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       You can think of a module as the fundamental unit of
       reusable Perl code; see perlmod for details.  Whenever
       anyone creates a chunk of Perl code that they think will
       be useful to the world, they register as a Perl developer
       at http://www.cpan.org/modules/04pause.html so that they
       can then upload their code to the CPAN.  The CPAN is the
       Comprehensive Perl Archive Network and can be accessed at
       http://www.cpan.org/ , and searched at
       http://search.cpan.org/ .

       This documentation is for people who want to download CPAN
       modules and install them on their own computer.


       First, are you sure that the module isn't already on your
       system?  Try "perl -MFoo -e 1".  (Replace "Foo" with the
       name of the module; for instance, "perl -MCGI::Carp -e 1".

       If you don't see an error message, you have the module.
       (If you do see an error message, it's still possible you
       have the module, but that it's not in your path, which you
       can display with "perl -e "print qq(@INC)"".)  For the
       remainder of this document, we'll assume that you really
       honestly truly lack an installed module, but have found it
       on the CPAN.

       So now you have a file ending in .tar.gz (or, less often,
       .zip).  You know there's a tasty module inside.  There are
       four steps you must now take:

       DECOMPRESS the file
       UNPACK the file into a directory
       BUILD the module (sometimes unnecessary)
       INSTALL the module.

       Here's how to perform each step for each operating system.
       This is <not> a substitute for reading the README and
       INSTALL files that might have come with your module!

       Also note that these instructions are tailored for
       installing the module into your system's repository of
       Perl modules -- but you can install modules into any
       directory you wish.  For instance, where I say "perl Make­
       file.PL", you can substitute "perl Makefile.PL PRE­
       FIX=/my/perl_directory" to install the modules into
       "/my/perl_directory".  Then you can use the modules from
       your Perl programs with "use lib "/my/perl_direc­
       tory/lib/site_perl";" or sometimes just "use
       "/my/perl_directory";".  If you're on a system that
       requires superuser/root access to install modules into the
           Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

           You can get gzip from ftp://prep.ai.mit.edu/pub/gnu/

           Or, you can combine this step with the next to save
           disk space:

                gzip -dc yourmodule.tar.gz | tar -xof -

           B. UNPACK

           Unpack the result with "tar -xof yourmodule.tar"

           C. BUILD

           Go into the newly-created directory and type:

                 perl Makefile.PL
                 make test


                 perl Makefile.PL PREFIX=/my/perl_directory

           to install it locally.  (Remember that if you do this,
           you'll have to put "use lib "/my/perl_directory";"
           near the top of the program that is to use this mod­

           D. INSTALL

           While still in that directory, type:

                 make install

           Make sure you have the appropriate permissions to
           install the module in your Perl 5 library directory.
           Often, you'll need to be root.

           That's all you need to do on Unix systems with dynamic
           linking.  Most Unix systems have dynamic linking -- if
           yours doesn't, or if for another reason you have a
           statically-linked perl, and the module requires compi­
           lation, you'll need to build a new Perl binary that
           includes the module.  Again, you'll probably need to
           be root.

       ·   If you're running ActivePerl (Win95/98/2K/NT/XP,
           Linux, Solaris)

           First, type "ppm" from a shell and see whether
           ActiveState's PPM repository has your module.  If so,
           If you used WinZip, this was already done for you.

              C. BUILD

           You'll need the "nmake" utility, available at
           or dmake, available on CPAN.

           Does the module require compilation (i.e. does it have
           files that end in .xs, .c, .h, .y, .cc, .cxx, or .C)?
           If it does, life is now officially tough for you,
           because you have to compile the module yourself -- no
           easy feat on Windows.  You'll need a compiler such as
           Visual C++.  Alternatively, you can download a pre-
           built PPM package from ActiveState.

           Go into the newly-created directory and type:

                 perl Makefile.PL
                 nmake test

              D. INSTALL

           While still in that directory, type:

                 nmake install

       ·   If you're using a Macintosh,

           A. DECOMPRESS

           First, make sure you have the latest cpan-mac distri­
           bution ( http://www.cpan.org/authors/id/CNANDOR/ ),
           which has utilities for doing all of the steps.  Read
           the cpan-mac directions carefully and install it.  If
           you choose not to use cpan-mac for some reason, there
           are alternatives listed here.

           After installing cpan-mac, drop the module archive on
           the untarzipme droplet, which will decompress and
           unpack for you.

           Or, you can either use the shareware StuffIt Expander
           program ( http://www.aladdinsys.com/expander/ ) in
           combination with DropStuff with Expander Enhancer (
           http://www.aladdinsys.com/dropstuff/ ) or the freeware
           MacGzip program ( http://persephone.cps.unizar.es/gen­
           eral/gente/spd/gzip/gzip.html ).

           the box."  (See "PORTABILITY".)

           If a module does not work on MacPerl but should, or
           needs to be compiled, see if the module exists already
           as a port on the MacPerl Module Porters site (
           http://pudge.net/mmp/ ).  For more information on
           doing XS with MacPerl yourself, see Arved Sandstrom's
           XS tutorial ( http://macperl.com/depts/Tutorials/ ),
           and then consider uploading your binary to the CPAN
           and registering it on the MMP site.

           D. INSTALL

           If you are using cpan-mac, just drop the folder on the
           installme droplet, and use the module.

           Or, if you aren't using cpan-mac, do some manual

           Make sure the newlines for the modules are in Mac for­
           mat, not Unix format.  If they are not then you might
           have decompressed them incorrectly.  Check your decom­
           pression and unpacking utilities settings to make sure
           they are translating text files properly.

           As a last resort, you can use the perl one-liner:

               perl -i.bak -pe 's/(?:\015)?\012/\015/g' <filenames>

           on the source files.

           Then move the files (probably just the .pm files,
           though there may be some additional ones, too; check
           the module documentation) to their final destination:
           This will most likely be in "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:"
           (i.e., "HD:MacPerl folder:site_lib:").  You can add
           new paths to the default @INC in the Preferences menu
           item in the MacPerl application
           ("$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:" is added automagically).
           Create whatever directory structures are required
           (i.e., for "Some::Module", create
           "$ENV{MACPERL}site_lib:Some:" and put "Module.pm" in
           that directory).

           Then run the following script (or something like it):

                #!perl -w
                use AutoSplit;
                my $dir = "${MACPERL}site_perl";
                autosplit("$dir:Some:Module.pm", "$dir:auto", 0, 1, 1);

       ·   If you're on the DJGPP port of DOS,
                 perl Makefile.PL
                 make test

           You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in
           the Perl distribution.

              D. INSTALL

           While still in that directory, type:

                make install

           You will need the packages mentioned in README.dos in
           the Perl distribution.

       ·   If you're on OS/2,

           Get the EMX development suite and gzip/tar, from
           either Hobbes ( http://hobbes.nmsu.edu ) or Leo (
           http://www.leo.org ), and then follow the instructions
           for Unix.

       ·   If you're on VMS,

           When downloading from CPAN, save your file with a
           ".tgz" extension instead of ".tar.gz".  All other
           periods in the filename should be replaced with under­
           scores.  For example, "Your-Module-1.33.tar.gz" should
           be downloaded as "Your-Module-1_33.tgz".

           A. DECOMPRESS


               gzip -d Your-Module.tgz

           or, for zipped modules, type

               unzip Your-Module.zip

           Executables for gzip, zip, and VMStar:


           and their source code:


           Note that GNU's gzip/gunzip is not the same as
           Info-ZIP's zip/unzip package.  The former is a simple
           compression tool; the latter permits creation of
           Make sure you have MMS (from Digital) or the freeware
           MMK ( available from MadGoat at http://www.madgoat.com
           ).  Then type this to create the DESCRIP.MMS for the

               perl Makefile.PL

           Now you're ready to build:

               mms test

           Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.

           D. INSTALL


               mms install

           Substitute "mmk" for "mms" above if you're using MMK.

       ·   If you're on MVS,

           Introduce the .tar.gz file into an HFS as binary;
           don't translate from ASCII to EBCDIC.

           A. DECOMPRESS

           Decompress the file with "gzip -d yourmodule.tar.gz"

           You can get gzip from http://www.s390.ibm.com/prod­

           B. UNPACK

           Unpack the result with

                pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < yourmodule.tar

           The BUILD and INSTALL steps are identical to those for
           Unix.  Some modules generate Makefiles that work bet­
           ter with GNU make, which is available from


       Note that not all modules will work with on all platforms.
       See perlport for more information on portability issues.
       Read the documentation to see if the module will work on
       your system.  There are basically three categories of mod­
       ules that will not work "out of the box" with all plat­
       forms (with some possibility of overlap):

           specifically at a platform other than yours, you're
           out of luck, most likely.

       Check the CPAN Testers if a module should work with your
       platform but it doesn't behave as you'd expect, or you
       aren't sure whether or not a module will work under your
       platform.  If the module you want isn't listed there, you
       can test it yourself and let CPAN Testers know, you can
       join CPAN Testers, or you can request it be tested.



       If you have any suggested changes for this page, let me
       know.  Please don't send me mail asking for help on how to
       install your modules.  There are too many modules, and too
       few Orwants, for me to be able to answer or even acknowl­
       edge all your questions.  Contact the module author
       instead, or post to comp.lang.perl.modules, or ask someone
       familiar with Perl on your operating system.


       Jon Orwant


       with invaluable help from Chris Nandor, and valuable help
       from Brandon Allbery, Charles Bailey, Graham Barr, Dominic
       Dunlop, Jarkko Hietaniemi, Ben Holzman, Tom Horsley, Nick
       Ing-Simmons, Tuomas J. Lukka, Laszlo Molnar, Alan Olsen,
       Peter Prymmer, Gurusamy Sarathy, Christoph Spalinger, Dan
       Sugalski, Larry Virden, and Ilya Zakharevich.

       First version July 22, 1998; last revised November 21,


       Copyright (C) 1998, 2002, 2003 Jon Orwant.  All Rights

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim
       copies of this documentation provided the copyright notice
       and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified ver­
       sions of this documentation under the conditions for ver­
       batim copying, provided also that they are marked clearly
       as modified versions, that the authors' names and title
       are unchanged (though subtitles and additional authors'
       names may be added), and that the entire resulting derived
       work is distributed under the terms of a permission notice
       identical to this one.
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