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       The perlfaq is divided into several documents based on
       topics.  A table of contents is at the end of this docu­

       Where to get the perlfaq

       Extracts of the perlfaq are posted regularly to
       comp.lang.perl.misc.  It is available on many web sites:
       http://www.perldoc.com/ and http://faq.perl.org/

       How to contribute to the perlfaq

       You may mail corrections, additions, and suggestions to
       perlfaq-workers@perl.org .  This alias should not be used
       to ask FAQs.  It's for fixing the current FAQ. Send ques­
       tions to the comp.lang.perl.misc newsgroup.  You can view
       the source tree at http://cvs.perl.org/cvsweb/perlfaq/
       (which is outside of the main Perl source tree).  The CVS
       repository notes all changes to the FAQ.

       What will happen if you mail your Perl programming prob­
       lems to the authors

       Your questions will probably go unread, unless they're
       suggestions of new questions to add to the FAQ, in which
       case they should have gone to the perlfaq-workers@perl.org

       You should have read section 2 of this faq.  There you
       would have learned that comp.lang.perl.misc is the appro­
       priate place to go for free advice.  If your question is
       really important and you require a prompt and correct
       answer, you should hire a consultant.


       The original perlfaq was written by Tom Christiansen, then
       expanded by collaboration between Tom and Nathan Torking­
       ton.  The current document is maintained by the perlfaq-
       workers (perlfaq-workers@perl.org).  Several people have
       contributed answers, corrections, and comments.

Author and Copyright Information

       Copyright (c) 1997-2003 Tom Christiansen, Nathan Torking­
       ton, and other contributors noted in the answers.

       All rights reserved.

       Bundled Distributions

       This documentation is free; you can redistribute it and/or
       whatsoever.  The authors accept no liability in respect of
       this information or its use.

Table of Contents

       perlfaq  - this document
       perlfaq1 - General Questions About Perl
       perlfaq2 - Obtaining and Learning about Perl
       perlfaq3 - Programming Tools
       perlfaq4 - Data Manipulation
       perlfaq5 - Files and Formats
       perlfaq6 - Regular Expressions
       perlfaq7 - General Perl Language Issues
       perlfaq8 - System Interaction
       perlfaq9 - Networking

The Questions

       perlfaq1: General Questions About Perl

       Very general, high-level questions about Perl.

       ·   What is Perl?

       ·   Who supports Perl?  Who develops it?  Why is it free?

       ·   Which version of Perl should I use?

       ·   What are perl4 and perl5?

       ·   What is perl6?

       ·   How stable is Perl?

       ·   Is Perl difficult to learn?

       ·   How does Perl compare with other languages like Java,
           Python, REXX, Scheme, or Tcl?

       ·   Can I do [task] in Perl?

       ·   When shouldn't I program in Perl?

       ·   What's the difference between "perl" and "Perl"?

       ·   Is it a Perl program or a Perl script?

       ·   What is a JAPH?

       ·   Where can I get a list of Larry Wall witticisms?

       ·   How can I convince my sysadmin/supervisor/employees to
           use version 5/5.6.1/Perl instead of some other lan­
           but scripts don't work.

       ·   I grabbed the sources and tried to compile but
           gdbm/dynamic loading/malloc/linking/... failed.  How
           do I make it work?

       ·   What modules and extensions are available for Perl?
           What is CPAN?  What does CPAN/src/... mean?

       ·   Is there an ISO or ANSI certified version of Perl?

       ·   Where can I get information on Perl?

       ·   What are the Perl newsgroups on Usenet?  Where do I
           post questions?

       ·   Where should I post source code?

       ·   Perl Books

       ·   Perl in Magazines

       ·   Perl on the Net: FTP and WWW Access

       ·   What mailing lists are there for Perl?

       ·   Archives of comp.lang.perl.misc

       ·   Where can I buy a commercial version of Perl?

       ·   Where do I send bug reports?

       ·   What is perl.com? Perl Mongers? pm.org? perl.org?

       perlfaq3: Programming Tools

       Programmer tools and programming support.

       ·   How do I do (anything)?

       ·   How can I use Perl interactively?

       ·   Is there a Perl shell?

       ·   How do I find which modules are installed on my sys­

       ·   How do I debug my Perl programs?

       ·   How do I profile my Perl programs?

       ·   How can I use X or Tk with Perl?

       ·   How can I generate simple menus without using CGI or

       ·   How can I make my Perl program run faster?

       ·   How can I make my Perl program take less memory?

       ·   Is it safe to return a reference to local or lexical

       ·   How can I free an array or hash so my program shrinks?

       ·   How can I make my CGI script more efficient?

       ·   How can I hide the source for my Perl program?

       ·   How can I compile my Perl program into byte code or C?

       ·   How can I compile Perl into Java?

       ·   How can I get "#!perl" to work on [MS-DOS,NT,...]?

       ·   Can I write useful Perl programs on the command line?

       ·   Why don't Perl one-liners work on my DOS/Mac/VMS sys­

       ·   Where can I learn about CGI or Web programming in

       ·   Where can I learn about object-oriented Perl program­

       ·   Where can I learn about linking C with Perl? [h2xs,

       ·   I've read perlembed, perlguts, etc., but I can't embed
           perl in my C program; what am I doing wrong?

       ·   When I tried to run my script, I got this message.
           What does it mean?

       ·   What's MakeMaker?

       perlfaq4: Data Manipulation

       Manipulating numbers, dates, strings, arrays, hashes, and
       miscellaneous data issues.

       ·   Why am I getting long decimals (eg, 19.9499999999999)
       ·   How do I perform an operation on a series of integers?

       ·   How can I output Roman numerals?

       ·   Why aren't my random numbers random?

       ·   How do I get a random number between X and Y?

       ·   How do I find the day or week of the year?

       ·   How do I find the current century or millennium?

       ·   How can I compare two dates and find the difference?

       ·   How can I take a string and turn it into epoch sec­

       ·   How can I find the Julian Day?

       ·   How do I find yesterday's date?

       ·   Does Perl have a Year 2000 problem?  Is Perl Y2K com­

       ·   How do I validate input?

       ·   How do I unescape a string?

       ·   How do I remove consecutive pairs of characters?

       ·   How do I expand function calls in a string?

       ·   How do I find matching/nesting anything?

       ·   How do I reverse a string?

       ·   How do I expand tabs in a string?

       ·   How do I reformat a paragraph?

       ·   How can I access or change N characters of a string?

       ·   How do I change the Nth occurrence of something?

       ·   How can I count the number of occurrences of a sub­
           string within a string?

       ·   How do I capitalize all the words on one line?

       ·   How can I split a [character] delimited string except
           when inside [character]?

       ·   Why don't my <<HERE documents work?

       ·   What is the difference between a list and an array?

       ·   What is the difference between $array[1] and

       ·   How can I remove duplicate elements from a list or

       ·   How can I tell whether a certain element is contained
           in a list or array?

       ·   How do I compute the difference of two arrays?  How do
           I compute the intersection of two arrays?

       ·   How do I test whether two arrays or hashes are equal?

       ·   How do I find the first array element for which a con­
           dition is true?

       ·   How do I handle linked lists?

       ·   How do I handle circular lists?

       ·   How do I shuffle an array randomly?

       ·   How do I process/modify each element of an array?

       ·   How do I select a random element from an array?

       ·   How do I permute N elements of a list?

       ·   How do I sort an array by (anything)?

       ·   How do I manipulate arrays of bits?

       ·   Why does defined() return true on empty arrays and

       ·   How do I process an entire hash?

       ·   What happens if I add or remove keys from a hash while
           iterating over it?

       ·   How do I look up a hash element by value?

       ·   How can I know how many entries are in a hash?

       ·   How do I sort a hash (optionally by value instead of

       ·   How can I make my hash remember the order I put ele­
           ments into it?

       ·   Why does passing a subroutine an undefined element in
           a hash create it?

       ·   How can I make the Perl equivalent of a C
           structure/C++ class/hash or array of hashes or arrays?

       ·   How can I use a reference as a hash key?

       ·   How do I handle binary data correctly?

       ·   How do I determine whether a scalar is a num­

       ·   How do I keep persistent data across program calls?

       ·   How do I print out or copy a recursive data structure?

       ·   How do I define methods for every class/object?

       ·   How do I verify a credit card checksum?

       ·   How do I pack arrays of doubles or floats for XS code?

       perlfaq5: Files and Formats

       I/O and the "f" issues: filehandles, flushing, formats,
       and footers.

       ·   How do I flush/unbuffer an output filehandle?  Why
           must I do this?

       ·   How do I change one line in a file/delete a line in a
           file/insert a line in the middle of a file/append to
           the beginning of a file?

       ·   How do I count the number of lines in a file?

       ·   How can I use Perl's "-i" option from within a pro­

       ·   How do I make a temporary file name?

       ·   How can I manipulate fixed-record-length files?

       ·   How can I make a filehandle local to a subroutine?
           How do I pass filehandles between subroutines?  How do
           I make an array of filehandles?

       ·   Why do I sometimes get an "Argument list too long"
           when I use <*>?

       ·   Is there a leak/bug in glob()?

       ·   How can I open a file with a leading ">" or trailing

       ·   How can I reliably rename a file?

       ·   How can I lock a file?

       ·   Why can't I just open(FH, ">file.lock")?

       ·   I still don't get locking.  I just want to increment
           the number in the file.  How can I do this?

       ·   All I want to do is append a small amount of text to
           the end of a file.  Do I still have to use locking?

       ·   How do I randomly update a binary file?

       ·   How do I get a file's timestamp in perl?

       ·   How do I set a file's timestamp in perl?

       ·   How do I print to more than one file at once?

       ·   How can I read in an entire file all at once?

       ·   How can I read in a file by paragraphs?

       ·   How can I read a single character from a file?  From
           the keyboard?

       ·   How can I tell whether there's a character waiting on
           a filehandle?

       ·   How do I do a "tail -f" in perl?

       ·   How do I dup() a filehandle in Perl?

       ·   How do I close a file descriptor by number?

       ·   Why can't I use "C:\temp\foo" in DOS paths?  What
           doesn't `C:\temp\foo.exe` work?

       ·   Why doesn't glob("*.*") get all the files?

       ·   Why does Perl let me delete read-only files?  Why does
           "-i" clobber protected files?  Isn't this a bug in

       ·   I'm having trouble matching over more than one line.
           What's wrong?

       ·   How can I pull out lines between two patterns that are
           themselves on different lines?

       ·   I put a regular expression into $/ but it didn't work.
           What's wrong?

       ·   How do I substitute case insensitively on the LHS
           while preserving case on the RHS?

       ·   How can I make "\w" match national character sets?

       ·   How can I match a locale-smart version of

       ·   How can I quote a variable to use in a regex?

       ·   What is "/o" really for?

       ·   How do I use a regular expression to strip C style
           comments from a file?

       ·   Can I use Perl regular expressions to match balanced

       ·   What does it mean that regexes are greedy?  How can I
           get around it?

       ·   How do I process each word on each line?

       ·   How can I print out a word-frequency or line-frequency

       ·   How can I do approximate matching?

       ·   How do I efficiently match many regular expressions at

       ·   Why don't word-boundary searches with "\b" work for

       ·   Why does using $&, $`, or $' slow my program down?

       ·   What good is "\G" in a regular expression?

       ·   Are Perl regexes DFAs or NFAs?  Are they POSIX compli­

       ·   What's wrong with using grep or map in a void context?

       ·   What are all these $@%&* punctuation signs, and how do
           I know when to use them?

       ·   Do I always/never have to quote my strings or use
           semicolons and commas?

       ·   How do I skip some return values?

       ·   How do I temporarily block warnings?

       ·   What's an extension?

       ·   Why do Perl operators have different precedence than C

       ·   How do I declare/create a structure?

       ·   How do I create a module?

       ·   How do I create a class?

       ·   How can I tell if a variable is tainted?

       ·   What's a closure?

       ·   What is variable suicide and how can I prevent it?

       ·   How can I pass/return a {Function, FileHandle, Array,
           Hash, Method, Regex}?

       ·   How do I create a static variable?

       ·   What's the difference between dynamic and lexical
           (static) scoping?  Between local() and my()?

       ·   How can I access a dynamic variable while a similarly
           named lexical is in scope?

       ·   What's the difference between deep and shallow bind­

       ·   Why doesn't "my($foo) = <FILE>;" work right?

       ·   How do I redefine a builtin function, operator, or

       ·   What's the difference between calling a function as
           &foo and foo()?

       ·   How do I create a switch or case statement?

       ·   What does "bad interpreter" mean?

       perlfaq8: System Interaction

       Interprocess communication (IPC), control over the user-
       interface (keyboard, screen and pointing devices).

       ·   How do I find out which operating system I'm running

       ·   How come exec() doesn't return?

       ·   How do I do fancy stuff with the key­

       ·   How do I print something out in color?

       ·   How do I read just one key without waiting for a
           return key?

       ·   How do I check whether input is ready on the keyboard?

       ·   How do I clear the screen?

       ·   How do I get the screen size?

       ·   How do I ask the user for a password?

       ·   How do I read and write the serial port?

       ·   How do I decode encrypted password files?

       ·   How do I start a process in the background?

       ·   How do I trap control characters/signals?

       ·   How do I modify the shadow password file on a Unix

       ·   How do I set the time and date?

       ·   How can I sleep() or alarm() for under a second?

       ·   How can I measure time under a second?

       ·   How can I do an atexit() or setjmp()/longjmp()?
           (Exception handling)

       ·   Why doesn't my sockets program work under System V
           (Solaris)?  What does the error message "Protocol not
           supported" mean?

       ·   Why doesn't open() return an error when a pipe open

       ·   What's wrong with using backticks in a void context?

       ·   How can I call backticks without shell processing?

       ·   Why can't my script read from STDIN after I gave it
           EOF (^D on Unix, ^Z on MS-DOS)?

       ·   How can I convert my shell script to perl?

       ·   Can I use perl to run a telnet or ftp session?

       ·   How can I write expect in Perl?

       ·   Is there a way to hide perl's command line from pro­
           grams such as "ps"?

       ·   I {changed directory, modified my environment} in a
           perl script.  How come the change disappeared when I
           exited the script?  How do I get my changes to be vis­

       ·   How do I close a process's filehandle without waiting
           for it to complete?

       ·   How do I fork a daemon process?

       ·   How do I find out if I'm running interactively or not?

       ·   How do I timeout a slow event?

       ·   How do I set CPU limits?

       ·   How do I avoid zombies on a Unix system?

       ·   How do I use an SQL database?

       ·   How do I make a system() exit on control-C?

       ·   How do I open a file without blocking?

       ·   How do I install a module from CPAN?

       ·   What's the difference between require and use?

       ·   How do I keep my own module/library directory?

       ·   How do I add the directory my program lives in to the
           module/library search path?

       ·   My CGI script runs from the command line but not the
           browser.  (500 Server Error)

       ·   How can I get better error messages from a CGI pro­

       ·   How do I remove HTML from a string?

       ·   How do I extract URLs?

       ·   How do I download a file from the user's machine?  How
           do I open a file on another machine?

       ·   How do I make a pop-up menu in HTML?

       ·   How do I fetch an HTML file?

       ·   How do I automate an HTML form submission?

       ·   How do I decode or create those %-encodings on the

       ·   How do I redirect to another page?

       ·   How do I put a password on my web pages?

       ·   How do I edit my .htpasswd and .htgroup files with

       ·   How do I make sure users can't enter values into a
           form that cause my CGI script to do bad things?

       ·   How do I parse a mail header?

       ·   How do I decode a CGI form?

       ·   How do I check a valid mail address?

       ·   How do I decode a MIME/BASE64 string?

       ·   How do I return the user's mail address?

       ·   How do I send mail?

       ·   How do I use MIME to make an attachment to a mail mes­

       ·   How do I read mail?

       ·   How do I find out my hostname/domainname/IP address?

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