as in vi).
         C-u and C-d scroll the display up/down by the  specified
           amount  of lines while preserving the cursor position.
           (Default: half screen-full).
         C-b and C-f scroll the display up/down a full screen.
         g moves to the beginning of the buffer.
         % jumps to the specified percentage of the buffer.

           Emacs style movement  keys  can  be  customized  by  a
           .screenrc  command.   (E.g. markkeys "h=^B:l=^F:$=^E")
           There is no  simple  method  for  a  full  emacs-style
           keymap, as this involves multi-character codes.

           The  copy range is specified by setting two marks. The
           text between these marks will be highlighted. Press
         space to set the first or second mark respectively.
         Y and y used to mark one whole  line  or  to  mark  from
           start of line.
         W marks exactly one word.
       Repeat count:
           Any  of  these  commands can be prefixed with a repeat
           count number by pressing digits
         0..9 which is taken as a repeat count.
           Example: "C-a C-[ H 10 j 5 Y" will copy lines 11 to 15
           into the paste buffer.
         / Vi-like search forward.
         ? Vi-like search backward.
         C-a s Emacs style incremental search forward.
         C-r Emacs style reverse i-search.
           There  are however some keys that act differently than
           in vi.  Vi does not  allow  one  to  yank  rectangular
           blocks of text, but screen does. Press
         c  or C to set the left or right margin respectively. If
           no repeat count is given, both default to the  current
           rated by a newline character (012), lines glued  seam­
           less, lines separated by a single whitespace and comma
           separated lines. Note that you can prepend the newline
           character with a carriage return character, by issuing
           a "crlf on".
         v is for all the vi users with ":set numbers" - it  tog­
           gles the left margin between column 9 and 1. Press
         a  before  the final space key to toggle in append mode.
           Thus the contents of the  paste  buffer  will  not  be
           overwritten, but is appended to.
         A toggles in append mode and sets a (second) mark.
         >  sets the (second) mark and writes the contents of the
           paste buffer to the screen-exchange file (/tmp/screen-
           exchange per default) once copy-mode is finished.
           This  example  demonstrates  how  to  dump  the  whole
           scrollback buffer to that file: "C-A [ g SPACE G $ >".
         C-g gives information about the current line and column.
         x exchanges the first mark and the current cursor  posi­
           tion.  You  can  use  this to adjust an already placed
         @ does nothing. Does not even exit copy mode.
         All keys not described here exit copy mode.

       copy_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "readreg" instead.

       crlf [on|off]

       This affects the copying of text regions with the `C-a  ['
       command.  If it is set to `on', lines will be separated by
       the  two  character  sequence  `CR'  -  `LF'.    Otherwise
       (default)  only `LF' is used.  When no parameter is given,
       the state is toggled.

       debug on|off

       Turns runtime debugging on or off. If screen has been com­
       piled  with  option  -DDEBUG  debugging  available  and is
       turned on per default. Note that this command only affects
       debugging output from the main "SCREEN" process correctly.
       Debug output from attacher processes can  only  be  turned
       off once and forever.

       defc1 on|off

       Same as the c1 command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is `on'.

       defautonuke on|off

       Same as the autonuke command except that the default  set­
       Choose  one of the available methods of generating a break
       signal for terminal devices.  The  preferred  methods  are
       tcsendbreak  and  TIOCSBRK.  The third, TCSBRK, blocks the
       complete screen session for the duration of the break, but
       it  may  be the only way to generate long breaks.  Tcsend­
       break and TIOCSBRK may or may not produce long breaks with
       spikes (e.g. 4 per second). This is not only system depen­
       dant, this also  differs  between  serial  board  drivers.
       Calling "defbreaktype" with no parameter displays the cur­
       rent setting.

       defcharset [set]

       Like the charset command except that the  default  setting
       for  new  windows  is  changed.  Shows  current default if
       called without argument.

       defescape xy

       Set the default command characters. This is equivalent  to
       the  "escape"  except that it is useful multiuser sessions
       only. In a multiuser session "escape" changes the  command
       character  of  the calling user, where "defescape" changes
       the default command characters  for  users  that  will  be
       added later.

       defflow on|off|auto [interrupt]

       Same  as  the flow command except that the default setting
       for new windows is changed.  Initial  setting  is  `auto'.
       Specifying  "defflow  auto  interrupt"  is the same as the
       command-line options -fa and -i.

       defgr on|off

       Same as the gr command except that the default setting for
       new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defhstatus [status]

       The  hardstatus  line that all new windows will get is set
       to status.  This command is useful to make the  hardstatus
       of  every window display the window number or title or the
       like.  Status may contain the same directives  as  in  the
       window  messages,  but  the  directive escape character is
       '^E' (octal 005) instead of '%'.  This was done to make  a
       misinterpretation  of  program  generated hardstatus lines
       impossible.  If the parameter status is omitted, the  cur­
       rent  default  string is displayed.  Per default the hard­
       status line of new windows is empty.

       defencoding enc
       Same  as the login command except that the default setting
       for new windows is changed. This is initialized with  `on'
       as distributed (see config.h.in).

       defmode mode

       The  mode  of  each  newly  allocated pseudo-tty is set to
       mode.  Mode is an octal number.  When no "defmode" command
       is given, mode 0622 is used.

       defmonitor on|off

       Same  as  the monitor command except that the default set­
       ting for new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defnonblock on|off|numsecs

       Same  as the nonblock command except that the default set­
       ting for displays is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defobuflimit limit

       Same as the obuflimit command except that the default set­
       ting  for  new displays is changed. Initial setting is 256
       bytes.  Note that you can use the  special  'OL'  terminal
       capability  if you want to have a dependency on the termi­
       nal type.

       defscrollback num

       Same as the scrollback command  except  that  the  default
       setting  for  new  windows  is changed. Initial setting is

       defshell command

       Synonym to the shell command. See there.

       defsilence on|off

       Same as the silence command except that the  default  set­
       ting for new windows is changed. Initial setting is `off'.

       defslowpaste msec"

       Same as the slowpaste command except that the default set­
       ting for new windows is changed. Initial setting is 0 mil­
       liseconds, meaning `off'.

       defutf8 on|off

       Same as the utf8 command except that the  default  setting

       defzombie [keys]

       Synonym  to  the zombie command. Both currently change the
       default.  See there.

       detach [-h]

       Detach the screen session (disconnect it from the terminal
       and  put it into the background).  This returns you to the
       shell where you invoked screen.  A detached screen can  be
       resumed  by  invoking  screen with the -r option (see also
       section  "COMMAND-LINE  OPTIONS").  The  -h  option  tells
       screen to immediately close the connection to the terminal


       Show what screen thinks about your terminal. Useful if you
       want  to  know  why  features  like color or the alternate
       charset don't work.


       Shows a tabular listing of all  currently  connected  user
       front-ends  (displays).  This is most useful for multiuser

       digraph [preset]

       This command prompts the user for a digraph sequence.  The
       next two characters typed are looked up in a builtin table
       and the resulting  character  is  inserted  in  the  input
       stream.  For example, if the user enters 'a"', an a-umlaut
       will be inserted. If the first character entered  is  a  0
       (zero),  screen will treat the following characters (up to
       three) as an octal number instead.  The optional  argument
       preset  is  treated  as user input, thus one can create an
       "umlaut" key.  For example the command "bindkey ^K digraph
       '"'"  enables  the  user to generate an a-umlaut by typing
       CTRL-K a.


       Write the termcap entry for the virtual terminal optimized
       for  the currently active window to the file ".termcap" in
       the user's "$HOME/.screen" directory (or  wherever  screen
       stores  its sockets. See the "FILES" section below).  This
       termcap entry is identical to the value of the environment
       variable  $TERMCAP  that is set up by screen for each win­
       dow. For terminfo based systems you will  need  to  run  a
       argument  sets  the  encoding  of the current window. Each
       window can emulate a different encoding. The optional sec­
       ond  parameter  overwrites  the  encoding of the connected
       terminal. It should never be needed  as  screen  uses  the
       locale  setting  to  detect the encoding.  There is also a
       way to select a terminal encoding depending on the  termi­
       nal type by using the "KJ" termcap entry.

       Supported  encodings  are eucJP, SJIS, eucKR, eucCN, Big5,
       GBK,  KOI8-R,   CP1251,   UTF-8,   ISO8859-2,   ISO8859-3,
       ISO8859-4,  ISO8859-5,  ISO8859-6,  ISO8859-7,  ISO8859-8,
       ISO8859-9, ISO8859-10, ISO8859-15, jis.

       See also "defencoding", which changes the default  setting
       of a new window.

       escape xy

       Set  the command character to x and the character generat­
       ing a literal command character (by triggering the  "meta"
       command)  to  y (similar to the -e option).  Each argument
       is either a single character, a two-character sequence  of
       the  form "^x" (meaning "C-x"), a backslash followed by an
       octal number (specifying the ASCII code of the character),
       or  a  backslash  followed  by a second character, such as
       "\^" or "\\".  The default is "^Aa".

       eval command1 [command2 ...]

       Parses and executes each argument as separate command.

       exec [[fdpat] newcommand [args ...]]

       Run a unix subprocess (specified  by  an  executable  path
       newcommand and its optional arguments) in the current win­
       dow. The  flow  of  data  between  newcommands  stdin/std­
       out/stderr,  the  process originally started in the window
       (let us call it "application-process") and  screen  itself
       (window)  is  controlled  by  the  filedescriptor  pattern
       fdpat.   This  pattern  is  basically  a  three  character
       sequence  representing stdin, stdout and stderr of newcom­
       mand. A dot (.) connects the file  descriptor  to  screen.
       An  exclamation  mark (!) causes the file descriptor to be
       connected to the application-process. A colon (:) combines
       both.   User input will go to newcommand unless newcommand
       receives the  application-process'  output  (fdpats  first
       character is `!' or `:') or a pipe symbol (|) is added (as
       a fourth character) to the end of fdpat.
       Invoking `exec' without arguments shows name and arguments
       of  the  currently running subprocess in this window. Only
       one subprocess a time can be running in each window.
       When a subprocess  is  running  the  `kill'  command  will
       and can always be replaced by `!'.


              exec ... /bin/sh
              exec /bin/sh

       Creates another shell in the same window, while the origi­
       nal shell is still running. Output of both shells is  dis­
       played and user input is sent to the new /bin/sh.

              exec !.. stty 19200
              exec ! stty 19200
              !!stty 19200

       Set  the  speed  of the window's tty. If your stty command
       operates on stdout, then add another `!'.

              exec !..| less

       This adds a pager to the window output. The special  char­
       acter  `|'  is  needed  to  give the user control over the
       pager although it gets its input from  the  window's  pro­
       cess. This works, because less listens on stderr (a behav­
       ior that screen would not expect without the `|') when its
       stdin  is  not  a  tty.  Less versions newer than 177 fail
       miserably here; good old pg still works.

              !:sed -n s/.*Error.*/\007/p

       Sends window output to both, the user and the sed command.
       The sed inserts an additional bell character (oct. 007) to
       the window output seen by screen.  This will  cause  "Bell
       in window x" messages, whenever the string "Error" appears
       in the window.


       Change the window size to the size of the current  region.
       This  command  is  needed because screen doesn't adapt the
       window size automatically if the window is displayed  more
       than once.

       flow [on|off|auto]

       Sets  the  flow-control  mode  for  this  window.  Without
       parameters it cycles  the  current  window's  flow-control
       setting  from  "automatic" to "on" to "off".  See the dis­
       cussion on "FLOW-CONTROL" later on in  this  document  for
       full  details  and note, that this is subject to change in

       gr [on|off]

       Turn  GR charset switching on/off. Whenever screen sees an
       input character with the 8th bit  set,  it  will  use  the
       charset stored in the GR slot and print the character with
       the 8th bit stripped. The default (see  also  "defgr")  is
       not to process GR switching because otherwise the ISO88591
       charset would not work.

       hardcopy [-h] [file]

       Writes out the currently displayed image to the file file,
       or,  if  no  filename  is  specified, to hardcopy.n in the
       default directory, where n is the number  of  the  current
       window.   This either appends or overwrites the file if it
       exists. See below.  If the option -h  is  specified,  dump
       also the contents of the scrollback buffer.

       hardcopy_append on|off

       If  set  to  "on",  screen will append to the "hardcopy.n"
       files created by the  command  "C-a  h",  otherwise  these
       files are overwritten each time.  Default is `off'.

       hardcopydir directory

       Defines  a  directory where hardcopy files will be placed.
       If unset, hardcopys are dumped in screen's current working

       hardstatus [on|off]
       hardstatus [always]lastline|message|ignore [string]
       hardstatus string [string]

       This  command configures the use and emulation of the ter­
       minal's hardstatus line. The first  form  toggles  whether
       screen  will  use the hardware status line to display mes­
       sages. If the flag is set to  `off',  these  messages  are
       overlaid  in  reverse  video mode at the display line. The
       default setting is `on'.

       The second form tells screen what to do  if  the  terminal
       doesn't  have a hardstatus line (i.e. the termcap/terminfo
       capabilities "hs", "ts", "fs" and "ds" are  not  set).  If
       the  type "lastline" is used, screen will reserve the last
       line of the display for  the  hardstatus.  "message"  uses
       screen's message mechanism and "ignore" tells screen never
       to display  the  hardstatus.   If  you  prepend  the  word
       "always" to the type (e.g., "alwayslastline"), screen will
       use the type even if the terminal supports a hardstatus.

       Set the display height to a  specified  number  of  lines.
       When  no  argument  is  given it toggles between 24 and 42
       lines display. You can also specify a width if you want to
       change  both  values.  The -w option tells screen to leave
       the display size unchanged and just set the  window  size,
       -d vice versa.

       help [-c class]

       Not really a online help, but displays a help screen show­
       ing you all the key bindings.  The first  pages  list  all
       the  internal commands followed by their current bindings.
       Subsequent pages will display  the  custom  commands,  one
       command  per  key.   Press  space when you're done reading
       each page, or return to exit early.  All other  characters
       are  ignored.  If  the  "-c"  option is given, display all
       bound commands for the specified command class.  See  also
       "DEFAULT KEY BINDINGS" section.


       Usually users work with a shell that allows easy access to
       previous commands.  For example csh has the  command  "!!"
       to repeat the last command executed.  Screen allows you to
       have a primitive  way  of  re-calling  "the  command  that
       started  ...": You just type the first letter of that com­
       mand, then hit `C-a {' and screen tries to find a previous
       line  that matches with the `prompt character' to the left
       of the cursor. This line  is  pasted  into  this  window's
       input  queue.  Thus you have a crude command history (made
       up by the visible window and its scrollback buffer).

       hstatus status

       Change the window's hardstatus line to the string  status.

       idle [timeout [cmd args]]

       Sets  a  command that is run after the specified number of
       seconds inactivity is reached. This command will  normally
       be  the  "blanker" command to create a screen blanker, but
       it can be any screen command.  If no command is specified,
       only the timeout is set. A timeout of zero (ot the special
       timeout off) disables the  timer.   If  no  arguments  are
       given, the current settings are displayed.

       ignorecase [on|off]

       Tell  screen to ignore the case of characters in searches.
       Default is `off'.

         -(-)flow  flow control disabled. Agrees with automatic control.

       The current line wrap setting (`+wrap' indicates  enabled,
       `-wrap' not) is also shown. The flags `ins', `org', `app',
       `log', `mon' or `nored' are displayed when the  window  is
       in  insert mode, origin mode, application-keypad mode, has
       output logging,  activity  monitoring  or  partial  redraw

       The currently active character set (G0, G1, G2, or G3) and
       in square brackets the terminal character  sets  that  are
       currently  designated  as  G0  through G3 is shown. If the
       window is in UTF-8  mode,  the  string  "UTF-8"  is  shown

       Additional  modes  depending on the type of the window are
       displayed at the end of the status line (See also  chapter
       "WINDOW TYPES").
       If the state machine of the terminal emulator is in a non-
       default state, the info line  is  started  with  a  string
       identifying the current state.
       For system information use the "time" command.

       ins_reg [key]

       No longer exists, use "paste" instead.


       Kill current window.
       If  there  is an `exec' command running then it is killed.
       Otherwise  the  process  (shell)  running  in  the  window
       receives  a  HANGUP  condition,  the  window  structure is
       removed and screen (your display) switches to another win­
       dow.   When  the  last  window is destroyed, screen exits.
       After a kill screen switches to the  previously  displayed
       Note:  Emacs  users should keep this command in mind, when
       killing a line.  It is recommended not to use "C-a" as the
       screen escape key or to rebind kill to "C-a K".


       Redisplay  the  last  contents of the message/status line.
       Useful if you're typing when a  message  appears,  because
       the  message  goes  away when you press a key (unless your
       terminal has a hardware status line).  Refer to  the  com­
       mands "msgwait" and "msgminwait" for fine tuning.


       Display  the disclaimer page. This is done whenever screen
       Warning: When you leave other shells unlocked and you have
       no password set on screen, the lock  is  void:  One  could
       easily  re-attach  from  an  unlocked  shell. This feature
       should rather be called `lockterminal'.

       log [on|off]

       Start/stop writing output of the current window to a  file
       "screenlog.n"  in  the window's default directory, where n
       is the number of the current window. This filename can  be
       changed  with  the  `logfile'  command. If no parameter is
       given, the state of logging is toggled. The session log is
       appended  to  the  previous  contents  of  the  file if it
       already exists. The current contents and the  contents  of
       the  scrollback  history  are  not included in the session
       log.  Default is `off'.

       logfile filename
       logfile flush secs

       Defines the name the logfiles will  get.  The  default  is
       "screenlog.%n". The second form changes the number of sec­
       onds screen will wait before flushing the  logfile  buffer
       to the file-system. The default value is 10 seconds.

       login [on|off]

       Adds  or  removes  the entry in the utmp database file for
       the current  window.   This  controls  if  the  window  is
       `logged  in'.  When no parameter is given, the login state
       of the window is toggled.  Additionally to that toggle, it
       is  convenient having a `log in' and a `log out' key. E.g.
       `bind I login on' and `bind O login off'  will  map  these
       keys  to be C-a I and C-a O.  The default setting (in con­
       fig.h.in) should be "on" for  a  screen  that  runs  under
       suid-root.   Use  the  "deflogin"  command  to  change the
       default login state for new  windows.  Both  commands  are
       only  present when screen has been compiled with utmp sup­

       logtstamp [on|off]
       logtstamp after [secs]
       logtstamp string [string]

       This command  controls  logfile  time-stamp  mechanism  of
       screen.   If  time-stamps  are  turned "on", screen adds a
       string containing the current time to  the  logfile  after
       two minutes of inactivity.  When output continues and more
       than another two minutes have passed, a second  time-stamp
       is  added  to  document the restart of the output. You can
       change this timeout with the second form of  the  command.
       The  third  form  is  used  for customizing the time-stamp
       maptimeout [timo]

       Set the inter-character timer for input sequence detection
       to  a  timeout  of  timo ms. The default timeout is 300ms.
       Maptimeout with no arguments shows  the  current  setting.
       See also "bindkey".

       markkeys string

       This is a method of changing the keymap used for copy/his­
       tory mode.  The string is made up of oldchar=newchar pairs
       which   are   separated   by   `:'.  Example:  The  string
       "B=^B:F=^F" will change the keys `C-b' and `C-f' to the vi
       style binding (scroll up/down fill page).  This happens to
       be the default binding  for  `B'  and  `F'.   The  command
       "markkeys h=^B:l=^F:$=^E" would set the mode for an emacs-
       style binding.  If your terminal  sends  characters,  that
       cause  you  to abort copy mode, then this command may help
       by binding these characters  to  do  nothing.   The  no-op
       character  is  `@' and is used like this: "markkeys @=L=H"
       if you do not want to use the  `H'  or  `L'  commands  any
       longer.   As  shown  in this example, multiple keys can be
       assigned to one function in a single statement.

       maxwin num

       Set the maximum window number screen will create.  Doesn't
       affect  already  existing  windows. The number may only be


       Insert the command character (C-a) in the current window's
       input stream.

       monitor [on|off]

       Toggles  activity  monitoring of windows.  When monitoring
       is turned on and an affected window is switched  into  the
       background,  you  will  receive  the activity notification
       message in the status line at the first sign of output and
       the  window will also be marked with an `@' in the window-
       status display.  Monitoring is initially off for all  win­

       msgminwait sec

       Defines the time screen delays a new message when one mes­
       sage is currently displayed.  The default is 1 second.

       msgwait sec

       you are familiar with the game "nethack",  you  may  enjoy
       the nethack-style messages which will often blur the facts
       a little, but are much funnier to read.  Anyway,  standard
       messages often tend to be unclear as well.
       This  option is only available if screen was compiled with
       the NETHACK flag defined.  The  default  setting  is  then
       determined  by  the  presence  of the environment variable


       Switch to the next  window.   This  command  can  be  used
       repeatedly to cycle through the list of windows.

       nonblock [on|off|numsecs]

       Tell  screen  how  to deal with user interfaces (displays)
       that cease to accept output. This can  happen  if  a  user
       presses  ^S  or  a  TCP/modem  connection  gets cut but no
       hangup is received.  If  nonblock  is  off  (this  is  the
       default) screen waits until the display restarts to accept
       the output. If nonblock is  on,  screen  waits  until  the
       timeout  is  reached (on is treated as 1s). If the display
       still doesn't receive characters, screen will consider  it
       "blocked"  and  stop  sending characters to it. If at some
       time it restarts to accept characters, screen will unblock
       the display and redisplay the updated window contents.

       number [n]

       Change  the  current windows number. If the given number n
       is already used by another window, both  windows  exchange
       their  numbers.  If  no argument is specified, the current
       window number (and title) is shown.

       obuflimit [limit]

       If the output buffer contains more bytes than  the  speci­
       fied  limit,  no  more data will be read from the windows.
       The default value is 256. If you have a fast display (like
       xterm),  you  can set it to some higher value. If no argu­
       ment is specified, the current setting is displayed.


       Kill all regions but the current one.


       Switch to the window displayed previously. If this  window
       does no longer exist, other has the same effect as next.

       programs running under screen and you want to protect your
       session from reattach attempts by another user  masquerad­
       ing as your uid (i.e. any superuser.)  If no crypted pass­
       word is specified, screen prompts twice for typing a pass­
       word  and  places  its  encryption  in  the  paste buffer.
       Default is `none', this disables password checking.

       paste [registers [dest_reg]]

       Write the (concatenated) contents of the specified  regis­
       ters  to the stdin queue of the current window. The regis­
       ter '.' is treated as the paste buffer. If no parameter is
       given the user is prompted for a single register to paste.
       The paste buffer can be filled with the copy, history  and
       readbuf  commands.  Other registers can be filled with the
       register, readreg and paste commands.  If paste is  called
       with a second argument, the contents of the specified reg­
       isters is  pasted  into  the  named  destination  register
       rather than the window. If '.' is used as the second argu­
       ment, the displays paste buffer is the destination.  Note,
       that  "paste" uses a wide variety of resources: Whenever a
       second argument is specified no current window is  needed.
       When the source specification only contains registers (not
       the paste buffer) then there need not be a current display
       (terminal   attached),  as  the  registers  are  a  global
       resource. The paste buffer exists once for every user.

       pastefont [on|off]

       Tell screen to  include  font  information  in  the  paste
       buffer. The default is not to do so. This command is espe­
       cially useful for multi character fonts like kanji.


       Reopen the window's terminal line and send a break  condi­
       tion. See `break'.


       Power detach.  Mainly the same as detach, but also sends a
       HANGUP signal to the parent process of  screen.   CAUTION:
       This will result in a logout, when screen was started from
       your login shell.

       pow_detach_msg [message]

       The message specified here is  output  whenever  a  `Power
       detach' was performed. It may be used as a replacement for
       a logout message or to  reset  baud  rate,  etc.   Without
       parameter, the current message is shown.

       current setting.  The ansi sequence ESC  \  ends  printing
       and closes the pipe.
       Warning:  Be careful with this command! If other user have
       write access to your terminal, they will be able  to  fire
       off print commands.

       process [key]

       Stuff the contents of the specified register into screen's
       input queue. If no argument is given you are prompted  for
       a  register  name.  The  text  is parsed as if it had been
       typed in from the user's keyboard.  This  command  can  be
       used to bind multiple actions to a single key.


       Kill  all  windows  and  terminate  screen.   Note that on
       VT100-style terminals the keys C-4 and C-\ are  identical.
       This  makes the default bindings dangerous: Be careful not
       to type C-a C-4 when selecting  window  no.  4.   Use  the
       empty  bind  command  (as  in "bind '^\'") to remove a key

       readbuf [-e encoding] [filename]

       Reads the contents of the specified file  into  the  paste
       buffer.   You can tell screen the encoding of the file via
       the -e option.  If  no  file  is  specified,  the  screen-
       exchange filename is used.  See also "bufferfile" command.

       readreg [-e encoding] [register [filename]]

       Does one of two things, dependent on number of  arguments:
       with  zero  or  one  arguments  it it duplicates the paste
       buffer contents into the register specified or entered  at
       the  prompt.  With  two arguments it reads the contents of
       the named file into the register, just  as  readbuf  reads
       the  screen-exchange  file into the paste buffer.  You can
       tell screen the encoding of the file via  the  -e  option.
       The  following  example  will  paste the system's password
       file into the screen window (using  register  p,  where  a
       copy remains):

                   C-a : readreg p /etc/passwd
                   C-a : paste p


       Redisplay  the current window. Needed to get a full redis­
       play when in partial redraw mode.

       register [-e encoding] key string
       Unlinks  the  screen-exchange  file  used  by the commands
       "writebuf" and "readbuf".


       Reset the virtual terminal to its "power-on" values.  Use­
       ful when strange settings (like scroll regions or graphics
       character set) are left over from an application.


       Resize the current region. The space will be removed  from
       or  added  to  the  region  below or if there's not enough
       space from the region above.

              resize +N   increase current region height by N

              resize -N   decrease current region height by N

              resize  N   set current region height to N

              resize  =   make all windows equally high

              resize  max maximize current region height

              resize  min minimize current region height

       screen [-opts] [n] [cmd [args]]

       Establish a new window.  The flow-control options (-f, -fn
       and  -fa),  title  (a.k.a.) option (-t), login options (-l
       and -ln) , terminal type option (-T <term>), the all-capa­
       bility-flag  (-a)  and scrollback option (-h <num>) may be
       specified with each command.  The option (-M) turns  moni­
       toring  on  for this window.  The option (-L) turns output
       logging on for this window.  If an optional  number  n  in
       the  range  0..9 is given, the window number n is assigned
       to the newly created window (or, if this number is already
       in-use, the next available number).  If a command is spec­
       ified after "screen", this command (with the  given  argu­
       ments)  is  started  in  the window; otherwise, a shell is
       created.  Thus, if your ".screenrc" contains the lines

                   # example for .screenrc:
                   screen 1
                   screen -fn -t foobar -L 2 telnet foobar

       screen creates a shell window (in window #1) and a  window
       with  a  TELNET  connection to the machine foobar (with no
       flow-control using the title "foobar" in  window  #2)  and
       will  write  a  logfile ("screenlog.2") of the telnet ses­
       view the current setting.

       select [WindowID]

       Switch  to the window identified by WindowID.  This can be
       a prefix of a window title (alphanumeric window name) or a
       window  number.  The parameter is optional and if omitted,
       you get prompted for an identifier.  When a new window  is
       established,  the  first  available  number is assigned to
       this window.  Thus, the first window can be  activated  by
       "select  0".  The number of windows is limited at compile-
       time by the MAXWIN configuration parameter.  There are two
       special  WindowIDs,  "-" selects the internal blank window
       and "." selects the current window. The latter  is  useful
       if used with screen's "-X" option.

       sessionname [name]

       Rename  the current session. Note, that for "screen -list"
       the name shows up with the process-id  prepended.  If  the
       argument  "name"  is  omitted, the name of this session is
       displayed. Caution: The $STY environment  variables  still
       reflects  the old name. This may result in confusion.  The
       default is constructed from the tty and host names.

       setenv [var [string]]

       Set the environment variable var to value string.  If only
       var  is  specified,  the  user will be prompted to enter a
       value.  If no parameters are specified, the user  will  be
       prompted  for  both variable and value. The environment is
       inherited by all subsequently forked shells.

       setsid [on|off]

       Normally screen uses different sessions and process groups
       for the windows. If setsid is turned off, this is not done
       anymore and all windows will be in the same process  group
       as  the  screen backend process. This also breaks job-con­
       trol, so be careful.  The default is on, of  course.  This
       command is probably useful only in rare circumstances.

       shell command

       Set  the  command  to be used to create a new shell.  This
       overrides the value of the  environment  variable  $SHELL.
       This  is  useful if you'd like to run a tty-enhancer which
       is expecting to execute the program specified  in  $SHELL.
       If the command begins with a '-' character, the shell will
       be started as a login-shell.

       shelltitle title
       the  `silencewait'  command  or  by specifying a number of
       seconds instead of `on' or `off'.   Silence  is  initially
       off for all windows.

       silencewait sec

       Define  the  time  that  all windows monitored for silence
       should wait before displaying a message. Default  30  sec­

       sleep num

       This  command will pause the execution of a .screenrc file
       for num seconds.  Keyboard activity will  end  the  sleep.
       It may be used to give users a chance to read the messages
       output by "echo".

       slowpaste msec

       Define the speed at which text is inserted into  the  cur­
       rent  window by the paste ("C-a ]") command.  If the slow­
       paste value is nonzero text is written character by  char­
       acter.   screen  will  make  a  pause of msec milliseconds
       after each single character write to allow the application
       to  process its input. Only use slowpaste if your underly­
       ing system exposes flow  control  problems  while  pasting
       large amounts of text.

       source file

       Read  and execute commands from file file. Source commands
       may be nested to a maximum recursion level of ten. If file
       is not an absolute path and screen is already processing a
       source command, the parent directory of the running source
       command  file  is  used to search for the new command file
       before screen's current directory.

       Note that termcap/terminfo/termcapinfo commands only  work
       at  startup and reattach time, so they must be reached via
       the default screenrc files to have an effect.

       sorendition [attr [color]]

       Change the way screen does highlighting for  text  marking
       and  printing  messages.  See the "STRING ESCAPES" chapter
       for the syntax of the modifiers.  The default is currently
       "=s dd" (standout, default colors).


       Split the current region into two new ones. All regions on
       the display are resized to make room for the  new  region.
       also "bindkey".

       su [username [password [password2]]

       Substitute  the user of a display. The command prompts for
       all parameters that are omitted. If passwords  are  speci­
       fied  as parameters, they have to be specified un-crypted.
       The first password is matched against the  systems  passwd
       database,  the  second  password  is  matched  against the
       screen password as  set  with  the  commands  "acladd"  or
       "password".  "Su" may be useful for the screen administra­
       tor to test multiuser  setups.   When  the  identification
       fails,  the  user has access to the commands available for
       user nobody.  These are  "detach",  "license",  "version",
       "help" and "displays".


       Suspend  screen.  The windows are in the `detached' state,
       while screen is suspended.  This  feature  relies  on  the
       shell being able to do job control.

       term term

       In each window's environment screen opens, the $TERM vari­
       able is set to "screen" by default.  But when no  descrip­
       tion  for  "screen"  is  installed in the local termcap or
       terminfo data base, you set $TERM to - say - "vt100". This
       won't  do  much  harm, as screen is VT100/ANSI compatible.
       The use of the "term"  command  is  discouraged  for  non-
       default purpose.  That is, one may want to specify special
       $TERM settings (e.g. vt100) for the  next  "screen  rlogin
       othermachine"  command.  Use  the command "screen -T vt100
       rlogin othermachine" rather than setting and resetting the

       termcap term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       terminfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]
       termcapinfo term terminal-tweaks [window-tweaks]

       Use  this  command to modify your terminal's termcap entry
       without going through all the hassles involved in creating
       a  custom  termcap  entry.   Plus, you can optionally cus­
       tomize the termcap generated for the windows.  You have to
       place these commands in one of the screenrc startup files,
       as they are meaningless  once  the  terminal  emulator  is
       If  your  system  works  uses the terminfo database rather
       than termcap, screen will understand the  `terminfo'  com­
       mand, which has the same effects as the `termcap' command.
       Two separate commands are provided, as  there  are  subtle
       syntactic  differences,  e.g. when parameter interpolation
       (separated by `:'s) to be inserted at  the  start  of  the
       appropriate  termcap  entry,  enhancing  it  or overriding
       existing values.  The first tweak modifies your terminal's
       termcap,  and contains definitions that your terminal uses
       to perform certain functions.  Specify a  null  string  to
       leave  this  unchanged  (e.g.  '').  The second (optional)
       tweak modifies all the window termcaps, and should contain
       definitions that screen understands (see the "VIRTUAL TER­
       MINAL" section).

       Some examples:

              termcap xterm*  LP:hs@

       Informs screen that all terminals that begin with  `xterm'
       have firm auto-margins that allow the last position on the
       screen to be updated (LP), but they don't  really  have  a
       status  line  (no  'hs' - append `@' to turn entries off).
       Note that we assume `LP' for all terminal names that start
       with "vt", but only if you don't specify a termcap command
       for that terminal.

              termcap vt*  LP
              termcap vt102|vt220  Z0=\E[?3h:Z1=\E[?3l

       Specifies the firm-margined `LP' capability for all termi­
       nals  that  begin with `vt', and the second line will also
       add the escape-sequences to switch into (Z0) and back  out
       of  (Z1) 132-character-per-line mode if this is a VT102 or
       VT220.  (You must specify Z0 and Z1 in your termcap to use
       the width-changing commands.)

              termcap vt100  ""  l0=PF1:l1=PF2:l2=PF3:l3=PF4

       This leaves your vt100 termcap alone and adds the function
       key labels to each window's termcap entry.

              termcap h19|z19  am@:im=\E@:ei=\EO  dc=\E[P

       Takes a h19 or z19  termcap  and  turns  off  auto-margins
       (am@) and enables the insert mode (im) and end-insert (ei)
       capabilities (the `@' in the `im' string is after the `=',
       so  it  is  part of the string).  Having the `im' and `ei'
       definitions put into your terminal's  termcap  will  cause
       screen  to  automatically  advertise  the character-insert
       capability in each window's  termcap.   Each  window  will
       also get the delete-character capability (dc) added to its
       termcap, which screen will translate  into  a  line-update
       for  the  terminal  (we're  pretending  it doesn't support
       character deletion).

       If you would like to fully specify each  window's  termcap
       If  a  string  is  specified, it changes the format of the
       time report like it is described in the  "STRING  ESCAPES"
       chapter. Screen uses a default of "%c:%s %M %d %H%? %l%?".

       title [windowtitle]

       Set the name of the current window to windowtitle.  If  no
       name  is  specified,  screen prompts for one. This command
       was known as `aka' in previous releases.

       unsetenv var

       Unset an environment variable.

       utf8 [on|off [on|off]]

       Change the encoding used in the current window. If utf8 is
       enabled,  the  strings  sent  to  the window will be UTF-8
       encoded and vice versa. Omitting the parameter toggles the
       setting.  If  a  second  parameter is given, the display's
       encoding is also changed (this should rather be done  with
       screen's  "-U" option).  See also "defutf8", which changes
       the default setting of a new window.

       vbell [on|off]

       Sets the visual bell setting for this window. Omitting the
       parameter  toggles  the  setting. If vbell is switched on,
       but your terminal  does  not  support  a  visual  bell,  a
       `vbell-message'  is  displayed in the status line when the
       bell character (^G) is received.  Visual bell support of a
       terminal  is  defined  by  the termcap variable `vb' (ter­
       minfo: 'flash').
       Per default, vbell is off, thus the audible bell is  used.
       See also `bell_msg'.

       vbell_msg [message]

       Sets  the  visual  bell message. message is printed to the
       status line if the window receives a bell character  (^G),
       vbell  is set to "on", but the terminal does not support a
       visual bell.   The  default  message  is  "Wuff,  Wuff!!".
       Without parameter, the current message is shown.

       vbellwait sec

       Define  a  delay in seconds after each display of screen's
       visual bell message. The default is 1 second.

       verbose [on|off]

       If verbose is switched on, the  command  name  is  echoed,
       width [-w|-d] [cols [lines]]

       Toggle  the window width between 80 and 132 columns or set
       it to cols columns if  an  argument  is  specified.   This
       requires  a  capable terminal and the termcap entries "Z0"
       and "Z1".  See the "termcap" command for more information.
       You  can  also  specify a new height if you want to change
       both values.  The -w option tells screen to leave the dis­
       play  size unchanged and just set the window size, -d vice

       windowlist [-b] [-m]
       windowlist string [string]
       windowlist title [title]

       Display all windows in a table for  visual  window  selec­
       tion.  The desired window can be selected via the standard
       movement keys (see the "copy" command) and  activated  via
       the  return  key.   If the -b option is given, screen will
       switch to the blank window before presenting the list,  so
       that the current window is also selectable.  The -m option
       changes the order of the windows, instead  of  sorting  by
       window numbers screen uses its internal most-recently-used

       The table format can be changed with the string and  title
       option, the title is displayed as table heading, while the
       lines are made by using the string  setting.  The  default
       setting  is  "Num  Name%=Flags"  for  the  title  and "%3n
       %t%=%f" for the lines.  See the "STRING  ESCAPES"  chapter
       for more codes (e.g. color settings).


       Uses  the  message  line to display a list of all the win­
       dows.  Each window is listed by number with  the  name  of
       process  that  has  been  started  in  the  window (or its
       title); the current window is marked with a `*'; the  pre­
       vious  window  is  marked with a `-'; all the windows that
       are "logged in" are marked with a `$'; a background window
       that  has  received  a  bell is marked with a `!'; a back­
       ground window that is being monitored and has had activity
       occur  is  marked  with  an `@'; a window which has output
       logging turned on is marked with `(L)';  windows  occupied
       by  other users are marked with `&'; windows in the zombie
       state are marked with `Z'.  If this list is  too  long  to
       fit  on the terminal's status line only the portion around
       the current window is displayed.

       wrap [on|off]

       Sets the line-wrap setting for the current  window.   When
       the fly to match the encoding.  The filename  can  be  set
       with  the bufferfile command and defaults to "/tmp/screen-

       writelock [on|off|auto]

       In addition to access control lists, not all users may  be
       able  to  write  to  the same window at once. Per default,
       writelock is in `auto' mode  and  grants  exclusive  input
       permission  to  the user who is the first to switch to the
       particular window. When he leaves the window, other  users
       may obtain the writelock (automatically). The writelock of
       the current window is disabled by the  command  "writelock
       off".  If  the  user  issues the command "writelock on" he
       keeps the exclusive write permission  while  switching  to
       other windows.


       Insert  a  CTRL-s / CTRL-q character to the stdin queue of
       the current window.

       zmodem [off|auto|catch|pass]
       zmodem sendcmd [string]
       zmodem recvcmd [string]

       Define zmodem support for screen. Screen  understands  two
       different  modes  when it detects a zmodem request: "pass"
       and "catch".  If the mode is set to  "pass",  screen  will
       relay all data to the attacher until the end of the trans­
       mission is reached.  In "catch" mode screen acts as a zmo­
       dem  endpoint and starts the corresponding rz/sz commands.
       If the mode is set to "auto", screen will use  "catch"  if
       the  window  is  a  tty (e.g. a serial line), otherwise it
       will use "pass".
       You can define the templates screen uses in  "catch"  mode
       via the second and the third form.
       Note also that this is an experimental feature.

       zombie [keys]
       defzombie [keys]

       Per  default  screen  windows  are removed from the window
       list as soon as the windows process  (e.g.  shell)  exits.
       When  a string of two keys is specified to the zombie com­
       mand, `dead' windows will remain in the  list.   The  kill
       command  may be used to remove such a window. Pressing the
       first key in the dead window has  the  same  effect.  When
       pressing  the second key, screen will attempt to resurrect
       the window. The process that was initially running in  the
       window  will  be  launched  again.  Calling zombie without
       your terminal has a status line defined  in  its  termcap,
       screen  will  use this for displaying its messages, other­
       wise a line of the  current  screen  will  be  temporarily
       overwritten  and  output  will be momentarily interrupted.
       The message line is automatically removed after a few sec­
       onds delay, but it can also be removed early (on terminals
       without a status line) by beginning to type.

       The message line facility can be used  by  an  application
       running in the current window by means of the ANSI Privacy
       message control sequence.  For instance, from  within  the
       shell, try something like:

              echo   '<esc>^Hello   world   from   window  '$WIN­

       where '<esc>' is an escape, '^' is a literal up-arrow, and
       '\\' turns into a single backslash.


       Screen  provides three different window types. New windows
       are created with screen's screen  command  (see  also  the
       entry  in chapter "CUSTOMIZATION"). The first parameter to
       the screen command defines which type of  window  is  cre­
       ated.  The different window types are all special cases of
       the normal type. They have been added in  order  to  allow
       screen  to  be  used  efficiently as a console multiplexer
       with 100 or more windows.

       ·  The normal window contains  a  shell  (default,  if  no
          parameter  is  given)  or any other system command that
          could be executed from a shell (e.g.  slogin, etc...)

       ·  If  a  tty  (character  special  device)   name   (e.g.
          "/dev/ttya")  is specified as the first parameter, then
          the window is directly connected to this device.   This
          window  type  is  similar  to "screen cu -l /dev/ttya".
          Read and write access is required on the  device  node,
          an  exclusive open is attempted on the node to mark the
          connection line as  busy.   An  optional  parameter  is
          allowed  consisting  of a comma separated list of flags
          in the notation used by stty(1):

                 Usually 300, 1200, 9600 or 19200.  This  affects
                 transmission as well as receive speed.

          cs8 or cs7
                 Specify  the  transmission  of  eight (or seven)

          You  may  want  to  specify as many of these options as
          applicable.  Unspecified  options  cause  the  terminal
          driver  to  make up the parameter values of the connec­
          tion.  These values are system dependant and may be  in
          defaults or values saved from a previous connection.

          For  tty  windows,  the  info command shows some of the
          modem control lines  in  the  status  line.  These  may
          include  `RTS',  `CTS',  'DTR',  `DSR',  `CD' and more.
          This depends on  the  available  ioctl()'s  and  system
          header  files  as well as the on the physical capabili­
          ties of the serial board.  Signals that are logical low
          (inactive)  have  their name preceded by an exclamation
          mark  (!),  otherwise  the  signal  is   logical   high
          (active).   Signals  not  supported by the hardware but
          available to the ioctl() interface  are  usually  shown
          When  the  CLOCAL  status bit is true, the whole set of
          modem signals is placed inside curly braces ({ and  }).
          When the CRTSCTS or TIOCSOFTCAR bit is set, the signals
          `CTS' or `CD' are shown in parenthesis, respectively.

          For tty windows, the  command  break  causes  the  Data
          transmission  line  (TxD)  to  go  low  for a specified
          period of time. This is expected to be  interpreted  as
          break signal on the other side.  No data is sent and no
          modem control line is changed when a break is issued.

       ·  If the first parameter is "//telnet", the second param­
          eter  is  expected  to  be a host name, and an optional
          third parameter may specify a TCP port number  (default
          decimal 23).  Screen will connect to a server listening
          on the remote host and use the telnet protocol to  com­
          municate with that server.
          For  telnet  windows,  the  command  info shows details
          about the connection in square brackets ([  and  ])  at
          the end of the status line.

          b      BINARY. The connection is in binary mode.

          e      ECHO. Local echo is disabled.

          c      SGA.  The  connection  is  in  `character  mode'
                 (default: `line mode').

          t      TTYPE. The terminal type has been  requested  by
                 the remote host.  Screen sends the name "screen"
                 unless instructed otherwise (see also  the  com­
                 mand `term').

          w      NAWS.  The  remote site is notified about window


       Screen provides an escape mechanism to insert  information
       like  the  current  time  into messages or file names. The
       escape character is '%' with one exception:  inside  of  a
       window's hardstatus '^%' ('^E') is used instead.

       Here is the full list of supported escapes:

       %      the escape character itself

       a      either 'am' or 'pm'

       A      either 'AM' or 'PM'

       c      current time HH:MM in 24h format

       C      current time HH:MM in 12h format

       d      day number

       D      weekday name

       f      flags of the window

       F      sets %? to true if the window has the focus

       h      hardstatus of the window

       H      hostname of the system

       l      current load of the system

       m      month number

       M      month name

       n      window number

       s      seconds

       t      window title

       u      all other users on this window

       w      all  window numbers and names. With '-' quailifier:
              up to  the  current  window;  with  '+'  qualifier:
              starting with the window after the current one.

       W      all window numbers and names except the current one
              tells  screen to treat the number as absolute posi­
              tion.  You can specify to pad relative to the  last
              absolute  pad position by adding a '+' qualifier or
              to pad relative to the right margin by  using  '-'.
              The  padding  truncates the string if the specified
              position lies before the current position. Add  the
              'L' qualifier to change this.

       <      same  as  '%='  but just do truncation, do not fill
              with spaces

       >      mark the current text position for the next trunca­
              tion.  When screen needs to do truncation, it tries
              to do it in a way that  the  marked  position  gets
              moved  to  the  specified  percentage of the output
              area. (The area starts from the last  absolute  pad
              position  and  ends  with the position specified by
              the truncation operator.) The 'L'  qualifier  tells
              screen to mark the truncated parts with '...'.

       {      attribute/color  modifier  string terminated by the
              next "}"

       `      Substitute with the output of a 'backtick' command.
              The  length qualifier is misused to identify one of
              the commands.

       The 'c' and 'C' escape may be qualified with a '0' to make
       screen  use  zero  instead of space as fill character. The
       '0' qualifier also makes the '=' escape use absolute posi­
       tions.  The 'n' and '=' escapes understand a length quali­
       fier (e.g. '%3n'), 'D' and 'M' can be prefixed with 'L' to
       generate  long  names,  'w'  and  'W' also show the window
       flags if 'L' is given.

       An attribute/color modifier  is  is  used  to  change  the
       attributes   or   the   color   settings.  Its  format  is
       "[attribute modifier] [color description]". The  attribute
       modifier must be prefixed by a change type indicator if it
       can be confused with a  color  desciption.  The  following
       change types are known:

       +      add the specified set to the current attributes

       -      remove the set from the current attributes

       !      invert the set in the current attributes

       =      change the current attributes to the specified set

       The attribute set can either be specified as a hexadecimal
       number or a combination of the following letters:
       g      green
       y      yellow
       b      blue
       m      magenta
       c      cyan
       w      white
       d      default color
       .      leave color unchanged

       The capitalized versions of the letter specify bright col­
       ors. You can also use the pseudo-color 'i' to set just the
       brightness and leave the color unchanged.
       A one digit/letter color description is treated  as  fore­
       ground  or  background  color  dependant  on  the  current
       attributes: if reverse mode is set, the  background  color
       is  changed instead of the foreground color.  If you don't
       like this, prefix the color with a ".". If  you  want  the
       same  behaviour  for  two-letter  color descriptions, also
       prefix them with a ".".
       As a special case, "%{-}" restores the attributes and col­
       ors  that  were  set before the last change was made (i.e.
       pops one level of the color-change stack).


       "G"    set color to bright green

       "+b r" use bold red

       "= yd" clear all attributes, write  in  default  color  on
              yellow background.

       %-Lw%{= BW}%50>%n%f* %t%{-}%+Lw%<
              The  available windows centered at the current win­
              dow and truncated to the available width. The  cur­
              rent  window  is displayed white on blue.  This can
              be used with "hardstatus alwayslastline".

       %?%F%{.R.}%?%3n %t%? [%h]%?
              The window number and title and the window's  hard­
              status,  if  one is set.  Also use a red background
              if this is the active focus.  Useful  for  "caption


       Each window has a flow-control setting that determines how
       screen deals with the XON and XOFF characters (and perhaps
       the  interrupt  character).   When  flow-control is turned
       off, screen ignores the XON  and  XOFF  characters,  which
       allows  the  user  to  send them to the current program by
       simply typing them  (useful  for  the  emacs  editor,  for
       instance).   The trade-off is that it will take longer for
       'fixed on', 'fixed off' and 'automatic' interactively with
       the "flow" command bound to "C-a f".

       The  automatic flow-switching mode deals with flow control
       using the TIOCPKT mode (like "rlogin" does).  If  the  tty
       driver  does not support TIOCPKT, screen tries to find out
       the right mode based on the current setting of the  appli­
       cation keypad - when it is enabled, flow-control is turned
       off and visa versa.  Of course, you can  still  manipulate
       flow-control manually when needed.

       If  you're running with flow-control enabled and find that
       pressing the interrupt key (usually C-c) does  not  inter­
       rupt the display until another 6-8 lines have scrolled by,
       try running screen with the "interrupt"  option  (add  the
       "interrupt"  flag to the "flow" command in your .screenrc,
       or use the -i command-line option).  This causes the  out­
       put  that screen has accumulated from the interrupted pro­
       gram to be flushed.  One disadvantage is that the  virtual
       terminal's  memory contains the non-flushed version of the
       output, which in rare cases can cause  minor  inaccuracies
       in  the  output.   For  example, if you switch screens and
       return, or update the screen with "C-a l"  you  would  see
       the  version  of  the output you would have gotten without
       "interrupt" being on.  Also, you might need  to  turn  off
       flow-control  (or  use auto-flow mode to turn it off auto­
       matically) when running a program that expects you to type
       the  interrupt  character  as  input, as it is possible to
       interrupt the output of the virtual terminal to your phys­
       ical  terminal when flow-control is enabled.  If this hap­
       pens, a simple refresh of the screen  with  "C-a  l"  will
       restore  it.  Give each mode a try, and use whichever mode
       you find more comfortable.

TITLES (naming windows)

       You can customize each window's name in the window display
       (viewed  with the "windows" command (C-a w)) by setting it
       with one of the title commands.  Normally  the  name  dis­
       played  is  the actual command name of the program created
       in the window.  However, it is sometimes useful to distin­
       guish  various  programs of the same name or to change the
       name on-the-fly to reflect the current state of  the  win­

       The default name for all shell windows can be set with the
       "shelltitle" command in  the  .screenrc  file,  while  all
       other windows are created with a "screen" command and thus
       can have their name set  with  the  -t  option.   Interac­
       tively,   there   is   the   title-string  escape-sequence
       (<esc>kname<esc>\) and the "title" command (C-a  A).   The
       dow's shell name (e.g. "name:cmd").  Otherwise the current
       command name supersedes the shell name while  it  is  run­

       Here's how it works:  you must modify your shell prompt to
       output a null title-escape-sequence  (<esc>k<esc>\)  as  a
       part of your prompt.  The last part of your prompt must be
       the same as the string you specified for the  search  por­
       tion  of  the title.  Once this is set up, screen will use
       the title-escape-sequence to clear  the  previous  command
       name  and  get  ready  for the next command.  Then, when a
       newline is received from the shell, a search is  made  for
       the  end  of the prompt.  If found, it will grab the first
       word after the matched string and use it  as  the  command
       name.  If the command name begins with either '!', '%', or
       '^' screen will use the first word on the  following  line
       (if  found)  in  preference  to the just-found name.  This
       helps csh users get better command names  when  using  job
       control or history recall commands.

       Here's some .screenrc examples:

              screen -t top 2 nice top

       Adding  this  line  to your .screenrc would start a nice-d
       version of the "top"  command  in  window  2  named  "top"
       rather than "nice".

                   shelltitle '> |csh'
                   screen 1

       These commands would start a shell with the given shellti­
       tle.  The title specified  is  an  auto-title  that  would
       expect  the prompt and the typed command to look something
       like the following:

              /usr/joe/src/dir> trn

       (it looks after the '> ' for the command name).  The  win­
       dow status would show the name "trn" while the command was
       running, and revert to "csh" upon completion.

              bind R screen -t '% |root:' su

       Having this command in your .screenrc would bind  the  key
       sequence  "C-a R" to the "su" command and give it an auto-
       title name of "root:".  For this auto-title to  work,  the
       screen could look something like this:

                   % !em
                   emacs file.c

       One thing to keep in mind when adding a null title-escape-
       sequence to your prompt is that some shells (like the csh)
       count all  the  non-control  characters  as  part  of  the
       prompt's  length.   If these invisible characters aren't a
       multiple of 8 then backspacing over a tab will  result  in
       an  incorrect  display.   One way to get around this is to
       use a prompt like this:

              set prompt='^[[0000m^[k^[\% '

       The escape-sequence "<esc>[0000m" not only normalizes  the
       character  attributes,  but all the zeros round the length
       of the invisible characters up  to  8.   Bash  users  will
       probably   want   to  echo  the  escape  sequence  in  the

              PROMPT_COMMAND='echo -n -e "\033k\033\134"'

       (I used "134" to output a `\' because of  a  bug  in  bash


       Each window in a screen session emulates a VT100 terminal,
       with some extra functions added.  The  VT100  emulator  is
       hard-coded, no other terminal types can be emulated.
       Usually  screen tries to emulate as much of the VT100/ANSI
       standard as possible. But if your terminal  lacks  certain
       capabilities,  the emulation may not be complete. In these
       cases screen has to tell the applications that some of the
       features are missing. This is no problem on machines using
       termcap, because screen can use the $TERMCAP  variable  to
       customize the standard screen termcap.

       But  if you do a rlogin on another machine or your machine
       supports only terminfo this method fails. Because of this,
       screen offers a way to deal with these cases.  Here is how
       it works:

       When screen tries  to  figure  out  a  terminal  name  for
       itself, it first looks for an entry named "screen.<term>",
       where <term> is the contents of your $TERM  variable.   If
       no such entry exists, screen tries "screen" (or "screen-w"
       if the terminal is wide (132 cols or more)).  If even this
       entry cannot be found, "vt100" is used as a substitute.

       The idea is that if you have a terminal which doesn't sup­
       port an important feature (e.g. delete char  or  clear  to
       EOS) you can build a new termcap/terminfo entry for screen
       (named "screen.<dumbterm>") in which this  capability  has
       the  `us' and `ue' capabilities into the window's $TERMCAP
       variable, accordingly.  However, a minimum number of capa­
       bilities  must  be supported by a terminal in order to run
       screen; namely scrolling, clear screen, and direct  cursor
       addressing  (in  addition, screen does not run on hardcopy
       terminals or on terminals that over-strike).

       Also, you can customize the $TERMCAP value used by  screen
       by  using  the "termcap" .screenrc command, or by defining
       the variable $SCREENCAP prior to  startup.   When  the  is
       latter  defined,  its  value  will be copied verbatim into
       each window's $TERMCAP variable.  This can either  be  the
       full terminal definition, or a filename where the terminal
       "screen" (and/or "screen-w") is defined.

       Note that screen honors the "terminfo"  .screenrc  command
       if the system uses the terminfo database rather than term­

       When the boolean `G0' capability is present in the termcap
       entry  for  the  terminal on which screen has been called,
       the terminal emulation of screen supports multiple charac­
       ter  sets.  This allows an application to make use of, for
       instance, the VT100 graphics  character  set  or  national
       character  sets.  The following control functions from ISO
       2022 are supported: lock shift  G0  (SI),  lock  shift  G1
       (SO),  lock  shift G2, lock shift G3, single shift G2, and
       single shift G3.  When a virtual terminal  is  created  or
       reset, the ASCII character set is designated as G0 through
       G3.  When the `G0' capability is present, screen evaluates
       the  capabilities `S0', `E0', and `C0' if present. `S0' is
       the sequence the terminal uses to  enable  and  start  the
       graphics character set rather than SI.  `E0' is the corre­
       sponding replacement for SO. `C0'  gives  a  character  by
       character  translation  string  that  is used during semi-
       graphics mode. This string is built like the  `acsc'  ter­
       minfo capability.

       When  the  `po'  and  `pf' capabilities are present in the
       terminal's termcap entry, applications running in a screen
       window  can  send output to the printer port of the termi­
       nal.  This allows a user to have  an  application  in  one
       window sending output to a printer connected to the termi­
       nal, while all other windows are still active (the printer
       port  is enabled and disabled again for each chunk of out­
       put).  As a side-effect,  programs  running  in  different
       windows  can  send  output  to the printer simultaneously.
       Data sent to the printer is not displayed in  the  window.
       The info command displays a line starting `PRIN' while the
       printer is active.

       Screen maintains a hardstatus line for every window. If  a
       when the session is reattached on a different terminal, as
       the value of $TERMCAP cannot be modified  by  parent  pro­

       The  "alternate  screen"  capability  is  not  enabled  by
       default.  Set the altscreen .screenrc  command  to  enable

       The following is a list of control sequences recognized by
       screen.  "(V)" and "(A)" indicate VT100-specific and ANSI-
       or ISO-specific functions, respectively.

       ESC E                      Next Line

       ESC D                      Index

       ESC M                      Reverse Index

       ESC H                      Horizontal Tab Set

       ESC Z                      Send    VT100    Identification

       ESC 7                 (V)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC 8                 (V)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [s                (A)  Save Cursor and Attributes

       ESC [u                (A)  Restore Cursor and Attributes

       ESC c                      Reset to Initial State

       ESC g                      Visual Bell

       ESC Pn p                   Cursor Visibility (97801)

           Pn = 6                 Invisible

                7                 Visible

       ESC =                 (V)  Application Keypad Mode

       ESC >                 (V)  Numeric Keypad Mode

       ESC # 8               (V)  Fill Screen with E's

       ESC \                 (A)  String Terminator

       ESC ^                 (A)  Privacy Message String (Message

       ESC ] 0 ; string ^G   (A)  Operating System Command (Hard­
                                  status, xterm title hack)

       ESC ] 83 ; cmd ^G     (A)  Execute  screen  command.  This
                                  only works if  multi-user  sup­
                                  port  is  compiled into screen.
                                  The pseudo-user  ":window:"  is
                                  used  to  check the access con­
                                  trol list. Use "addacl :window:
                                  -rwx  #?" to create a user with
                                  no rights and  allow  only  the
                                  needed commands.

       Control-N             (A)  Lock Shift G1 (SO)

       Control-O             (A)  Lock Shift G0 (SI)

       ESC n                 (A)  Lock Shift G2

       ESC o                 (A)  Lock Shift G3

       ESC N                 (A)  Single Shift G2

       ESC O                 (A)  Single Shift G3

       ESC ( Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G0

       ESC ) Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G1

       ESC * Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G2

       ESC + Pcs             (A)  Designate character set as G3

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn H            Direct Cursor Addressing

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn f            same as above

       ESC [ Pn J                 Erase in Display

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Screen

                  1               From  Beginning  of  Screen  to

                  2               Entire Screen

       ESC [ Pn K                 Erase in Line

             Pn = None or 0       From Cursor to End of Line

                  1               From Beginning of Line to  Cur­

       ESC [ Pn F                 Cursor previous line

       ESC [ Pn G                 Cursor horizontal position

       ESC [ Pn `                 same as above

       ESC [ Pn d                 Cursor vertical position

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps m        Select Graphic Rendition

             Ps = None or 0       Default Rendition

                  1               Bold

                  2          (A)  Faint

                  3          (A)  Standout   Mode  (ANSI:  Itali­

                  4               Underlined

                  5               Blinking

                  7               Negative Image

                  22         (A)  Normal Intensity

                  23         (A)  Standout Mode off (ANSI: Itali­
                                  cized off)

                  24         (A)  Not Underlined

                  25         (A)  Not Blinking

                  27         (A)  Positive Image

                  30         (A)  Foreground Black

                  31         (A)  Foreground Red

                  32         (A)  Foreground Green

                  33         (A)  Foreground Yellow

                  34         (A)  Foreground Blue

                  35         (A)  Foreground Magenta

                  36         (A)  Foreground Cyan

                  37         (A)  Foreground White

       ESC [ Pn ; Pn r       (V)  Set Scrolling Region

       ESC [ Pn I            (A)  Horizontal Tab

       ESC [ Pn Z            (A)  Backward Tab

       ESC [ Pn L            (A)  Insert Line

       ESC [ Pn M            (A)  Delete Line

       ESC [ Pn @            (A)  Insert Character

       ESC [ Pn P            (A)  Delete Character

       ESC [ Pn S                 Scroll Scrolling Region Up

       ESC [ Pn T                 Scroll Scrolling Region Down

       ESC [ Pn ^                 same as above

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps h        Set Mode

       ESC [ Ps ;...; Ps l        Reset Mode

             Ps = 4          (A)  Insert Mode

                  20         (A)  Automatic Linefeed Mode

                  34              Normal Cursor Visibility

                  ?1         (V)  Application Cursor Keys

                  ?3         (V)  Change  Terminal  Width  to 132

                  ?5         (V)  Reverse Video

                  ?6         (V)  Origin Mode

                  ?7         (V)  Wrap Mode

                  ?9              X10 mouse tracking

                  ?25        (V)  Visible Cursor

                  ?47             Alternate  Screen  (old   xterm

                  ?1000      (V)  VT200 mouse tracking

                  ?1047           Alternate   Screen  (new  xterm

       ESC [ c                    Send    VT100    Identification

       ESC [ x                    Send Terminal Parameter Report

       ESC [ > c                  Send  VT220  Secondary   Device
                                  Attributes String

       ESC [ 6 n                  Send Cursor Position Report


       In order to do a full VT100 emulation screen has to detect
       that a sequence of characters in the input stream was gen­
       erated by a keypress on the user's keyboard and insert the
       VT100 style escape sequence. Screen has  a  very  flexible
       way  of  doing this by making it possible to map arbitrary
       commands on arbitrary sequences of characters.  For  stan­
       dard  VT100  emulation  the  command  will always insert a
       string in the input buffer of the window (see also command
       stuff in the command table).  Because the sequences gener­
       ated by a keypress can change after a reattach from a dif­
       ferent  terminal  type, it is possible to bind commands to
       the termcap name of the keys.  Screen will insert the cor­
       rect  binding after each reattach. See the bindkey command
       for further details on the syntax and examples.

       Here is the table of the default key bindings.  (A)  means
       that  the  command is executed if the keyboard is switched
       into application mode.

       Key name          Termcap name    Command
       Cursor up             ku          stuff \033[A
                                         stuff \033OA    (A)
       Cursor down           kd          stuff \033[B
                                         stuff \033OB    (A)
       Cursor right          kr          stuff \033[C
                                         stuff \033OC    (A)
       Cursor left           kl          stuff \033[D
                                         stuff \033OD    (A)
       Function key 0        k0          stuff \033[10~
       Function key 1        k1          stuff \033OP
       Function key 2        k2          stuff \033OQ
       Function key 3        k3          stuff \033OR
       Function key 4        k4          stuff \033OS
       Function key 5        k5          stuff \033[15~
       Function key 6        k6          stuff \033[17~
       Function key 7        k7          stuff \033[18~
       Function key 8        k8          stuff \033[19~
       Keypad 2              f2          stuff 2
                                         stuff \033Or    (A)
       Keypad 3              f3          stuff 3
                                         stuff \033Os    (A)
       Keypad 4              f4          stuff 4
                                         stuff \033Ot    (A)
       Keypad 5              f5          stuff 5
                                         stuff \033Ou    (A)
       Keypad 6              f6          stuff 6
                                         stuff \033Ov    (A)
       Keypad 7              f7          stuff 7
                                         stuff \033Ow    (A)
       Keypad 8              f8          stuff 8
                                         stuff \033Ox    (A)
       Keypad 9              f9          stuff 9
                                         stuff \033Oy    (A)
       Keypad +              f+          stuff +
                                         stuff \033Ok    (A)
       Keypad -              f-          stuff -
                                         stuff \033Om    (A)
       Keypad *              f*          stuff *
                                         stuff \033Oj    (A)
       Keypad /              f/          stuff /
                                         stuff \033Oo    (A)
       Keypad =              fq          stuff =
                                         stuff \033OX    (A)
       Keypad .              f.          stuff .
                                         stuff \033On    (A)
       Keypad ,              f,          stuff ,
                                         stuff \033Ol    (A)
       Keypad enter          fe          stuff \015
                                         stuff \033OM    (A)


       The following table describes  all  terminal  capabilities
       that  are  recognized  by  screen and are not in the term­
       cap(5) manual.  You can place these capabilities  in  your
       termcap  entries  (in `/etc/termcap') or use them with the
       commands `termcap', `terminfo' and `termcapinfo'  in  your
       screenrc  files.  It  is often not possible to place these
       capabilities in the terminfo database.

       LP   (bool)  Terminal has VT100 style margins (`magic mar­
                    gins'). Note that this capability is obsolete
                    because  screen  uses   the   standard   'xn'

       Z0   (str)   Change width to 132 columns.

       S0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' to the specified charset.
                    Default is '\E(%.'.

       E0   (str)   Switch charset 'G0' back to standard charset.
                    Default is '\E(B'.

       C0   (str)   Use the string as a conversion table for font
                    '0'.  See  the  'ac'  capability   for   more

       CS   (str)   Switch cursor-keys to application mode.

       CE   (str)   Switch cursor-keys back to normal mode.

       AN   (bool)  Turn  on autonuke. See the 'autonuke' command
                    for more details.

       OL   (num)   Set the output buffer limit.  See  the  'obu­
                    flimit' command for more details.

       KJ   (str)   Set  the  encoding  of  the terminal. See the
                    'encoding' command for valid encodings.

       AF   (str)   Change character foreground color in an  ANSI
                    conform  way.  This  capability  will  almost
                    always be set to '\E[3%dm'  ('\E[3%p1%dm'  on
                    terminfo machines).

       AB   (str)   Same as 'AF', but change background color.

       AX   (bool)  Does  understand ANSI set default fg/bg color
                    (\E[39m / \E[49m).

       XC   (str)   Describe  a  translation  of  characters   to
                    strings  depending  on the current font. More
                    details follow in the next section.

       XT   (bool)  Terminal understands special xterm  sequences
                    (OSC, mouse tracking).

       C8   (bool)  Terminal needs bold to display high-intensity
                    colors (e.g. Eterm).

       TF   (bool)  Add missing capabilities to the  termcap/info
                    entry. (Set by default).


       Screen has a powerful mechanism to translate characters to
       arbitrary strings depending on the current font and termi­
       nal  type.   Use  this  feature if you want to work with a
       common standard character set (say ISO8851-latin1) even on
       is  used, as most of the time the codes have a lot in com­
       mon (for example strings to switch  to  and  from  another
       charset).  Each  occurrence of '%' in <template> gets sub­
       stituted with the <template-arg> specified  together  with
       the  character.  If  your  strings are not similar at all,
       then use '%' as a template and place the  full  string  in
       <template-arg>.  A  quoting mechanism was added to make it
       possible to use a real '%'. The '\' character  quotes  the
       special characters '\', '%', and ','.

       Here is an example:

           termcap hp700 'XC=B\E(K%\E(B,\304[,\326\\\\,\334]'

       This tells screen how to translate ISOlatin1 (charset 'B')
       upper case umlaut characters on a hp700 terminal that  has
       a  german  charset.  '\304' gets translated to '\E(K[\E(B'
       and so on.  Note that this line gets parsed *three*  times
       before the internal lookup table is built, therefore a lot
       of quoting is needed to create a single '\'.

       Another extension was added to allow more emulation: If  a
       mapping  translates the unquoted '%' char, it will be sent
       to the terminal whenever screen  switches  to  the  corre­
       sponding  <designator>.  In this special case the template
       is assumed to be  just  '%'  because  the  charset  switch
       sequence  and the character mappings normally haven't much
       in common.

       This example shows one use of the extension:

           termcap xterm 'XC=K%,%\E(B,[\304,\\\\\326,]\334'

       Here, a part of the german ('K') charset is emulated on an
       xterm.  If screen has to change to the 'K' charset, '\E(B'
       will be sent to the terminal, i.e. the  ASCII  charset  is
       used  instead. The template is just '%', so the mapping is
       straightforward: '[' to '\304', '\' to '\326', and ']'  to


       COLUMNS        Number  of  columns  on the terminal (over­
                      rides termcap entry).
       HOME           Directory in which to look for .screenrc.
       LINES          Number of lines on the terminal  (overrides
                      termcap entry).
       LOCKPRG        Screen lock program.
       NETHACKOPTIONS Turns on nethack option.
       PATH           Used for locating programs to run.
       SCREENCAP      For customizing a terminal's TERMCAP value.
       SCREENDIR      Alternate socket directory.
                                         private and global  ini­
                                         tialization files.
       /usr/local/etc/screenrc           screen    initialization
       $HOME/.screenrc                   Read      in       after
       /local/screens/S-<login>          Socket       directories
       /usr/tmp/screens/S-<login>        Alternate socket  direc­
       <socket directory>/.termcap       Written by the "termcap"
                                         output function
       /usr/tmp/screens/screen-exchange  or
       /tmp/screen-exchange              screen     `interprocess
                                         communication buffer'
       hardcopy.[0-9]                    Screen images created by
                                         the hardcopy function
       screenlog.[0-9]                   Output log files created
                                         by the log function
       /usr/lib/terminfo/?/*             or
       /etc/termcap                      Terminal      capability
       /etc/utmp                         Login records
       $LOCKPRG                          Program  that  locks   a


       termcap(5), utmp(5), vi(1), captoinfo(1), tic(1)


       Originally  created by Oliver Laumann, this latest version
       was produced by Wayne Davison, Juergen Weigert and Michael


       Copyright (C) 1993-2003
            Juergen Weigert (jnweiger@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
            Michael Schroeder (mlschroe@immd4.informatik.uni-erlangen.de)
       Copyright (C) 1987 Oliver Laumann
       This  program  is  free  software; you can redistribute it
       and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
       License  as  published  by  the  Free Software Foundation;
       either version 2, or (at your option) any later version.
       This program is distributed in the hope that  it  will  be
       useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
       PURPOSE.   See  the  GNU  General  Public License for more
       Larry W. Virden (lvirden@cas.org),
       Howard Chu (hyc@hanauma.jpl.nasa.gov),
       Tim MacKenzie (tym@dibbler.cs.monash.edu.au),
       Markku Jarvinen (mta@{cc,cs,ee}.tut.fi),
       Marc Boucher (marc@CAM.ORG),
       Doug Siebert (dsiebert@isca.uiowa.edu),
       Ken Stillson (stillson@tsfsrv.mitre.org),
       Ian Frechett (frechett@spot.Colorado.EDU),
       Brian Koehmstedt (bpk@gnu.ai.mit.edu),
       Don Smith (djs6015@ultb.isc.rit.edu),
       Frank van der Linden (vdlinden@fwi.uva.nl),
       Martin Schweikert (schweik@cpp.ob.open.de),
       David Vrona (dave@sashimi.lcu.com),
       E. Tye McQueen (tye%spillman.UUCP@uunet.uu.net),
       Matthew Green (mrg@eterna.com.au),
       Christopher Williams (cgw@pobox.com),
       Matt Mosley (mattm@access.digex.net),
       Gregory Neil Shapiro (gshapiro@wpi.WPI.EDU),
       Johannes Zellner (johannes@zellner.org),
       Pablo Averbuj (pablo@averbuj.com).


       This  is  version 4.0.0. Its roots are a merge of a custom
       version 2.3PR7 by Wayne Davison and  several  enhancements
       to  Oliver  Laumann's  version 2.0. Note that all versions
       numbered 2.x are copyright by Oliver Laumann.


       The latest official release of screen available via anony­
       mous  ftp  from gnudist.gnu.org, nic.funet.fi or any other
       GNU distribution site. The home site of screen is ftp.uni-
       erlangen.de,  in  the  directory pub/utilities/screen. The
       subdirectory `private' contains the  latest  beta  testing
       release.  If  you want to help, send a note to screen@uni-


       ·  `dm' (delete mode) and `xs' are not  handled  correctly
          (they  are  ignored). `xn' is treated as a magic-margin

       ·  Screen has no clue  about  double-high  or  double-wide
          characters.   But this is the only area where vttest is
          allowed to fail.

       ·  It is not possible to change the  environment  variable
          $TERMCAP  when  reattaching  under a different terminal

       ·  The support of terminfo based systems is very  limited.
          Adding  extra capabilities to $TERMCAP may not have any

       ·  Screen  may give a strange warning when your tty has no
          utmp entry.

       ·  When the modem line was hung up, screen may  not  auto­
          matically  detach (or quit) unless the device driver is
          configured to send a HANGUP signal.  To detach a screen
          session use the -D or -d command line option.

       ·  If  a  password is set, the command line options -d and
          -D still detach a session without asking.

       ·  Both "breaktype" and "defbreaktype"  change  the  break
          generating  method  used  by  all terminal devices. The
          first should change a window  specific  setting,  where
          the  latter should change only the default for new win­

       ·  When attaching  to  a  multiuser  session,  the  user's
          .screenrc  file  is  not  sourced. Each user's personal
          settings have to be included in the .screenrc file from
          which the session is booted, or have to be changed man­

       ·  A weird imagination is most useful to gain full  advan­
          tage of all the features.

       ·  Send bug-reports, fixes, enhancements, t-shirts, money,
          beer & pizza to screen@uni-erlangen.de.

                             Aug 2003                   SCREEN(1)



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