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       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]

       rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST

       rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]

       rsync           [OPTION]...          SRC          [SRC]...


       rsync is a program that behaves in much the same way  that
       rcp  does,  but  has  many more options and uses the rsync
       remote-update protocol to greatly speed up file  transfers
       when the destination file already exists.

       The  rsync remote-update protocol allows rsync to transfer
       just the differences between two sets of files across  the
       network link, using an efficient checksum-search algorithm
       described in the technical report  that  accompanies  this

       Some of the additional features of rsync are:

       o      support  for copying links, devices, owners, groups
              and permissions

       o      exclude and exclude-from options similar to GNU tar

       o      a CVS exclude mode for ignoring the same files that
              CVS would ignore

       o      can use any transparent remote shell, including rsh
              or ssh

       o      does not require root privileges

       o      pipelining  of  file  transfers to minimize latency

       o      support  for  anonymous  or   authenticated   rsync
              servers (ideal for mirroring)

       o      for copying from a  remote  machine  to  the  local
              machine  using  a  remote  shell  program.  This is
              invoked when the source contains a : separator.

       o      for copying from a remote rsync server to the local
              machine.  This is invoked when the source path con­
              tains a :: separator or a rsync:// URL.

       o      for copying from the  local  machine  to  a  remote
              rsync  server. This is invoked when the destination
              path contains a :: separator or a rsync:// URL.

       o      for copying from a remote machine  using  a  remote
              shell  program as the transport, using rsync server
              on the remote machine.  This is  invoked  when  the
              source   path  contains  a  ::  separator  and  the
              --rsh=COMMAND (aka "-e  COMMAND")  option  is  also

       o      for  copying  from  the  local  machine to a remote
              machine using a remote shell program as the  trans­
              port,  using  rsync  server  on the remote machine.
              This is invoked when the destination path  contains
              a  ::  separator  and  the --rsh=COMMMAND option is
              also provided.

       o      for listing files on a remote machine. This is done
              the  same  way  as  rsync transfers except that you
              leave off the local destination.

       Note that in all cases (other than listing) at  least  one
       of the source and destination paths must be local.


       See the file README for installation instructions.

       Once  installed, you can use rsync to any machine that you
       can access via a remote shell (as well as  some  that  you
       can  access  using  the  rsync daemon-mode protocol).  For
       remote transfers, rsync typically uses rsh for its  commu­
       nications,  but  it may have been configured to use a dif­
       ferent remote shell by default, such as ssh.

       You can also specify any remote shell you like, either  by
       using  the  -e  command  line  option,  or  by setting the
       Perhaps the best way to explain the syntax is  some  exam­

              rsync *.c foo:src/

       this  would  transfer  all  files matching the pattern *.c
       from the current directory to the  directory  src  on  the
       machine  foo.  If  any  of  the files already exist on the
       remote system then the  rsync  remote-update  protocol  is
       used  to  update the file by sending only the differences.
       See the tech report for details.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar /data/tmp

       this would recursively transfer all files from the  direc­
       tory  src/bar  on  the  machine foo into the /data/tmp/bar
       directory on the local machine. The files are  transferred
       in  "archive"  mode,  which  ensures  that symbolic links,
       devices, attributes, permissions, ownerships etc are  pre­
       served in the transfer.  Additionally, compression will be
       used to reduce the size of data portions of the  transfer.

              rsync -avz foo:src/bar/ /data/tmp

       a  trailing  slash  on the source changes this behavior to
       transfer all files  from  the  directory  src/bar  on  the
       machine foo into the /data/tmp/.  A trailing / on a source
       name means "copy the contents of this directory".  Without
       a  trailing slash it means "copy the directory". This dif­
       ference becomes  particularly  important  when  using  the
       --delete option.

       You  can also use rsync in local-only mode, where both the
       source and destination don´t have a ´:´ in  the  name.  In
       this case it behaves like an improved copy command.

              rsync somehost.mydomain.com::

       this  would list all the anonymous rsync modules available
       on the host  somehost.mydomain.com.   (See  the  following
       section for more details.)


       It is also possible to use rsync without a remote shell as
       the transport. In this case you will connect to  a  remote
       rsync server running on TCP port 873.

       You  may  establish the connection via a web proxy by set­
       ting the  environment  variable  RSYNC_PROXY  to  a  host­
       name:port pair pointing to your web proxy.  Note that your
       web proxy´s configuration must allow proxying to port 873.
       o      if  you  specify  no path name on the remote server
              then the list of accessible  paths  on  the  server
              will be shown.

       o      if  you specify no local destination then a listing
              of the specified files on the remote server is pro­

       Some  paths  on  the remote server may require authentica­
       tion. If so then you will receive a password  prompt  when
       you  connect. You can avoid the password prompt by setting
       the environment variable RSYNC_PASSWORD  to  the  password
       you  want to use or using the --password-file option. This
       may be useful when scripting rsync.

       WARNING: On some systems environment variables are visible
       to  all  users.  On those systems using --password-file is


       It is sometimes useful to be able to set up file transfers
       using  rsync  server  capabilities  on the remote machine,
       while still using rsh or ssh for transport.  This is espe­
       cially useful when you want to connect to a remote machine
       via ssh (for encryption or to get through a firewall), but
       you still want to have access to the rsync server features

       From  the  user´s  perspective, using rsync in this way is
       the same as using it to connect to an rsync server, except
       that  you  must explicitly set the remote shell program on
       the command line with --rsh=COMMAND.   (Setting  RSYNC_RSH
       in the environment will not turn on this functionality.)

       In  order to distinguish between the remote-shell user and
       the rsync server user, you  can  use  ´-l  user´  on  your
       remote-shell command:

              rsync    -av   --rsh="ssh   -l   ssh-user"   rsync-
              user@host::module[/path] local-path

       The "ssh-user" will be used at the ssh level; the  "rsync-
       user" will be used to check against the rsyncd.conf on the
       remote host.


       An rsync server is configured using a config file.  Please
       see  the rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more information.  By
       vices map to include the rsync server port if you  run  an
       rsync server only via a remote shell program.

       To  run  an  rsync server out of a single-use ssh key, use
       the "command=COMMAND" syntax in the remote  user´s  autho­
       rized_keys entry, where command would be

              rsync --server --daemon .

       NOTE:  rsync´s  argument parsing expects the trailing ".",
       so make sure that it´s  there.   If  you  want  to  use  a
       rsyncd.conf(5)-style  configuration  file  other  than the
       default, you can added a --config option to the command:

              rsync --server --daemon --config=file .


       Here are some examples of how I use rsync.

       To backup my wife´s  home  directory,  which  consists  of
       large  MS  Word  files  and mail folders, I use a cron job
       that runs

              rsync -Cavz . arvidsjaur:backup

       each night over a PPP link to a duplicate directory on  my
       machine "arvidsjaur".

       To  synchronize  my samba source trees I use the following
       Makefile targets:

              rsync -avuzb --exclude ´*~´ samba:samba/ .

              rsync -Cavuzb . samba:samba/

              sync: get put

       this allows me to sync with a CVS directory at  the  other
       end  of  the  link. I then do cvs operations on the remote
       machine, which saves a lot of time as the remote cvs  pro­
       tocol isn´t very efficient.

       I  mirror a directory between my "old" and "new" ftp sites
       with the command

              rsync -az  -e  ssh  --delete  ~ftp/pub/samba/  nim­

       this is launched from cron every few hours.
        -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
        -R, --relative              use relative path names
        -b, --backup                make backups (default ~ suffix)
            --backup-dir            make backups into this directory
            --suffix=SUFFIX         define backup suffix
        -u, --update                update only (don´t overwrite newer files)
        -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
        -L, --copy-links            copy the referent of symlinks
            --copy-unsafe-links     copy links outside the source tree
            --safe-links            ignore links outside the destination tree
        -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
        -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
        -o, --owner                 preserve owner (root only)
        -g, --group                 preserve group
        -D, --devices               preserve devices (root only)
        -t, --times                 preserve times
        -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
        -n, --dry-run               show what would have been transferred
        -W, --whole-file            copy whole files, no incremental checks
            --no-whole-file         turn off --whole-file
        -x, --one-file-system       don´t cross filesystem boundaries
        -B, --block-size=SIZE       checksum blocking size (default 700)
        -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
            --rsync-path=PATH       specify path to rsync on the remote machine
        -C, --cvs-exclude           auto ignore files in the same way CVS does
            --existing              only update files that already exist
            --ignore-existing       ignore files that already exist on the receiving side
            --delete                delete files that don´t exist on the sending side
            --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files on the receiving side
            --delete-after          delete after transferring, not before
            --ignore-errors         delete even if there are IO errors
            --max-delete=NUM        don´t delete more than NUM files
            --partial               keep partially transferred files
            --force                 force deletion of directories even if not empty
            --numeric-ids           don´t map uid/gid values by user/group name
            --timeout=TIME          set IO timeout in seconds
        -I, --ignore-times          don´t exclude files that match length and time
            --size-only             only use file size when determining if a file should be transferred
            --modify-window=NUM     Timestamp window (seconds) for file match (default=0)
        -T  --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
            --compare-dest=DIR      also compare destination files relative to DIR
            --link-dest=DIR         create hardlinks to DIR for unchanged files
        -P                          equivalent to --partial --progress
        -z, --compress              compress file data
            --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
            --exclude-from=FILE     exclude patterns listed in FILE
            --include=PATTERN       don´t exclude files matching PATTERN
            --include-from=FILE     don´t exclude patterns listed in FILE
            --version               print version number
            --daemon                run as a rsync daemon
            --no-detach             do not detach from the parent
            --address=ADDRESS       bind to the specified address


       rsync  uses the GNU long options package. Many of the com­
       mand line options have two variants,  one  short  and  one
       long.   These  are  shown below, separated by commas. Some
       options only have a long variant.   The  ´=´  for  options
       that  take a parameter is optional; whitespace can be used

       -h, --help
              Print a short  help  page  describing  the  options
              available in rsync

              print the rsync version number and exit

       -v, --verbose
              This option increases the amount of information you
              are given during the transfer.  By  default,  rsync
              works  silently. A single -v will give you informa­
              tion about what files are being transferred  and  a
              brief  summary  at  the end. Two -v flags will give
              you information on what files are being skipped and
              slightly more information at the end. More than two
              -v flags should only be used if you  are  debugging

       -q, --quiet
              This option decreases the amount of information you
              are given during the transfer, notably  suppressing
              information  messages  from the remote server. This
              flag is useful when invoking rsync from cron.

       -I, --ignore-times
              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already
              the  same length and have the same time-stamp. This
              option turns off this behavior.

              Normally rsync will skip any files that are already
              the  same length and have the same time-stamp. With
              the --size-only option files  will  be  skipped  if
              --modify-window=1 is useful.

       -c, --checksum
              This  forces the sender to checksum all files using
              a 128-bit MD4 checksum before transfer. The  check­
              sum  is then explicitly checked on the receiver and
              any files of the same name which already exist  and
              have the same checksum and size on the receiver are
              skipped.  This option can be quite slow.

       -a, --archive
              This is equivalent to -rlptgoD. It is a  quick  way
              of  saying  you want recursion and want to preserve
              almost everything.

              Note however that -a does not  preserve  hardlinks,
              because finding multiply-linked files is expensive.
              You must separately specify -H.

       -r, --recursive
              This tells rsync to copy  directories  recursively.
              If  you  don´t  specify  this then rsync won´t copy
              directories at all.

       -R, --relative
              Use relative paths. This means that the  full  path
              names specified on the command line are sent to the
              server rather than just the last parts of the file­
              names. This is particularly useful when you want to
              send several  different  directories  at  the  same
              time. For example, if you used the command

              rsync foo/bar/foo.c remote:/tmp/

              then this would create a file called foo.c in /tmp/
              on the remote machine. If instead you used

              rsync -R foo/bar/foo.c remote:/tmp/

              then a file called /tmp/foo/bar/foo.c would be cre­
              tory.  This is very useful for incremental backups.
              You can additionally specify a backup suffix  using
              the  --suffix option (otherwise the files backed up
              in the specified directory will keep their original

              This  option  allows  you  to  override the default
              backup suffix used with the -b option. The  default
              is  a  ~.   If  --backup-dir  and --suffix are both
              specified, the SUFFIX is appended to  the  filename
              even in the backup directory.

       -u, --update
              This  forces  rsync to skip any files for which the
              destination file already  exists  and  has  a  date
              later than the source file.

       -l, --links
              When symlinks are encountered, recreate the symlink
              on the destination.

       -L, --copy-links
              When symlinks are encountered, the file  that  they
              point to is copied, rather than the symlink.

              This  tells  rsync to copy the referent of symbolic
              links that point outside the source tree.  Absolute
              symlinks  are also treated like ordinary files, and
              so are any symlinks in the source path itself  when
              --relative is used.

              This tells rsync to ignore any symbolic links which
              point outside the destination  tree.  All  absolute
              symlinks  are  also  ignored.  Using this option in
              conjunction with  --relative  may  give  unexpected

       -H, --hard-links
              This  tells  rsync  to recreate hard  links  on the
              remote system  to  be the same as the local system.
              Without  this  option  hard  links are treated like
              regular files.
              machines  is  higher  than  the  bandwidth  to disk
              (especially when the "disk" is actually a networked
              file  system).   This  is the default when both the
              source and target are on the local machine.

              Turn off --whole-file,  for  use  when  it  is  the

       -p, --perms
              This  option causes rsync to update the remote per­
              missions to be the same as the local permissions.

       -o, --owner
              This option causes rsync to set the  owner  of  the
              destination file to be the same as the source file.
              On most systems, only the super-user can  set  file
              ownership.   Note  that  if  the remote system is a
              daemon using chroot, the  --numeric-ids  option  is
              implied because the remote system cannot get access
              to the usernames from /etc/passwd.

       -g, --group
              This option causes rsync to set the  group  of  the
              destination file to be the same as the source file.
              If the receiving program  is  not  running  as  the
              super-user, only groups that the receiver is a mem­
              ber of will be preserved (by group name, not  group
              id number).

       -D, --devices
              This  option causes rsync to transfer character and
              block device information to the  remote  system  to
              recreate  these devices. This option is only avail­
              able to the super-user.

       -t, --times
              This tells rsync  to  transfer  modification  times
              along  with the files and update them on the remote
              system.  Note that if this option is not used,  the
              optimization that excludes files that have not been
              modified cannot be effective;  in  other  words,  a
              missing  -t  or  -a will cause the next transfer to
              behave as if it used -I, and all  files  will  have
              their  checksums  compared  and show up in log mes­
              sages even if they haven´t changed.
              handle  seeks  over null regions correctly and ends
              up corrupting the files.

       -x, --one-file-system
              This tells rsync not to cross filesystem boundaries
              when  recursing.   This  is useful for transferring
              the contents of only one filesystem.

              This tells rsync not to create any new files - only
              update files that already exist on the destination.

              This tells rsync not to update files  that  already
              exist on the destination.

              This  tells rsync not to delete more than NUM files
              or directories. This is useful when mirroring  very
              large trees to prevent disasters.

              This tells rsync to delete any files on the receiv­
              ing side that aren´t on the sending  side.    Files
              that  are  excluded from transfer are excluded from
              being deleted unless you use --delete-excluded.

              This option has no effect if directory recursion is
              not selected.

              This  option  can be dangerous if used incorrectly!
              It is a very good idea to run first using  the  dry
              run  option (-n) to see what files would be deleted
              to make sure important files aren´t listed.

              If the sending side detects any IO errors then  the
              deletion  of  any  files at the destination will be
              automatically disabled. This is to  prevent  tempo­
              rary  filesystem  failures  (such as NFS errors) on
              the sending side  causing  a  massive  deletion  of
              files  on  the  destination.  You can override this
              with the --ignore-errors option.

              In addition to deleting the files on the  receiving
              side  that  are not on the sending side, this tells
              Tells --delete to go ahead and  delete  files  even
              when there are IO errors.

              This options tells rsync to delete directories even
              if they are not empty when they are to be  replaced
              by  non-directories.  This is only relevant without
              --delete because  deletions  are  now  done  depth-
              first.   Requires  the --recursive option (which is
              implied by -a) to have any effect.

       -B , --block-size=BLOCKSIZE
              This controls the block  size  used  in  the  rsync
              algorithm. See the technical report for details.

       -e, --rsh=COMMAND
              This  option  allows  you  to choose an alternative
              remote  shell  program  to  use  for  communication
              between the local and remote copies of rsync. Typi­
              cally, rsync is configured to use rsh  by  default,
              but  you  may prefer to use ssh because of its high

              If  this  option  is  used  with  [user@]host::mod­
              ule/path,  then  the  remote shell COMMMAND will be
              used to run an rsync server on the remote host, and
              all  data  will  be transmitted through that remote
              shell connection,  rather  than  through  a  direct
              socket  connection to a running rsync server on the
              remote host.  See the  section  "CONNECTING  TO  AN

              Command-line  arguments  are  permitted  in COMMAND
              provided that COMMAND is presented to  rsync  as  a
              single argument.  For example:

              -e "ssh -p 2234"

              (Note  that  ssh  users  can  alternately customize
              site-specific connect options in their  .ssh/config

              You  can also choose the remote shell program using
              the RSYNC_RSH environment variable,  which  accepts
              the same range of values as -e.

              See also the --blocking-io option which is affected
              by this option.

              You  may  use as many --exclude options on the com­
              mand line as you like to build up the list of files
              to exclude.

              See the section on exclude patterns for information
              on the syntax of this option.

              This option is similar to the --exclude option, but
              instead  it adds all exclude patterns listed in the
              file FILE to the exclude list.  Blank lines in FILE
              and lines starting with ´;´ or ´#´ are ignored.  If
              FILE is - the  list  will  be  read  from  standard

              This  option  tells rsync to not exclude the speci­
              fied pattern of filenames. This  is  useful  as  it
              allows    you    to    build   up   quite   complex
              exclude/include rules.

              See the section of exclude patterns for information
              on the syntax of this option.

              This  specifies  a  list of include patterns from a
              file.  If FILE is - the  list  will  be  read  from
              standard input.

       -C, --cvs-exclude
              This  is  a  useful shorthand for excluding a broad
              range of files that you often don´t want to  trans­
              fer  between  systems.  It  uses the same algorithm
              that CVS uses to determine  if  a  file  should  be

              The exclude list is initialized to:

              RCS/  SCCS/ CVS/ .svn/ CVS.adm RCSLOG cvslog.* tags
              TAGS .make.state .nse_depinfo *~ #*  .#*  ,*  *.old
              *.bak  *.BAK *.orig *.rej .del-* *.a *.o *.obj *.so
              *.Z *.elc *.ln core

              then files listed in a $HOME/.cvsignore  are  added
              to  the  list and any files listed in the CVSIGNORE
              environment variable (space delimited).

              You can choose the number of bytes in the truncated
              checksum  using the --csum-length option. Any value
              less than or equal to 16 is valid.

              Note that if you use this option then you  run  the
              risk  of  ending  up with an incorrect target file.
              The risk with a value of 16 is microscopic and  can
              be  safely  ignored (the universe will probably end
              before it fails) but with smaller values  the  risk
              is higher.

              Current  versions of rsync actually use an adaptive
              algorithm for the checksum length by default, using
              a  16 byte file checksum to determine if a 2nd pass
              is required with a longer block checksum. Only  use
              this  option  if  you have read the source code and
              know what you are doing.

       -T, --temp-dir=DIR
              This option instructs rsync to use DIR as a scratch
              directory  when  creating  temporary  copies of the
              files  transferred  on  the  receiving  side.   The
              default  behavior  is to create the temporary files
              in the receiving directory.

              This option instructs rsync to use DIR on the  des­
              tination machine as an additional directory to com­
              pare destination files against when doing transfers
              if  the files are missing in the destination direc­
              tory.  This is useful for doing transfers to a  new
              destination  while  leaving  existing files intact,
              and then doing a flash-cutover when all files  have
              been  successfully transferred (for example by mov­
              ing directories around and removing the old  direc­
              tory,   although  this  skips  files  that  haven´t
              changed;  see  also  --link-dest).    This   option
              increases  the usefulness of --partial because par­
              tially transferred files will  remain  in  the  new
              temporary  destination  until they have a chance to
              be completed.  If DIR is a  relative  path,  it  is
              relative to the destination directory.

              This  option  behaves  like --compare-dest but also
              will create hard links from DIR to the  destination
              directory  for unchanged files.  Files with changed
              ownership or permissions will not be linked.

              With this option rsync will transfer numeric  group
              and user ids rather than using user and group names
              and mapping them at both ends.

              By default rsync will use the user name  and  group
              name to determine what ownership to give files. The
              special uid 0 and the special  group  0  are  never
              mapped  via user/group names even if the --numeric-
              ids option is not specified.

              If the source system is a daemon using  chroot,  or
              if  a user or group name does not exist on the des­
              tination system,  then  the  numeric  id  from  the
              source system is used instead.

              This  option allows you to set a maximum IO timeout
              in seconds. If no data is transferred for the spec­
              ified  time then rsync will exit. The default is 0,
              which means no timeout.

              This tells rsync that it is to  run  as  a  daemon.
              The  daemon  may be accessed using the host::module
              or rsync://host/module/ syntax.

              If standard input  is  a  socket  then  rsync  will
              assume that it is being run via inetd, otherwise it
              will detach from the current terminal and become  a
              background daemon.  The daemon will read the config
              file (rsyncd.conf) on each connect made by a client
              and  respond  to  requests  accordingly.   See  the
              rsyncd.conf(5) man page for more details.

              When running as a  daemon,  this  option  instructs
              rsync  to not detach itself and become a background
              process.  This option is required when running as a
              service  on  Cygwin,  and  may  also be useful when
              rsync is supervised by a program  such  as  daemon­
              tools  or  AIX´s System Resource Controller.  --no-
              detach is also recommended when rsync is run  under
              a  debugger.  This option has no effect if rsync is
              run from inetd or sshd.

              By default rsync will bind to the wildcard  address
              default  is  rsyncd.conf  in  the current directory
              (typically $HOME).

              This specifies an alternate TCP port number to  use
              rather than the default port 873.

              This  tells rsync to use blocking IO when launching
              a remote shell transport.  If -e or --rsh  are  not
              specified  or  are  set  to the default "rsh", this
              defaults to blocking IO, otherwise it  defaults  to
              non-blocking  IO.   You  may find the --blocking-io
              option is needed for some remote shells that  can´t
              handle  non-blocking  IO.   (Note  that ssh prefers
              non-blocking IO.)

              Turn off --blocking-io, for  use  when  it  is  the

              This  allows  you to specify exactly what the rsync
              client logs to stdout on a per-file basis. The  log
              format  is  specified using the same format conven­
              tions as the log format option in rsyncd.conf.

              This tells rsync to print a verbose set of  statis­
              tics on the file transfer, allowing you to tell how
              effective the rsync algorithm is for your data.

              By default, rsync will delete any partially  trans­
              ferred file if the transfer is interrupted. In some
              circumstances it is more  desirable  to  keep  par­
              tially   transferred  files.  Using  the  --partial
              option tells rsync to keep the partial  file  which
              should  make  a  subsequent transfer of the rest of
              the file much faster.

              This option tells rsync to print information  show­
              ing  the  progress  of  the  transfer. This gives a
              bored user something to watch.
              file for accessing a remote rsync server. Note that
              this  option  is only useful when accessing a rsync
              server using the built in transport, not when using
              a  remote shell as the transport. The file must not
              be world readable. It should contain just the pass­
              word as a single line.

              This  option allows you to specify a maximum trans­
              fer rate in kilobytes per second.  This  option  is
              most  effective  when  using rsync with large files
              (several megabytes and up). Due to  the  nature  of
              rsync  transfers,  blocks of data are sent, then if
              rsync determines the transfer was too fast, it will
              wait before sending the next data block. The result
              is an average transfer rate equalling the specified
              limit. A value of zero specifies no limit.

              Generate  a set of files that can be transferred as
              a batch update. Each filename  in  the  set  starts
              with  PREFIX.  See  the  "BATCH  MODE"  section for

              Apply a previously generated  change  batch,  using
              the  fileset whose filenames start with PREFIX. See
              the "BATCH MODE" section for details.


       The exclude and include patterns specified to rsync  allow
       for  flexible  selection  of  which  files to transfer and
       which files to skip.

       rsync builds an ordered list of include/exclude options as
       specified  on the command line. When a filename is encoun­
       tered, rsync checks the name against each  exclude/include
       pattern  in  turn. The first matching pattern is acted on.
       If it is an exclude pattern, then that file is skipped. If
       it  is  an  include  pattern  then  that  filename  is not
       skipped. If no matching include/exclude pattern  is  found
       then the filename is not skipped.

       Note  that  when  used  with  -r (which is implied by -a),
       every subcomponent of every path is visited from top down,
       so  include/exclude  patterns  get  applied recursively to
       each subcomponent.
              any file called "foo" anywhere in the tree  because
              the algorithm is applied recursively from top down;
              it behaves as if each path component gets a turn at
              being the end of the file name.

       o      if  the  pattern  ends  with  a / then it will only
              match a directory, not a file, link or device.

       o      if the pattern contains a wildcard  character  from
              the  set  *?[  then  expression matching is applied
              using the shell filename matching rules.  Otherwise
              a simple string match is used.

       o      if the pattern includes a double asterisk "**" then
              all wildcards in the pattern  will  match  slashes,
              otherwise they will stop at slashes.

       o      if  the pattern contains a / (not counting a trail­
              ing /) then it is matched against  the  full  file­
              name,  including any leading directory. If the pat­
              tern doesn´t contain a / then it  is  matched  only
              against   the  final  component  of  the  filename.
              Again,  remember  that  the  algorithm  is  applied
              recursively  so "full filename" can actually be any
              portion of a path.

       o      if the pattern starts with "+ " (a plus followed by
              a  space)  then  it is always considered an include
              pattern, even if specified as part  of  an  exclude
              option. The "+ " part is discarded before matching.

       o      if the pattern starts with "- " (a  minus  followed
              by a space) then it is always considered an exclude
              pattern, even if specified as part  of  an  include
              option. The "- " part is discarded before matching.

       o      if the pattern is a single exclamation mark !  then
              the current include/exclude list is reset, removing
              all previously defined patterns.

       The +/- rules are most useful in exclude  lists,  allowing
       you  to  have  a  single  exclude  list that contains both
       include and exclude options.

       If you end an exclude list with --exclude ´*´,  note  that

       o      --exclude "foo/" would exclude any directory called

       o      --exclude   "/foo/*/bar"  would  exclude  any  file
              called bar two levels below a base directory called

       o      --exclude  "/foo/**/bar"  would  exclude  any  file
              called bar two or more levels below a  base  direc­
              tory called foo

       o      --include  "*/" --include "*.c" --exclude "*" would
              include all directories and C source files

       o      --include "foo/"  --include  "foo/bar.c"  --exclude
              "*"  would  include only foo/bar.c (the foo/ direc­
              tory must be explicitly included  or  it  would  be
              excluded by the "*")


       Note: Batch mode should be considered experimental in this
       version of rsync. The interface or  behaviour  may  change
       before it stabilizes.

       Batch mode can be used to apply the same set of updates to
       many identical systems. Suppose one has a  tree  which  is
       replicated on a number of hosts.  Now suppose some changes
       have been made to this source tree and those changes  need
       to  be  propagated to the other hosts. In order to do this
       using batch mode, rsync is run with the write-batch option
       to apply the changes made to the source tree to one of the
       destination trees.   The  write-batch  option  causes  the
       rsync  client  to  store  the information needed to repeat
       this operation against other destination trees in a  batch
       update  fileset (see below).  The filename of each file in
       the fileset starts with a prefix specified by the user  as
       an  argument  to  the write-batch option.  This fileset is
       then copied to each remote host, where rsync is  run  with
       the  read-batch  option, again specifying the same prefix,
       and the destination tree.  Rsync updates  the  destination
       tree  using  the  information  stored  in the batch update

       The fileset consists of 4 files:

       o      <prefix>.rsync_argvs command-line arguments

       o      <prefix>.rsync_flist rsync internal file metadata

       perform the file status, checksum and data  block  genera­
       tion  more  than  once  when updating multiple destination
       trees. Multicast transport protocols can be used to trans­
       fer  the  batch  update files in parallel to many hosts at
       once, instead of sending the same data to every host indi­


       $ rsync --write_batch=pfx -a /source/dir/ /adest/dir/
       $ rcp pfx.rsync_* remote:
       $ rsh remote rsync --read_batch=pfx -a /bdest/dir/
       # or alternatively
       $ rsh remote ./pfx.rsync_argvs /bdest/dir/

       In  this example, rsync is used to update /adest/dir/ with
       /source/dir/ and the information to repeat this  operation
       is  stored  in the files pfx.rsync_*. These files are then
       copied to the  machine  named  "remote".   Rsync  is  then
       invoked  on "remote" to update /bdest/dir/ the same way as
       /adest/dir/. The last  line  shows  the  rsync_argvs  file
       being used to invoke rsync.


       The  read-batch  option expects the destination tree it is
       meant to update to be identical to  the  destination  tree
       that  was used to create the batch update fileset.  When a
       difference between the destination  trees  is  encountered
       the  update  will fail at that point, leaving the destina­
       tion tree in a partially  updated  state.  In  that  case,
       rsync can be used in its regular (non-batch) mode of oper­
       ation to fix up the destination tree.

       The rsync version used on all destinations should be iden­
       tical to the one used on the original destination.

       The  -z/--compress  option does not work in batch mode and
       yields a usage error. A separate compression tool  can  be
       used  instead to reduce the size of the batch update files
       for transport to the destination.

       The -n/--dryrun option does not work  in  batch  mode  and
       yields a runtime error.

       See    http://www.ils.unc.edu/i2dsi/unc_rsync+.html    for

       If  --copy-links  is  specified,  then  symlinks are "col­
       lapsed" by copying their referent, rather  than  the  sym­

       rsync  also  distinguishes  "safe"  and  "unsafe" symbolic
       links.  An example where this might be used is a web  site
       mirror  that wishes ensure the rsync module they copy does
       not include symbolic links to /etc/passwd  in  the  public
       section of the site.  Using --copy-unsafe-links will cause
       any links to be copied as the file they point  to  on  the
       destination.   Using  --safe-links will cause unsafe links
       to be ommitted altogether.

       Symbolic links are considered unsafe if they are  absolute
       symlinks  (start with /), empty, or if they contain enough
       ".."   components  to  ascend  from  the  directory  being


       rsync occasionally produces error messages that may seem a
       little cryptic. The one that seems to cause the most  con­
       fusion  is  "protocol  version  mismatch  -  is your shell

       This message is usually caused by your startup scripts  or
       remote  shell  facility  producing unwanted garbage on the
       stream that rsync is using for its transport. The  way  to
       diagnose  this  problem  is  to run your remote shell like

          rsh remotehost /bin/true > out.dat

       then look at out.dat. If everything is  working  correctly
       then out.dat should be a zero length file. If you are get­
       ting the above error from rsync  then  you  will  probably
       find  that out.dat contains some text or data. Look at the
       contents and try to work out what  is  producing  it.  The
       most  common cause is incorrectly configured shell startup
       scripts (such as .cshrc or .profile) that  contain  output
       statements for non-interactive logins.

       If  you  are  having trouble debugging include and exclude
       patterns, then try specifying the  -vv  option.   At  this
       level  of  verbosity  rsync  will show why each individual
              Requested action not supported: an attempt was made
              to  manipulate 64-bit files on a platform that can­
              not support them; or an option was  speciifed  that
              is supported by the client and not by the server.

              Error in socket IO

       RERR_FILEIO 11
              Error in file IO

              Error in rsync protocol data stream

              Errors with program diagnostics

       RERR_IPC 14
              Error in IPC code

       RERR_SIGNAL 20
              Received SIGUSR1 or SIGINT

              Some error returned by waitpid()

       RERR_MALLOC 22
              Error allocating core memory buffers

       RERR_TIMEOUT 30
              Timeout in data send/receive


              The  CVSIGNORE environment variable supplements any
              ignore patterns in .cvsignore files. See the --cvs-
              exclude option for more details.

              The  RSYNC_RSH  environment  variable allows you to
              override the default shell used  as  the  transport
              for  rsync.   Command  line  options  are permitted
              after the command name, just as in the -e option.

              The RSYNC_PROXY environment variable allows you  to
              redirect  your rsync client to use a web proxy when
              to determine the default username sent to  a  rsync

       HOME   The  HOME  environment variable is used to find the
              user´s default .cvsignore file.


       /etc/rsyncd.conf or rsyncd.conf





       times are transferred as unix time_t values

       When transferring to  FAT  filesystmes  rsync  may  resync
       unmodified files.  See the comments on the --modify-window

       file permissions, devices etc are  transferred  as  native
       numerical values

       see also the comments on the --delete option

       Please     report     bugs!    See    the    website    at


       rsync is distributed under the GNU  public  license.   See
       the file COPYING for details.

       A  WEB  site is available at http://rsync.samba.org/.  The
       site includes an FAQ-O-Matic  which  may  cover  questions
       unanswered by this manual page.

       The      primary     ftp     site     for     rsync     is

       We would be delighted to hear from you if  you  like  this

       This  program  uses the excellent zlib compression library
       written by Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler.

       rsync is now maintained by Martin Pool <mbp@samba.org>.

       Mailing lists for support and development are available at

       If you suspect you have found a security vulnerability  in
       rsync,  please  send it directly to Martin Pool and Andrew
       Tridgell.  For other enquiries,  please  use  the  mailing

                           26 Jan 2003                   rsync(1)



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