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       refer [ -benvCPRS ] [ -an ] [ -cfields ] [ -fn ]
             [ -ifields ] [ -kfield ] [ -lm,n ] [ -pfilename ]
             [ -sfields ] [ -tn ] [ -Bfield.macro ] [ file­
             name... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a  command  line
       option and its parameter.


       This  file  documents  the  GNU version of refer, which is
       part of  the  groff  document  formatting  system.   refer
       copies  the  contents of filename...  to the standard out­
       put, except that lines between .[ and .]  are  interpreted
       as  citations,  and  lines  between .R1 and .R2 are inter­
       preted as commands about how  citations  are  to  be  pro­

       Each  citation  specifies  a  reference.  The citation can
       specify a reference that is contained in  a  bibliographic
       database by giving a set of keywords that only that refer­
       ence contains.  Alternatively it can specify  a  reference
       by  supplying a database record in the citation.  A combi­
       nation of these alternatives is also possible.

       For each citation, refer can produce a mark in  the  text.
       This  mark  consists  of some label which can be separated
       from the text and from other labels in various ways.   For
       each  reference it also outputs groff commands that can be
       used by a macro package to produce a  formatted  reference
       for  each citation.  The output of refer must therefore be
       processed using a suitable macro package.  The -ms and -me
       macros  are both suitable.  The commands to format a cita­
       tion's reference can be output immediately after the cita­
       tion,  or  the references may be accumulated, and the com­
       mands output at some later point.  If the  references  are
       accumulated, then multiple citations of the same reference
       will produce a single formatted reference.

       The interpretation of lines between .R1 and  .R2  as  com­
       mands is a new feature of GNU refer.  Documents making use
       of this feature can still be processed by Unix refer  just
       by adding the lines

              .de R1
              .ig R2
       to  the  beginning of the document.  This will cause troff
       to ignore everything between .R1 and .R2.  The  effect  of
       some  commands  can  also  be  achieved by options.  These
       options are supported mainly for compatibility  with  Unix
       refer.  It is usually more convenient to use commands.

       -e     accumulate

       -n     no-default-database

       -C     compatible

       -P     move-punctuation

       -S     label "(A.n|Q) ', ' (D.y|D)"; bracket-label " ("  )
              "; "

       -an    reverse An

              capitalize fields

       -fn    label %n

              search-ignore fields

       -k     label L~%a

              label field~%a

       -l     label A.nD.y%a

       -lm    label A.n+mD.y%a

       -l,n   label A.nD.y-n%a

       -lm,n  label A.n+mD.y-n%a

              database filename

       -sspec sort spec

       -tn    search-truncate n

       These  options  are  equivalent  to the following commands
       with the addition that the filenames specified on the com­
       mand  line  are processed as if they were arguments to the
       bibliography command instead of in the normal way:

       -B     annotate X AP; no-label-in-reference

              annotate field macro; no-label-in-reference

       should be followed by exactly one space, and then  by  the
       contents  of  the  field.   Empty fields are ignored.  The
       conventional meaning of each field is as follows:

       A      The name of an author.   If  the  name  contains  a
              title  such  as Jr.  at the end, it should be sepa­
              rated from the last name by a comma.  There can  be
              multiple  occurrences of the A field.  The order is
              significant.  It is a good idea always to supply an
              A field or a Q field.

       B      For an article that is part of a book, the title of
              the book

       C      The place (city) of publication.

       D      The date of publication.  The year should be speci­
              fied  in full.  If the month is specified, the name
              rather than the number of the month should be used,
              but  only the first three letters are required.  It
              is a good idea always to supply a D field;  if  the
              date  is  unknown,  a  value  such  as  in press or
              unknown can be used.

       E      For an article that is part of a book, the name  of
              an  editor of the book.  Where the work has editors
              and no authors, the names of the editors should  be
              given  as  A fields and , (ed) or , (eds) should be
              appended to the last author.

       G      US Government ordering number.

       I      The publisher (issuer).

       J      For an article in a journal, the name of the  jour­

       K      Keywords to be used for searching.

       L      Label.

       N      Journal issue number.

       O      Other  information.  This is usually printed at the
              end of the reference.

       P      Page number.  A range of pages can be specified  as

       Q      The name of the author, if the author is not a per­
              son.  This will only be used  if  there  are  no  A
              fields.  There can only be one Q field.

       last such field will be used.

       If accent strings are used, they should follow the charac­
       ter  to be accented.  This means that the AM macro must be
       used with the -ms macros.  Accent strings  should  not  be
       quoted: use one \ rather than two.

       The format of a citation is
              flags keywords

       The  opening-text,  closing-text  and flags components are
       optional.  Only one of the keywords and fields  components
       need be specified.

       The  keywords  component  says to search the bibliographic
       databases for a reference that contains all the  words  in
       keywords.   It  is  an error if more than one reference if

       The  fields  components  specifies  additional  fields  to
       replace  or  supplement  those specified in the reference.
       When references are being  accumulated  and  the  keywords
       component  is  non-empty, then additional fields should be
       specified only on the first  occasion  that  a  particular
       reference  is  cited,  and  will apply to all citations of
       that reference.

       The  opening-text  and  closing-text  component  specifies
       strings  to  be  used  to bracket the label instead of the
       strings specified in the bracket-label command.  If either
       of these components is non-empty, the strings specified in
       the bracket-label command will not be used; this behaviour
       can be altered using the [ and ] flags.  Note that leading
       and trailing spaces are significant for these  components.

       The  flags component is a list of non-alphanumeric charac­
       ters each of which modifies the treatment of this particu­
       lar  citation.   Unix refer will treat these flags as part
       of the keywords and so will ignore  them  since  they  are
       non-alphanumeric.   The following flags are currently rec­

       #      This says to use the label specified by the  short-
              label  command,  instead  of  that specified by the
              label command.  If no short label has  been  speci­
              fied, the normal label will be used.  Typically the
              short label is used  with  author-date  labels  and
              consists  of  only  the  date and possibly a disam­

       not necessarily be inhibited if the flags are used.

       If a label is to be inserted into the  text,  it  will  be
       attached  to  the line preceding the .[ line.  If there is
       no such line, then an extra line will be  inserted  before
       the .[ line and a warning will be given.

       There is no special notation for making a citation to mul­
       tiple references.  Just use a sequence of  citations,  one
       for  each reference.  Don't put anything between the cita­
       tions.  The labels for all the citations will be  attached
       to  the line preceding the first citation.  The labels may
       also be sorted or merged.  See the description of  the  <>
       label  expression,  and  of  the  sort-adjacent-labels and
       abbreviate-label-ranges command.   A  label  will  not  be
       merged  if  its  citation  has a non-empty opening-text or
       closing-text.  However, the labels for  a  citation  using
       the  ]  flag and without any closing-text immediately fol­
       lowed by a citation using the [ flag and without any open­
       ing-text  may  be  sorted and merged even though the first
       citation's opening-text or the second citation's  closing-
       text is non-empty.  (If you wish to prevent this just make
       the first citation's closing-text \&.)

       Commands are contained between lines starting with .R1 and
       .R2.   Recognition  of these lines can be prevented by the
       -R option.  When a .R1 line is recognized any  accumulated
       references  are  flushed  out.  Neither .R1 nor .R2 lines,
       nor anything between them is output.

       Commands are separated by newlines or ;s.  # introduces  a
       comment  that extends to the end of the line (but does not
       conceal the newline).  Each  command  is  broken  up  into
       words.   Words  are  separated  by spaces or tabs.  A word
       that begins with " extends to the next " that is not  fol­
       lowed  by  another  ".   If  there  is  no such " the word
       extends to the end of the line.  Pairs  of  "  in  a  word
       beginning  with " collapse to a single ".  Neither # nor ;
       are recognized inside "s.  A line can be continued by end­
       ing it with \; this works everywhere except after a #.

       Each  command name that is marked with * has an associated
       negative command no-name that undoes the effect  of  name.
       For example, the no-sort command specifies that references
       should not be sorted.  The negative commands take no argu­

       In  the following description each argument must be a sin­
       gle word; field is used for a single upper or  lower  case
       letter  naming  a  field; fields is used for a sequence of
       such letters; m and n are used for a non-negative numbers;
                                name will be separated  from  the
                                hyphen  by string4; this defaults
                                to a period.  No attempt is  made
                                to  handle  any  ambiguities that
                                might result  from  abbreviation.
                                Names   are   abbreviated  before
                                sorting  and  before  label  con­

       abbreviate-label-ranges* string
                                Three  or  more  adjacent  labels
                                that refer to consecutive  refer­
                                ences  will  be  abbreviated to a
                                label  consisting  of  the  first
                                label,  followed  by  string fol­
                                lowed by the last label.  This is
                                mainly    useful   with   numeric
                                labels.  If string is omitted  it
                                defaults to -.

       accumulate*              Accumulate  references instead of
                                writing out each reference as  it
                                is encountered.  Accumulated ref­
                                erences will be written out when­
                                ever a reference of the form


                                is  encountered,  after all input
                                files  hve  been  processed,  and
                                whenever  .R1 line is recognized.

       annotate* field string   field is an annotation; print  it
                                at  the end of the reference as a
                                paragraph preceded by the line


                                If  macro  is  omitted  it   will
                                default  to  AP; if field is also
                                omitted it  will  default  to  X.
                                Only  one field can be an annota­

       articles string...       string...  are definite or indef­
                                inite  articles,  and  should  be
                                ignored at  the  beginning  of  T
                                fields  when sorting.  Initially,
                                the, a and an are  recognized  as
                                       ", "

       capitalize fields        Convert  fields to caps and small

       compatible*              Recognize .R1 and .R2  even  when
                                followed  by  a  character  other
                                than space or newline.

       database filename...     Search     the      bibliographic
                                databases  filename...   For each
                                filename if an  index  filename.i
                                created   by  indxbib(1)  exists,
                                then it will be searched instead;
                                each  index  can  cover  multiple

       date-as-label* string    string is a label expression that
                                specifies  a string with which to
                                replace the D  field  after  con­
                                structing  the  label.   See  the
                                Label expressions subsection  for
                                a  description  of  label expres­
                                sions.  This command is useful if
                                you  do  not want explicit labels
                                in  the   reference   list,   but
                                instead want to handle any neces­
                                sary disambiguation by qualifying
                                the  date in some way.  The label
                                used in the text would  typically
                                be some combination of the author
                                and  date.   In  most  cases  you
                                should  also use the no-label-in-
                                reference command.  For example,


                                would   attach  a  disambiguating
                                letter to the year part of the  D
                                field in the reference.

       default-database*        The  default  database  should be
                                searched.  This  is  the  default
                                behaviour,  so  the negative ver­
                                sion of this command is more use­
                                ful.   refer  determines  whether
                                the default  database  should  be
                                searched  on  the  first occasion
                                that it needs  to  do  a  search.
                                Thus  a  no-default-database com­
                                mand must be given  before  then,
                                the  last  t-u  authors  will  be
                                replaced by string provided  that
                                t-u  is  not less than m and t is
                                not less  than  n.   The  default
                                behaviour is

                                       et-al " et al" 2 3

       include filename         Include  filename  and  interpret
                                the contents as commands.

       join-authors string1 string2 string3
                                This says how authors  should  be
                                joined  together.  When there are
                                exactly two authors, they will be
                                joined  with string1.  When there
                                are more than  two  authors,  all
                                but  the  last two will be joined
                                with string2, and  the  last  two
                                authors   will   be  joined  with
                                string3.  If string3 is  omitted,
                                it  will  default  to string1; if
                                string2 is also omitted  it  will
                                also  default  to  string1.   For

                                       join-authors " and " ",  "
                                       ", and "

                                will  restore  the default method
                                for joining authors.

       label-in-reference*      When  outputting  the  reference,
                                define  the  string  [F to be the
                                reference's label.  This  is  the
                                default  behaviour;  so the nega­
                                tive version of this  command  is
                                more useful.

       label-in-text*           For each reference output a label
                                in the text.  The label  will  be
                                separated  from  the  surrounding
                                text as described in the bracket-
                                label   command.    This  is  the
                                default behaviour; so  the  nega­
                                tive  version  of this command is
                                more useful.

       label string             string  is  a  label   expression
                                describing how to label each ref­

       reverse* string          Reverse  the  fields  whose names
                                are in string.  Each  field  name
                                can be followed by a number which
                                says how many such fields  should
                                be  reversed.   If  no  number is
                                given  for  a  field,  all   such
                                fields will be reversed.

       search-ignore* fields    While   searching   for  keys  in
                                databases  for  which  no   index
                                exists,  ignore  the  contents of
                                fields.   Initially,  fields  XYZ
                                are ignored.

       search-truncate* n       Only  require the first n charac­
                                ters of keys  to  be  given.   In
                                effect when searching for a given
                                key words  in  the  database  are
                                truncated to the maximum of n and
                                the length of the key.  Initially
                                n is 6.

       short-label* string      string is a label expression that
                                specifies an alternative (usually
                                shorter) style of label.  This is
                                used when the # flag is given  in
                                the citation.  When using author-
                                date style labels,  the  identity
                                of the author or authors is some­
                                times clear from the context, and
                                so  it  may  be desirable to omit
                                the author or  authors  from  the
                                label.   The  short-label command
                                will typically be used to specify
                                a  label  containing  just a date
                                and  possibly  a   disambiguating

       sort* string             Sort   references   according  to
                                string.  References will automat­
                                ically  be  accumulated.   string
                                should be a list of field  names,
                                each  followed by a number, indi­
                                cating how many fields  with  the
                                name  should be used for sorting.
                                + can be used  to  indicate  that
                                all  the  fields  with  the  name
                                should be used.  Also .   can  be
                                used  to  indicate the references
                                should be sorted using the  (ten­
                                tative)    label.    (The   Label
                                expressions subsection  describes

   Label expressions
       Label  expressions can be evaluated both normally and ten­
       tatively.  The result of normal  evaluation  is  used  for
       output.   The  result  of tentative evaluation, called the
       tentative label, is used to gather  the  information  that
       normal  evaluation needs to disambiguate the label.  Label
       expressions specified by the date-as-label and short-label
       commands are not evaluated tentatively.  Normal and tenta­
       tive evaluation are the same for all types  of  expression
       other than @, *, and % expressions.  The description below
       applies to normal evaluation, except where otherwise spec­

       field n
              The  n-th  part  of  field.   If  n  is omitted, it
              defaults to 1.

              The characters in string literally.

       @      All the authors joined as specified  by  the  join-
              authors  command.   The whole of each author's name
              will be  used.   However,  if  the  references  are
              sorted  by  author  (that is the sort specification
              starts with A+), then authors' last names  will  be
              used instead, provided that this does not introduce
              ambiguity, and also an initial subsequence  of  the
              authors  may  be  used  instead of all the authors,
              again provided that this does not introduce ambigu­
              ity.   The  use  of only the last name for the i-th
              author  of  some  reference  is  considered  to  be
              ambiguous  if  there  is some other reference, such
              that the first i-1 authors of  the  references  are
              the  same,  the  i-th authors are not the same, but
              the i-th authors'  last  names  are  the  same.   A
              proper  initial  subsequence  of  the  sequence  of
              authors for some  reference  is  considered  to  be
              ambiguous  if  there is a reference with some other
              sequence of authors which also has that subsequence
              as  a  proper initial subsequence.  When an initial
              subsequence  of  authors  is  used,  the  remaining
              authors are replaced by the string specified by the
              et-al command; this command may also specify  addi­
              tional requirements that must be met before an ini­
              tial subsequence can be used.  @ tentatively evalu­
              ates  to a canonical representation of the authors,
              such that authors that compare equally for  sorting
              purpose will have the same representation.

       expr-n The  first  (+)  or  last (-) n upper or lower case
              letters or digits of expr.  Troff  special  charac­
              ters  (such  as  \('a)  count  as  a single letter.
              Accent  strings  are  retained  but  do  not  count
              towards the total.

       expr.l expr converted to lowercase.

       expr.u expr converted to uppercase.

       expr.c expr converted to caps and small caps.

       expr.r expr reversed so that the last name is first.

       expr.a expr  with  first  names  abbreviated.   Note  that
              fields specified  in  the  abbreviate  command  are
              abbreviated  before any labels are evaluated.  Thus
              .a is useful only when  you  want  a  field  to  be
              abbreviated in a label but not in a reference.

       expr.y The year part of expr.

              The  part  of expr before the year, or the whole of
              expr if it does not contain a year.

              The part of expr after the year, or an empty string
              if expr does not contain a year.

       expr.n The last name part of expr.

              expr1 except that if the last character of expr1 is
              - then it will be replaced by expr2.

       expr1 expr2
              The concatenation of expr1 and expr2.

              If expr1 is non-empty then expr1 otherwise expr2.

              If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise an empty

              If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise expr3.

       <expr> The  label  is in two parts, which are separated by
              expr.  Two adjacent two-part labels which have  the

       The  above  expressions  are listed in order of precedence
       (highest first); & and | have the same precedence.

   Macro interface
       Each reference starts with a call to the  macro  ]-.   The
       string  [F will be defined to be the label for this refer­
       ence, unless the no-label-in-reference  command  has  been
       given.  There then follows a series of string definitions,
       one for each field: string [X corresponds to field X.  The
       number  register  [P is set to 1 if the P field contains a
       range of pages.  The [T, [A and [O  number  registers  are
       set  to  1 according as the T, A and O fields end with one
       of the characters .?!.  The [E number register will be set
       to  1  if  the [E string contains more than one name.  The
       reference is followed by a call  to  the  ][  macro.   The
       first  argument  to this macro gives a number representing
       the type of the reference.  If a reference  contains  a  J
       field,  it  will  be classified as type 1, otherwise if it
       contains a B field, it will type 3, otherwise if  it  con­
       tains  a G or R field it will be type 4, otherwise if con­
       tains a I field it will be type 2, otherwise  it  will  be
       type  0.   The  second argument is a symbolic name for the
       type: other,  journal-article,  book,  article-in-book  or
       tech-report.   Groups of references that have been accumu­
       lated or are produced by the bibliography command are pre­
       ceded  by a call to the ]< macro and followed by a call to
       the ]> macro.


       /usr/dict/papers/Ind  Default database.

       file.i                Index files.


       indxbib(1), lookbib(1), lkbib(1)


       In label expressions, <> expressions  are  ignored  inside
       .char expressions.

Groff Version 1.17.2       27 June 2001                  REFER(1)



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