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       This document describes various features of Sun's Solaris
       operating system that will affect how Perl version 5
       (hereafter just perl) is compiled and/or runs.  Some
       issues relating to the older SunOS 4.x are also discussed,
       though they may be out of date.

       For the most part, everything should just work.

       Starting with Solaris 8, perl5.00503 (or higher) is sup­
       plied with the operating system, so you might not even
       need to build a newer version of perl at all.  The Sun-
       supplied version is installed in /usr/perl5 with
       /usr/bin/perl pointing to /usr/perl5/bin/perl.  Do not
       disturb that installation unless you really know what you
       are doing.  If you remove the perl supplied with the OS,
       you will render some bits of your system inoperable.  If
       you wish to install a newer version of perl, install it
       under a different prefix from /usr/perl5.  Common prefixes
       to use are /usr/local and /opt/perl.

       You may wish to put your version of perl in the PATH of
       all users by changing the link /usr/bin/perl.  This is OK,
       as all perl scripts shipped with Solaris use an explicit
       path.  Solaris ships with a range of Solaris-specific mod­
       ules.  If you choose to install your own version of perl
       you will find the source of many of these modules is
       available on CPAN under the Sun::Solaris:: namespace.

       Solaris may include two versions of perl, e.g. Solaris 9
       includes both 5.005_03 and 5.6.1.  This is to provide sta­
       bility across Solaris releases, in cases where a later
       perl version has incompatibilities with the version
       included in the preceeding Solaris release.  The default
       perl version will always be the most recent, and in gen­
       eral the old version will only be retained for one Solaris
       release.  Note also that the default perl will NOT be con­
       figured to search for modules in the older version, again
       due to compatibility/stability concerns.  As a consequence
       if you upgrade Solaris, you will have to rebuild/reinstall
       any additional CPAN modules that you installed for the
       previous Solaris version.  See the CPAN manpage under
       'autobundle' for a quick way of doing this.

       As an interim measure, you may either change the #! line
       of your scripts to specifically refer to the old perl ver­
       sion, e.g. on Solaris 9 use #!/usr/perl5/5.00503/bin/perl
       to use the perl version that was the default for Solaris
       8, or if you have a large number of scripts it may be more
       convenient to make the old version of perl the default on
       your system.  You can do this by changing the appropriate
       symlinks under /usr/perl5 as follows (example for Solaris

       In both cases this should only be considered to be a tem­
       porary measure - you should upgrade to the later version
       of perl as soon as is practicable.

       Note also that the perl command-line utilities (e.g. perl­
       doc) and any that are added by modules that you install
       will be under /usr/perl5/bin, so that directory should be
       added to your PATH.

       Solaris Version Numbers.

       For consistency with common usage, perl's Configure script
       performs some minor manipulations on the operating system
       name and version number as reported by uname.  Here's a
       partial translation table:

                 Sun:                      perl's Configure:
        uname    uname -r   Name           osname     osvers
        SunOS    4.1.3     Solaris 1.1     sunos      4.1.3
        SunOS    5.6       Solaris 2.6     solaris    2.6
        SunOS    5.8       Solaris 8       solaris    2.8
        SunOS    5.9       Solaris 9       solaris    2.9
        SunOS    5.10      Solaris 10      solaris    2.10

       The complete table can be found in the Sun Managers' FAQ
       <ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sunmanagers/faq> under
       "9.1) Which Sun models run which versions of SunOS?".


       There are many, many sources for Solaris information.  A
       few of the important ones for perl:

       Solaris FAQ
           The Solaris FAQ is available at <http://www.sci­

           The Sun Managers' FAQ is available at

       Precompiled Binaries
           Precompiled binaries, links to many sites, and much,
           much more are available at <http://www.sunfree­
           ware.com/> and <http://www.blastwave.org/>.

       Solaris Documentation
           All Solaris documentation is available on-line at


       File Extraction Problems on Solaris.

       You must use an ANSI C compiler to build perl.  Perl can
       be compiled with either Sun's add-on C compiler or with
       gcc.  The C compiler that shipped with SunOS4 will not do.

       Include /usr/ccs/bin/ in your PATH.

       Several tools needed to build perl are located in
       /usr/ccs/bin/:  ar, as, ld, and make.  Make sure that
       /usr/ccs/bin/ is in your PATH.

       You need to make sure the following packages are installed
       (this info is extracted from the Solaris FAQ):

       for tools (sccs, lex, yacc, make, nm, truss, ld, as): SUN­
       Wbtool, SUNWsprot, SUNWtoo

       for libraries & headers: SUNWhea, SUNWarc, SUNWlibm, SUN­
       Wlibms, SUNWdfbh, SUNWcg6h, SUNWxwinc, SUNWolinc

       for 64 bit development: SUNWarcx, SUNWbtoox, SUNWdplx,
       SUNWscpux, SUNWsprox, SUNWtoox, SUNWlmsx, SUNWlmx, SUN­

       If you are in doubt which package contains a file you are
       missing, try to find an installation that has that file.
       Then do a

        $ grep /my/missing/file /var/sadm/install/contents

       This will display a line like this:

       /usr/include/sys/errno.h f none 0644 root bin 7471 37605
       956241356 SUNWhea

       The last item listed (SUNWhea in this example) is the
       package you need.

       Avoid /usr/ucb/cc.

       You don't need to have /usr/ucb/ in your PATH to build
       perl.  If you want /usr/ucb/ in your PATH anyway, make
       sure that /usr/ucb/ is NOT in your PATH before the direc­
       tory containing the right C compiler.

       Sun's C Compiler

       If you use Sun's C compiler, make sure the correct direc­
       tory (usually /opt/SUNWspro/bin/) is in your PATH (before


       appropriate directory, sparc-sun-solaris2.6/ or
       i386-pc-solaris2.6/.  If gcc's directory is for a differ­
       ent version of Solaris than you are running, then you will
       need to rebuild gcc for your new version of Solaris.

       You can get a precompiled version of gcc from
       <http://www.sunfreeware.com/> or <http://www.blast­
       wave.org/>. Make sure you pick up the package for your
       Solaris release.

       If you wish to use gcc to build add-on modules for use
       with the perl shipped with Solaris, you should use the
       Solaris::PerlGcc module which is available from CPAN.  The
       perl shipped with Solaris is configured and built with the
       Sun compilers, and the compiler configuration information
       stored in Config.pm is therefore only relevant to the Sun
       compilers.  The Solaris:PerlGcc module contains a replace­
       ment Config.pm that is correct for gcc - see the module
       for details.

       GNU as and GNU ld

       The following information applies to gcc version 2.  Vol­
       unteers to update it as appropropriate for gcc version 3
       would be appreciated.

       The versions of as and ld supplied with Solaris work fine
       for building perl.  There is normally no need to install
       the GNU versions to compile perl.

       If you decide to ignore this advice and use the GNU ver­
       sions anyway, then be sure that they are relatively
       recent.  Versions newer than 2.7 are apparently new
       enough.  Older versions may have trouble with dynamic

       If you wish to use GNU ld, then you need to pass it the
       -Wl,-E flag.  The hints/solaris_2.sh file tries to do this
       automatically by setting the following Configure vari­

        ccdlflags="$ccdlflags -Wl,-E"
        lddlflags="$lddlflags -Wl,-E -G"

       However, over the years, changes in gcc, GNU ld, and
       Solaris ld have made it difficult to automatically detect
       which ld ultimately gets called.  You may have to manually
       edit config.sh and add the -Wl,-E flags yourself, or else
       run Configure interactively and add the flags at the
       appropriate prompts.

       If your gcc is configured to use GNU as and ld but you
       Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX environment
       variable to ensure that Sun's as and ld are used.  Consult
       your gcc documentation for further information on the -B
       option and the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.

       Sun and GNU make

       The make under /usr/ccs/bin works fine for building perl.
       If you have the Sun C compilers, you will also have a par­
       allel version of make (dmake).  This works fine to build
       perl, but can sometimes cause problems when running 'make
       test' due to underspecified dependencies between the dif­
       ferent test harness files.  The same problem can also
       affect the building of some add-on modules, so in those
       cases either specify '-m serial' on the dmake command
       line, or use /usr/ccs/bin/make instead.  If you wish to
       use GNU make, be sure that the set-group-id bit is not
       set.  If it is, then arrange your PATH so that
       /usr/ccs/bin/make is before GNU make or else have the sys­
       tem administrator disable the set-group-id bit on GNU

       Avoid libucb.

       Solaris provides some BSD-compatibility functions in
       /usr/ucblib/libucb.a.  Perl will not build and run cor­
       rectly if linked against -lucb since it contains routines
       that are incompatible with the standard Solaris libc.
       Normally this is not a problem since the solaris hints
       file prevents Configure from even looking in /usr/ucblib
       for libraries, and also explicitly omits -lucb.

       Environment for Compiling perl on Solaris


       Make sure your PATH includes the compiler (/opt/SUN­
       Wspro/bin/ if you're using Sun's compiler) as well as
       /usr/ccs/bin/ to pick up the other development tools (such
       as make, ar, as, and ld).  Make sure your path either
       doesn't include /usr/ucb or that it includes it after the
       compiler and compiler tools and other standard Solaris
       directories.  You definitely don't want /usr/ucb/cc.


       If you have the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable set,
       be sure that it does NOT include /lib or /usr/lib.  If you
       will be building extensions that call third-party shared
       libraries (e.g. Berkeley DB) then make sure that your
       LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes the direc­
       tory with that library (e.g. /usr/local/lib).


       See the INSTALL file for general information regarding
       Configure.  Only Solaris-specific issues are discussed
       here.  Usually, the defaults should be fine.

       64-bit perl on Solaris.

       See the INSTALL file for general information regarding
       64-bit compiles.  In general, the defaults should be fine
       for most people.

       By default, perl-5.6.0 (or later) is compiled as a 32-bit
       application with largefile and long-long support.

       General 32-bit vs. 64-bit issues.

       Solaris 7 and above will run in either 32 bit or 64 bit
       mode on SPARC CPUs, via a reboot. You can build 64 bit
       apps whilst running 32 bit mode and vice-versa. 32 bit
       apps will run under Solaris running in either 32 or 64 bit
       mode.  64 bit apps require Solaris to be running 64 bit

       Existing 32 bit apps are properly known as LP32, i.e.
       Longs and Pointers are 32 bit.  64-bit apps are more prop­
       erly known as LP64.  The discriminating feature of a LP64
       bit app is its ability to utilise a 64-bit address space.
       It is perfectly possible to have a LP32 bit app that sup­
       ports both 64-bit integers (long long) and largefiles (>
       2GB), and this is the default for perl-5.6.0.

       For a more complete explanation of 64-bit issues, see the
       "Solaris 64-bit Developer's Guide" at

       You can detect the OS mode using "isainfo -v", e.g.

        $ isainfo -v   # Ultra 30 in 64 bit mode
        64-bit sparcv9 applications
        32-bit sparc applications

       By default, perl will be compiled as a 32-bit application.
       Unless you want to allocate more than ~ 4GB of memory
       inside perl, or unless you need more than 255 open file
       descriptors, you probably don't need perl to be a 64-bit

       Large File Support

       For Solaris 2.6 and onwards, there are two different ways
       for 32-bit applications to manipulate large files (files

       The transitional compilation environment is obtained with
       the following compiler and linker flags:

        getconf LFS64_CFLAGS        -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
        getconf LFS64_LDFLAG        # nothing special needed
        getconf LFS64_LIBS          # nothing special needed

       Second is the "large file compilation environment",
       described in lfcompile(5).  According to the man page,

        Each interface named xxx() that needs to access 64-bit entities
        to  access  large  files maps to a xxx64() call in the
        resulting binary. All relevant data types are defined to  be
        of correct size (for example, off_t has a typedef definition
        for a 64-bit entity).

        An application compiled in this environment is able  to  use
        the  xxx()  source interfaces to access both large and small
        files, rather than having to explicitly utilize the  transitional
        xxx64()  interface  calls to access large files.

       Two exceptions are fseek() and ftell().  32-bit applica­
       tions should use fseeko(3C) and ftello(3C).  These will
       get automatically mapped to fseeko64() and ftello64().

       The large file compilation environment is obtained with

        getconf LFS_LDFLAGS     # nothing special needed
        getconf LFS_LIBS        # nothing special needed

       By default, perl uses the large file compilation environ­
       ment and relies on Solaris to do the underlying mapping of

       Building an LP64 perl

       To compile a 64-bit application on an UltraSparc with a
       recent Sun Compiler, you need to use the flag "-xarch=v9".
       getconf(1) will tell you this, e.g.

        $ getconf -a | grep v9
        XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS:         -xarch=v9
        XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS:        -xarch=v9
        XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
        XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS:       -xarch=v9
        XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
        XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS:    -xarch=v9
        _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS:        -xarch=v9
        _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS:       -xarch=v9
        _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS:     -xarch=v9
        program to start up a new shell invocation with an environment that
        causes configure to recognize (via uname -a) the system as sparc-*-*

       All this should be handled automatically by the hints
       file, if requested.

       Long Doubles.

       As of 5.8.1, long doubles are working if you use the Sun
       compilers (needed for additional math routines not
       included in libm).

       Threads in perl on Solaris.

       It is possible to build a threaded version of perl on
       Solaris.  The entire perl thread implementation is still
       experimental, however, so beware.

       Malloc Issues with perl on Solaris.

       Starting from perl 5.7.1 perl uses the Solaris malloc,
       since the perl malloc breaks when dealing with more than
       2GB of memory, and the Solaris malloc also seems to be

       If you for some reason (such as binary backward compati­
       bility) really need to use perl's malloc, you can rebuild
       perl from the sources and Configure the build with

        $ sh Configure -Dusemymalloc

       You should not use perl's malloc if you are building with
       gcc.  There are reports of core dumps, especially in the
       PDL module.  The problem appears to go away under -DDEBUG­
       GING, so it has been difficult to track down.  Sun's com­
       piler appears to be okay with or without perl's malloc.
       [XXX further investigation is needed here.]


       Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld
           If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on
           SunOS or Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld,
           see the section "GNU as and GNU ld" above.

       ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
           If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and
           you're using gcc, it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld
           problem in the previous item "GNU as and GNU ld".

       dlopen: stub interception failed
           The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception
           This is a message from your shell telling you that the
           command 'ar' was not found.  You need to check your
           PATH environment variable to make sure that it
           includes the directory with the 'ar' command.  This is
           a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the
           /usr/ccs/bin/ directory.


       op/stat.t test 4 in Solaris

       op/stat.t test 4 may fail if you are on a tmpfs of some
       sort.  Building in /tmp sometimes shows this behavior.
       The test suite detects if you are building in /tmp, but it
       may not be able to catch all tmpfs situations.

       nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent

       See "nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent" in


       You can pick up prebuilt binaries for Solaris from
       <http://www.sunfreeware.com/>, <http://www.blastwave.org>,
       ActiveState <http://www.activestate.com/>, and
       <http://www.perl.com/> under the Binaries list at the top
       of the page.  There are probably other sources as well.
       Please note that these sites are under the control of
       their respective owners, not the perl developers.


       Limits on Numbers of Open Files on Solaris.

       The stdio(3C) manpage notes that for LP32 applications,
       only 255 files may be opened using fopen(), and only file
       descriptors 0 through 255 can be used in a stream.  Since
       perl calls open() and then fdopen(3C) with the resulting
       file descriptor, perl is limited to 255 simultaneous open
       files, even if sysopen() is used.  If this proves to be an
       insurmountable problem, you can compile perl as a LP64
       application, see "Building an LP64 perl" for details.
       Note also that the default resource limit for open file
       descriptors on Solaris is 255, so you will have to modify
       your ulimit or rctl (Solaris 9 onwards) appropriately.


       See the modules under the Solaris:: and Sun::Solaris
       namespaces on CPAN, see <http://www.cpan.org/mod­
       ules/by-module/Solaris/> and <http://www.cpan.org/mod­


       Proc::ProcessTable on Solaris
       Maker picks up from Config.pm.  This will result in
       Proc::ProcessTable being built under the correct environ­
       ment.  Everything should then be OK as long as Proc::Pro­
       cessTable doesn't try to share off_t's with the rest of
       perl, or if it does they should be explicitly specified as

       BSD::Resource on Solaris

       BSD::Resource versions earlier than 1.09 do not compile on
       Solaris with perl 5.6.0 and higher, for the same reasons
       as Proc::ProcessTable.  BSD::Resource versions starting
       from 1.09 have a workaround for the problem.

       Net::SSLeay on Solaris

       Net::SSLeay requires a /dev/urandom to be present. This
       device is available from Solaris 9 onwards.  For earlier
       Solaris versions you can either get the package SUNWski
       (packaged with several Sun software products, for example
       the Sun WebServer, which is part of the Solaris Server
       Intranet Extension, or the Sun Directory Services, part of
       Solaris for ISPs) or download the ANDIrand package from
       <http://www.cosy.sbg.ac.at/~andi/>. If you use SUNWski,
       make a symbolic link /dev/urandom pointing to /dev/random.

       It may be possible to use the Entropy Gathering Daemon
       (written in Perl!), available from

SunOS 4.x

       In SunOS 4.x you most probably want to use the SunOS ld,
       /usr/bin/ld, since the more recent versions of GNU ld
       (like 2.13) do not seem to work for building Perl anymore.
       When linking the extensions, the GNU ld gets very unhappy
       and spews a lot of errors like this

         ... relocation truncated to fit: BASE13 ...

       and dies.  Therefore the SunOS 4.1 hints file explicitly
       sets the ld to be /usr/bin/ld.

       As of Perl 5.8.1 the dynamic loading of libraries
       (DynaLoader, XSLoader) also seems to have become broken in
       in SunOS 4.x.  Therefore the default is to build Perl

       Running the test suite in SunOS 4.1 is a bit tricky since
       the lib/Tie/File/t/09_gen_rs test hangs (subtest #51,
       FWIW) for some unknown reason.  Just stop the test and
       kill that particular Perl process.

       ing Unicode-related tests will output megabytes of failure
       messages, but if one patiently waits, one gets these

        Failed Test                     Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List of Failed
        ../ext/Encode/t/at-cn.t            4  1024    29    4  13.79%  14-17
        ../ext/Encode/t/at-tw.t           10  2560    17   10  58.82%  2 4 6 8 10 12
        ../ext/Encode/t/enc_data.t        29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
        ../ext/Encode/t/enc_eucjp.t       29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
        ../ext/Encode/t/enc_module.t      29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
        ../ext/Encode/t/encoding.t        29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
        ../ext/Encode/t/grow.t            12  3072    24   12  50.00%  2 4 6 8 10 12 14
                                                                       16 18 20 22 24
         Failed Test                     Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List of Failed
        ../ext/Encode/t/guess.t          255 65280    29   40 137.93%  10-29
        ../ext/Encode/t/jperl.t           29  7424    15   30 200.00%  1-15
        ../ext/Encode/t/mime-header.t      2   512    10    2  20.00%  2-3
        ../ext/Encode/t/perlio.t          22  5632    38   22  57.89%  1-4 9-16 19-20
                                                                       23-24 27-32
        ../ext/List/Util/t/shuffle.t       0   139    ??   ??       %  ??
        ../ext/PerlIO/t/encoding.t                    14    1   7.14%  11
        ../ext/PerlIO/t/fallback.t                     9    2  22.22%  3 5
        ../ext/Socket/t/socketpair.t       0     2    45   70 155.56%  11-45
        ../lib/CPAN/t/vcmp.t                          30    1   3.33%  25
        ../lib/Tie/File/t/09_gen_rs.t      0    15    ??   ??       %  ??
        ../lib/Unicode/Collate/t/test.t              199   30  15.08%  7 26-27 71-75
                                                                       81-88 95 101
                                                                       103-104 106 108-
                                                                       109 122 124 161
        ../lib/sort.t                      0   139   119   26  21.85%  107-119
        op/alarm.t                                     4    1  25.00%  4
        op/utfhash.t                                  97    1   1.03%  31
        run/fresh_perl.t                              91    1   1.10%  32
        uni/tr_7jis.t                                 ??   ??       %  ??
        uni/tr_eucjp.t                    29  7424     6   12 200.00%  1-6
        uni/tr_sjis.t                     29  7424     6   12 200.00%  1-6
        56 tests and 467 subtests skipped.
        Failed 27/811 test scripts, 96.67% okay. 1383/75399 subtests failed, 98.17% okay.

       The alarm() test failure is caused by system() apparently
       blocking alarm().  That is probably a libc bug, and given
       that SunOS 4.x has been end-of-lifed years ago, don't hold
       your breath for a fix.  In addition to that, don't try
       anything too Unicode-y, especially with Encode, and you
       should be fine in SunOS 4.x.


perl v5.8.1                 2003-09-02             PERLSOLARIS(1)
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