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perlos390




SYNOPSIS

       This document will help you Configure, build, test and
       install Perl on OS/390 (aka z/OS) Unix System Services.


DESCRIPTION

       This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release
       3, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.  It may work on other versions or
       releases, but those are the ones we've tested it on.

       You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks
       before running the Configure script for Perl.

       Tools

       The z/OS Unix Tools and Toys list may prove helpful and
       contains links to ports of much of the software helpful
       for building Perl.
       http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html

       Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390

       If using ftp remember to transfer the distribution in
       binary format.

       Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:

         http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/faq/bpxqp1.html

       to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:

          pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar

       or

          zcat latest.tar.Z | pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r

       If you get lots of errors of the form

         tar: FSUM7171 ...: cannot set uid/gid: EDC5139I Operation not permitted.

       you didn't read the above and tried to use tar instead of
       pax, you'll first have to remove the (now corrupt) perl
       directory

          rm -rf perl-...

       and then use pax.

       Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390

       Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including
       available from the "Tools".

       Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!"
       errors while trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries.
       If you encounter such trouble then try to download the
       source code kit and build GNU make from source to elimi­
       nate any such trouble.  You might also find GNU make (as
       well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open
       Source Software for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.

       If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to
       use the system supplied make program then be sure to
       install the default rules file properly via the shell com­
       mand:

           cp /samples/startup.mk /etc

       and be sure to also set the environment variable
       _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting _C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea
       for users of GNU make).

       You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed
       before running the `make install` step for Perl.

       There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h
       header file that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and
       possibly V2R9.  The problem with the header file is that
       near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant there is
       a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like
       so:

        #define SO_REUSEPORT    0x0200    /* allow local address & port
                                             reuse */                    /

       You could edit that header yourself to remove that last
       '/', or you might note that Language Environment (LE) APAR
       PQ39997 describes the problem and PTF's UQ46272 and
       UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.  If
       left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an
       inability for Perl to build its "Socket" extension.

       For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky
       bit for your world readable /tmp directory if you have not
       already done so (see man chmod).

       Configure Perl on OS/390

       Once you've unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure"
       (see INSTALL for a full discussion of the Configure
       options).  There is a "hints" file for os390 that speci­
       fies the correct values for most things.  Some things to
       watch out for include:
           before running Configure the first time.  If you
           failed to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure
           Perl is to delete your misconfigured build root and
           re-extract the source from the tar ball.  Then you
           must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place
           before attempting to re-run Configure.

       ·   This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not
           selected by default.  If you would like to experiment
           with dynamic loading then be sure to specify -Dusedl
           in the arguments to the Configure script.  See the
           comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on
           dynamic loading.  If you build with dynamic loading
           then you will need to add the $archlibexp/CORE direc­
           tory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order for
           perl to work.  See the config.sh file for the value of
           $archlibexp.  If in trying to use Perl you see an
           error message similar to:

            CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
                    From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194 at

           then your LIBPATH does not have the location of
           libperl.x and either libperl.dll or libperl.so in it.
           Add that directory to your LIBPATH and proceed.

       ·   Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O".
           There is a bug in either the optimizer or perl that
           causes perl to not work correctly when the optimizer
           is on.

       ·   Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
           networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
           names.  In particular, make sure that there's either
           an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that gethost­
           byname() works, and make sure that the file /etc/proto
           has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT /etc/protocols,
           as used by other Unix systems).  You may have to look
           for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN in the
           "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
           properly set up your /etc networking files.

       Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390

       Simply put:

           sh Configure
           make
           make test

       if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP
       diagnosis) then:
       Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE
       parameter in your 'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note
       too that as of V2R8 address space limits can be set on a
       per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF profile).
       People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXAS­
       SIZE parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be pos­
       sible to build Perl with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).

       Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit
       your ulimit settings.  Check that the following command
       returns reasonable values:

           ulimit -a

       To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules
       loaded into the Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a
       link list or step lib.

       If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the
       build of the Socket extension then be sure to fix the syn­
       tax error in the system header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.

       Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390

       The `make test` step runs a Perl Verification Procedure,
       usually before installation.  You might encounter STDERR
       messages even during a successful run of `make test`.
       Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen anoma­
       lies:

       ·   A message of the form:

            comp/cpp.............ERROR CBC3191 ./.301989890.c:1     The character $ is not a
             valid C source character.
            FSUM3065 The COMPILE step ended with return code 12.
            FSUM3017 Could not compile .301989890.c. Correct the errors and try again.
            ok

           indicates that the t/comp/cpp.t test of Perl's -P com­
           mand line switch has passed but that the particular
           invocation of c89 -E in the cpp script does not sup­
           press the C compiler check of source code validity.

       ·   A message of the form:

            io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
            CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
            CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
            ok

           indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has
           passed but done so with extraneous messages on stderr
           directory within the HFS.  To correct that problem
           issue the command:

                chmod a+t /tmp

           from an account with write access to the directory
           entry for /tmp.

       ·   Out of Memory!

           Recent perl test suite is quite memory hunrgy. In
           addition to the comments above on memory limitations
           it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS in your
           environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C
           #pragma to set CEE run options, but the environment
           variable wins.

           The C code asks for:

            #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))

           The important parts of that are the second argument
           (the increment) to HEAP, and allowing the stack to be
           "Above the (16M) line". If the heap increment is too
           small then when perl (for example loading uni­
           code/Name.pl) tries to create a "big" (400K+) string
           it cannot fit in a single segment and you get "Out of
           Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
           available.

           A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's mal­
           loc uses "sbrk()" to get memory, and "sbrk()" is lim­
           ited to the first allocation so in this case something
           like:

             HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)

           is needed to get through the test suite.

       Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390

       The installman script will try to run on OS/390.  There
       will be fewer errors if you have a roff utility installed.
       You can obtain GNU groff from the Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp
       site.

       Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390

       When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the
       EBCDIC and ASCII character sets are different.  See per­
       lebcdic.pod for more on such character set issues.  Perl
       builtin functions that may behave differently under EBCDIC

       If you are having trouble with square brackets then con­
       sider switching your rlogin or telnet client.  Try to
       avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for working with
       Perl on USS.

       Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390

       There appears to be a bug in the floating point implemen­
       tation on S/390 systems such that calling int() on the
       product of a number and a small magnitude number is not
       the same as calling int() on the quotient of that number
       and a large magnitude number.  For example, in the follow­
       ing Perl code:

           my $x = 100000.0;
           my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
           my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5;  # '100000'
           print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000

       Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be
       the same and equal to 100000 they will differ and instead
       will be 0 and 100000 respectively.

       The problem can be further examined in a roughly equiva­
       lent C program:

           #include <stdio.h>
           #include <math.h>
           main()
           {
           double r1,r2;
           double x = 100000.0;
           double y = 0.0;
           double z = 0.0;
           x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
           r1 = modf (x,&y);
           x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
           r2 = modf (x,&z);
           printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
           /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
           }

       Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390

       Pure pure (that is non xs) modules may be installed via
       the usual:

           perl Makefile.PL
           make
           make test
           make install
           make install
           make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl

       In most cases people have reported better results with GNU
       make rather than the system's /bin/make program, whether
       for plain modules or for xs based extensions.

       If the make process encounters trouble with either compi­
       lation or linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1.
       Assuming sh is your login shell then run:

           export _C89_CCMODE=1

       If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.


AUTHORS

       David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis
       Longnecker and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR
       and PTF feedback.  Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwe­
       dow for SG24-5944-00.  Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing
       out the floating point problems.  Thanks to John Goodyear
       for dynamic loading help.


SEE ALSO

       INSTALL, perlport, perlebcdic, ExtUtils::MakeMaker.

           http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html

           http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/abstracts/sg245944.html

           http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc

           http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/

           http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/

           http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/

       Mailing list for Perl on OS/390

       If you are interested in the VM/ESA, z/OS (formerly known
       as OS/390) and POSIX-BC (BS2000) ports of Perl then see
       the perl-mvs mailing list.  To subscribe, send an empty
       message to perl-mvs-subscribe@perl.org.

       See also:

           http://lists.perl.org/showlist.cgi?name=perl-mvs

       There are web archives of the mailing list at:

           http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/

       Updated 24 January 2001 to mention dynamic loading.

       Updated 12 March 2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCP­
       DATA)'.

perl v5.8.1                 2003-09-02               PERLOS390(1)
  
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