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       rcs options file ...


       rcs  creates new RCS files or changes attributes of exist­
       ing ones.  An RCS  file  contains  multiple  revisions  of
       text,  an access list, a change log, descriptive text, and
       some control attributes.  For rcs to  work,  the  caller's
       login  name  must  be  on  the  access list, except if the
       access list is empty, the caller is the owner of the  file
       or the superuser, or the -i option is present.

       Pathnames  matching  an  RCS  suffix denote RCS files; all
       others  denote  working  files.   Names  are   paired   as
       explained  in  ci(1).   Revision  numbers  use  the syntax
       described in ci(1).


       -i     Create and initialize a new RCS file,  but  do  not
              deposit  any revision.  If the RCS file has no path
              prefix, try to place it first into the subdirectory
              ./RCS, and then into the current directory.  If the
              RCS file already exists, print an error message.

              Append the login names appearing in the comma-sepa­
              rated  list  logins  to  the access list of the RCS

              Append the access list of  oldfile  to  the  access
              list of the RCS file.

              Erase  the login names appearing in the comma-sepa­
              rated list logins from the access list of  the  RCS
              file.   If  logins  is  omitted,  erase  the entire
              access list.

              Set the default branch to rev.  If rev is  omitted,
              the  default  branch  is reset to the (dynamically)
              highest branch on the trunk.

              Set the comment leader to string.  An  initial  ci,
              or an rcs -i without -c, guesses the comment leader
              from the suffix of the working filename.

              This option is obsolescent, since RCS normally uses
              the  preceding  $Log$  line's prefix when inserting
              log lines during checkout  (see  co(1)).   However,

              Lock  the revision with number rev.  If a branch is
              given, lock the latest revision on that branch.  If
              rev  is  omitted,  lock  the latest revision on the
              default  branch.   Locking   prevents   overlapping
              changes.   If  someone else already holds the lock,
              the lock is broken as with rcs -u (see below).

              Unlock the revision with number rev.  If  a  branch
              is  given,  unlock  the  latest  revision  on  that
              branch.  If rev is omitted, remove the latest  lock
              held by the caller.  Normally, only the locker of a
              revision can unlock it.  Somebody else unlocking  a
              revision  breaks the lock.  This causes a mail mes­
              sage to be sent to the original locker.   The  mes­
              sage  contains  a  commentary  solicited  from  the
              breaker.  The commentary is terminated  by  end-of-
              file or by a line containing . by itself.

       -L     Set  locking  to strict.  Strict locking means that
              the owner of an RCS file is not exempt from locking
              for  checkin.  This option should be used for files
              that are shared.

       -U     Set  locking  to  non-strict.   Non-strict  locking
              means  that  the  owner  of  a file need not lock a
              revision for checkin.  This option  should  not  be
              used  for  files  that are shared.  Whether default
              locking is strict  is  determined  by  your  system
              administrator, but it is normally strict.

              Replace revision rev's log message with msg.

       -M     Do  not  send  mail  when  breaking somebody else's
              lock.  This option is not meant for casual use;  it
              is  meant  for  programs  that  warn users by other
              means, and invoke rcs -u only as a low-level  lock-
              breaking operation.

              Associate the symbolic name name with the branch or
              revision rev.  Delete the symbolic name if  both  :
              and rev are omitted; otherwise, print an error mes­
              sage if name is  already  associated  with  another
              number.   If rev is symbolic, it is expanded before
              association.  A rev consisting of a  branch  number
              followed by a . stands for the current latest revi­
              sion in the branch.  A : with an empty  rev  stands
              for  the  current  latest  revision  on the default
              means that  revision.   A  range  consisting  of  a
              branch  number  means  the  latest revision on that
              branch.  A range of the form rev1:rev2 means  revi­
              sions  rev1  to rev2 on the same branch, :rev means
              from the beginning of the branch containing rev  up
              to  and including rev, and rev: means from revision
              rev to the end of the branch containing rev.   None
              of  the  outdated  revisions  can  have branches or

       -q     Run quietly; do not print diagnostics.

       -I     Run interactively, even if the  standard  input  is
              not a terminal.

              Set  the  state  attribute  of  the revision rev to
              state.  If rev is a branch number, assume the  lat­
              est  revision  on  that branch.  If rev is omitted,
              assume the latest revision on the  default  branch.
              Any  identifier  is acceptable for state.  A useful
              set of states is Exp (for experimental), Stab  (for
              stable), and Rel (for released).  By default, ci(1)
              sets the state of a revision to Exp.

              Write descriptive text from  the  contents  of  the
              named file into the RCS file, deleting the existing
              text.  The file pathname cannot begin with  -.   If
              file  is  omitted,  obtain  the  text from standard
              input, terminated by end-of-file or by a line  con­
              taining . by itself.  Prompt for the text if inter­
              action is possible; see -I.  With  -i,  descriptive
              text is obtained even if -t is not given.

              Write descriptive text from the string into the RCS
              file, deleting the existing text.

       -T     Preserve the modification  time  on  the  RCS  file
              unless a revision is removed.  This option can sup­
              press extensive recompilation caused by  a  make(1)
              dependency  of some copy of the working file on the
              RCS file.  Use this option with care; it  can  sup­
              press  recompilation  even  when it is needed, i.e.
              when a change to the RCS file would mean  a  change
              to keyword strings in the working file.

       -V     Print RCS's version number.

       -Vn    Emulate RCS version n.  See co(1) for details.

       parsed by RCS version 3 or earlier.

       The  -ksubst  options  (except  -kkv) generate an RCS file
       that cannot be parsed by RCS version 4 or earlier.

       Use rcs -Vn to make an RCS file acceptable to RCS  version
       n  by discarding information that would confuse version n.

       RCS version 5.5  and  earlier  does  not  support  the  -x
       option, and requires a ,v suffix on an RCS pathname.


       rcs accesses files much as ci(1) does, except that it uses
       the effective user for all accesses, it does not write the
       working  file  or its directory, and it does not even read
       the working file unless a revision number of $  is  speci­


              options  prepended  to the argument list, separated
              by spaces.  See ci(1) for details.


       The RCS pathname and the revisions outdated are written to
       the  diagnostic  output.   The  exit status is zero if and
       only if all operations were successful.


       Author: Walter F. Tichy.
       Manual Page Revision: 5.13; Release Date: 1995/06/05.
       Copyright © 1982, 1988, 1989 Walter F. Tichy.
       Copyright ©  1990,  1991,  1992,  1993,  1994,  1995  Paul


       rcsintro(1),  co(1),  ci(1),  ident(1), rcsclean(1), rcsd­
       iff(1), rcsmerge(1), rlog(1), rcsfile(5)
       Walter  F.  Tichy,  RCS--A  System  for  Version  Control,
       Software--Practice   &   Experience  15,  7  (July  1985),


       A catastrophe (e.g. a system crash) can cause RCS to leave
       behind  a  semaphore file that causes later invocations of
       RCS to claim that the RCS file is in use.   To  fix  this,
       remove  the semaphore file.  A semaphore file's name typi­
       cally begins with , or ends with _.

       The separator for revision ranges in the -o option used to
       be  -  instead of :, but this leads to confusion when sym­
       bolic names contain -.  For backwards compatibility rcs -o

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