Welcome to Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial
"The place where you learn linux"
Let The Music Play: Join EFF Today

 Create an AccountHome | Submit News | Your Account  

Tutorial Menu
Linux Tutorial Home
Table of Contents

· Introduction to Operating Systems
· Linux Basics
· Working with the System
· Shells and Utilities
· Editing Files
· Basic Administration
· The Operating System
· The X Windowing System
· The Computer Itself
· Networking
· System Monitoring
· Solving Problems
· Security
· Installing and Upgrading
· Linux and Windows

Man Pages
Linux Topics
Test Your Knowledge

Site Menu
Site Map
Copyright Info
Terms of Use
Privacy Info
Masthead / Impressum
Your Account

Private Messages

News Archive
Submit News
User Articles
Web Links


The Web

Who's Online
There are currently, 54 guest(s) and 0 member(s) that are online.

You are an Anonymous user. You can register for free by clicking here




       povray [+Ooutput_file] [+/-option ...]  [input_file]

       povray   [+Iinput_file]  [+Ooutput_file]  [+/-option  ...]


       POV-Ray is a free, full-featured ray tracer,  written  and
       maintained  by  a  team of volunteers on the Internet.  On
       the Unix platform POV-Ray can be compiled with support for
       preview  capabilities  using  the  X Window System.  Under
       Linux, POV-Ray can optionally use the SVGA library to pre­
       view renderings.

       This  manual  page  only  lists the basic POV-Ray and Unix
       specific features and command-line options for  this  ver­
       sion  of  POV-Ray.  For a complete description of the fea­
       tures of POV-Ray and its scene  description  language,  or
       for  a  better  explanation  of  the  meaning  of the com­
       mand-line and INI file options, please consult  the  docu­
       mentation  that  should accompany all versions of POV-Ray.
       On   some   sites    this    will    be    installed    in
       /usr/local/share/doc/povray-3.5.   Some  of  the Unix-spe­
       cific features are:

              Support for X Windows  display  automatically  uses
              the  best visual class and deepest depth available.
              For visuals that do not support 24  bits  of  color
              per  pixel, Floyd-Steinberg error diffusion dither­
              ing is used, along with a dynamically allocated and
              optimized  palette to produce the best display pos­
              sible with the current visual, depth, and available

              ICCCM  compliance  for  the X Windows version means
              that the preview window will behave like standard X
              Windows  programs,  communicate  properly  with the
              window manager, and will accept the  standard  com­
              mand-line  options.  See X(1) for more information.

              Support for SVGAlib display  automatically  detects
              the available SVGA display modes to choose the size
              which best fits the rendered image.  When rendering
              an image that is too large for the current display,
              the displayed image is scaled to fit on the screen.
              For  displays that do not support true-color modes,
              Floyd-Steinberg dithering is used.

              ASCII graphics in the  text-mode  version  allow  a
              basic  view  of  the current rendering on text-only


       Options can be specified with either a leading  '+'  or  a
       leading  '-'.   Many  options  are switches, meaning a '+'
       turns the option on, and a '-' turns the option off.   For
       other  options,  it  doesn't  matter  if a '+' or a '-' is
       used.  Most options cannot have  spaces  in  them  so  you
       should specify +FN rather than +F N, and combining options
       is not allowed, so +SC  is  very  different  from  +S  +C.
       Options are not case sensitive.

       The command-line options are shown below with their corre­
       sponding INI file options.  If the same option  is  speci­
       fied  multiple  times, whether in INI files or on the com­
       mand-line, the last such  option  overrides  any  previous
       ones, with the exception of the +L or Library_Path option,
       which is cumulative.

   Parsing options:
       I<input_file_name> or Input_File_Name=file
              Specifies the input file to use.  If the input file
              name  is  '-',  the  scene description will be read
              from the standard input.  The

       HI<header_include_file_name> or Include_Header=file
              Specifies a file as the first  include  file  of  a
              scene  file.   This can be used to always include a
              specific set of default include files used  by  all
              your scenes.

       L<library_path> or Library_Path=path
              Specifies  a  directory  to search for input files,
              include files, fonts, and image maps, if the speci­
              fied  file  is  not in the current directory.  This
              may be specified multiple  times  to  increase  the
              number of directories to search.

       MVn.n or Version=float
              Treat  scene  files  as  if  they  were version n.n
              instead of the current version.  This may be  over­
              ridden from within the scene file.

       SU or Split_Unions=bool
              Split  bounded  CSG  unions if children are finite.
              This allows automatic bounding of  CSG  objects  to
              take place.

       UR or Remove_Bounds=bool
              Remove  unnecessary  bounding objects.  This allows
              automatic bounding of older  scene  files  to  take

       SRnn or Start_Row=integer
              Start the rendering at row nn from the top  of  the

       SR0.nn or Start_Row=float
              Start  the rendering nn percent from the top of the

       ERnn or End_Row=integer
              End the rendering at row nn from  the  top  of  the

       ER0.nn or End_Row=float
              End the rendering at nn percent from the top of the

       SCnn or Start_Column=integer
              Start the rendering at column nn from the  left  of
              the screen.

       SC0.nn or Start_Column=float
              Start  the rendering at nn percent from the left of
              the screen.

       ECnn or Start_Column=integer
              End the rendering at column nn from the left of the

       EC0.nn or Start_Column=float
              End  the  rendering  at nn percent from the left of
              the screen.

       C or Continue_Trace=bool
              Continue a previously interrupted trace.

       P or Pause_When_Done=bool
              If previewing, pause when the rendering is complete
              before closing the window.

       V or Verbose=bool
              Output  verbose  status messages on the progress of
              the rendering.

       X or Test_Abort=bool
              Enable the 'q' and 'Q' keys to interrupt a  render­
              ing in progress.

       Xnn or Test_Abort_Count=integer
              Only check every nn pixels for a user abort.

   Output options - display related:
       SPnn or Preview_Start_Size=integer
              Start mosaic preview with blocks nn pixels  square.

       EPnn or Preview_End_Size=integer
              End mosaic preview with blocks nn pixels square.

       UD or Draw_Vistas=bool
              Draw vista rectangles before rendering.

   Output options - file related:
       Bnn or Buffer_Output=bool Buffer_Size=integer
              Use an output buffer nn kilobytes in size.

       F[CNPT][n] or Output_to_File=bool Output_File_Type=char
              Store the rendered image using one of the available
              formats, namely Compressed TGA, PNG, PPM, and  TGA.
              PNG  format  supports  the  n option to specify the
              number of bits per color, where 5 <= n <= 16.   The
              default is 8.

       O<output_file> or Output_File_Name=file
              Write  the output to the file named output_file, or
              the standard output if '-' is given as  the  output
              file name.

       HT[CNPTX] or Histogram_Type=char
              Create  a CPU utilization histogram image in format
              x.  Available formats  are  Comma-separated  values
              (CSV),  PNG  grayscale, PPM POV heightfield, uncom­
              pressed TGA POV heightfield, or X for no  histogram

       HN<histogram_file_name> or Histogram_Name=file
              Output the histogram to the specified file.

       HSx.y or Histogram_Grid_Size=float
              Divide  the  histogram into x columns and y rows of

   Tracing options:
       MBnn or Bounding=bool Bounding_Threshold=integer
              Use  automatic  bounding  slabs  if  more  than  nn
              objects are in the scene.

       Qn or Quality=integer
              Render  at  quality  n.  Qualities range from 0 for
              rough images and 9  for  complete  ray-tracing  and
              textures, and 10 and 11 add radiosity.

       A0.n or Antialias=bool Antialias_Threshold=integer
              pixel sub-sampling.

       UL or Light_Buffer=bool
              Use light buffer to speed up rendering.

       UV or Vista_Buffer=bool
              Use vista buffer to speed up rendering.

   Animation options:
       Kn.n or Clock=float
              Render  a  single  frame  of  an animation with the
              clock value n.n.

       KFInn or Initial_Frame=integer
              Specify the initial frame number for an  animation.

       KFFnn or Final_Frame=integer
              Specify  the  final  frame number for an animation.
              This must be set at a value other that 1  in  order
              to render multiple frames at once.

       KIn.n or Initial_Clock=float
              Specify the clock value for the initial frame of an

       KFn.n or Final_Clock=float
              Specify the clock value for the frame final  of  an

       SFnn or Subset_Start_Frame=integer
              Render a subset of frames from an animation, start­
              ing at frame nn.

       SF0.nn or Subset_Start_Frame=float
              Render a subset of frames from an animation, start­
              ing nn percent into the animation.

       EFnn or Subset_End_Frame=integer
              Render  a subset of frames from an animation, stop­
              ping at frame nn.

       EF0.nn or Subset_End_Frame=float
              Render a subset of frames from an animation,  stop­
              ping nn percent into the animation.

       KC or Cyclic_Animation=bool
              Generate clock values for a cyclic animation.

       UF or Field_Render=bool
              Render  alternate  frames  using  odd/even  fields,
              suitable for interlaced output.
              fied  file.   The streams are All_File (except sta­
              tus), Debug_File, Fatal_File, Render_File,  Statis­
              tics_File, and the Warning_File.

   X Window System options
       In  addition to the standard command-line options, POV-Ray
       recognizes additional command-line switches related to the
       X  Window  System.  See X(1) for a complete description of
       these options.

       -display <display_name>
              Display preview on  display_name  rather  than  the
              default  display.   This  is  meant  to  be used to
              change the display to a remote  host.   The  normal
              dispay option +d is still valid.

       -geometry  [WIDTHxHEIGHT][+XOFF+YOFF]
              Render  the  image  with  WIDTH  and  HEIGHT as the
              dimensions, and locate the  window  XOFF  from  the
              left edge, and YOFF from the top edge of the screen
              (or if negative the right and bottom edges  respec­
              tively).   The WIDTH and HEIGHT, if given, override
              any previous Wnn and Hnn settings.

       -help  Display the X Window System-specific options.   Use
              -H by itself on the command-line to output the gen­
              eral POV-Ray options.

       -icon  Start the preview window as an icon.

       -title <window_title>
              Override the default preview window title with win­

       -visual <visual_type>
              Use  the  deepest  visual of visual_type, if avail­
              able, instead of the automatically selected visual.
              Valid  visuals  are  StaticGray, GrayScale, Static­
              Color, PseudoColor, TrueColor, or DirectColor.


       Currently no X resource or app-default files are supported
       for the X Windows options.


       POV-Ray  for  Unix allows a povray.ini file in the current
       directory to override the individual setting in .povrayrc.
       POV-Ray  looks for initial configuration information, like
       the Library_Path settings, which gives  the  location  for
       The  most  recent version of POV-Ray and its documentation
       can   always   be   retrieved   via   anonymous   FTP   at
       ftp.povray.org,  or via HTTP at http://www.povray.org/, as
       well as many other locations.


       X(1), kill(1)


       POV-Ray is Copyright (C) 1991, 2002 the  POV-Ray  Develop­
       ment  Team.  Although it is distributed as freeware, it is
       NOT PUBLIC DOMAIN software.  POV-Ray  is  subject  to  the
       restrictions as defined in povlegal.doc.

       X  Windows  is Copyright (C) 1984 - 1991 the Massachusetts
       Institute of Technology, and also  Copyright  (C)  1992  -
       1996 the X Consortium, Inc.


       Persistence of Vision, POV-Ray, and POV-Help are
        trademarks of the POV-Ray Development Team.


       The  SVGA version does not currently generate an optimized
       grayscale palette for grayscale preview, so displays using
       the  G palette option will use very few gray levels, and a
       few non-gray colors.

       Before reporting a bug to the  authors,  you  should  make
       sure  you have the latest version of the software, in case
       the bug has already been fixed.  There are a large  number
       of  POV-Ray  users  on  the  USENET  newsgroup comp.graph­
       ics.rendering.raytracing that may be able to help you with
       your  problem.   If  you  are  having  problems compiling,
       installing, or running the software, you should seek  help
       locally or on USENET, rather than from the authors.

       If  you  have a repeatable bug in the most recent version,
       try to isolate the bug in the smallest scene  file  possi­
       ble.   The  POV-Ray  Team Co-ordinator is Chris Young, and
       can be reached at team-coord@povray.org. Do not send large
       binary  or  uuencoded  files to Chris without first asking
       permission to do so.


       The primary developers, in alphabetical order are:


       POV-Ray is based on DKBTrace 2.12 by  David  K.  Buck  and
       Aaron A. Collins.

POV-Team                   9 July 2002                 POV-Ray(1)

An undefined database error occurred. SELECT distinct pages.pagepath,pages.pageid FROM pages, page2command WHERE pages.pageid = page2command.pageid AND commandid =

Show your Support for the Linux Tutorial

Purchase one of the products from our new online shop. For each product you purchase, the Linux Tutorial gets a portion of the proceeds to help keep us going.



Security Code
Security Code
Type Security Code

Don't have an account yet? You can create one. As a registered user you have some advantages like theme manager, comments configuration and post comments with your name.

Help if you can!

Amazon Wish List

Did You Know?
The Linux Tutorial welcomes your suggestions and ideas.


Tell a Friend About Us

Bookmark and Share

Web site powered by PHP-Nuke

Is this information useful? At the very least you can help by spreading the word to your favorite newsgroups, mailing lists and forums.
All logos and trademarks in this site are property of their respective owner. The comments are property of their posters. Articles are the property of their respective owners. Unless otherwise stated in the body of the article, article content (C) 1994-2013 by James Mohr. All rights reserved. The stylized page/paper, as well as the terms "The Linux Tutorial", "The Linux Server Tutorial", "The Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial" and "The place where you learn Linux" are service marks of James Mohr. All rights reserved.
The Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial may contain links to sites on the Internet, which are owned and operated by third parties. The Linux Tutorial is not responsible for the content of any such third-party site. By viewing/utilizing this web site, you have agreed to our disclaimer, terms of use and privacy policy. Use of automated download software ("harvesters") such as wget, httrack, etc. causes the site to quickly exceed its bandwidth limitation and are therefore expressly prohibited. For more details on this, take a look here

PHP-Nuke Copyright © 2004 by Francisco Burzi. This is free software, and you may redistribute it under the GPL. PHP-Nuke comes with absolutely no warranty, for details, see the license.
Page Generation: 0.08 Seconds