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perlebcdic




DESCRIPTION

       An exploration of some of the issues facing Perl program
       mers on EBCDIC based computers.  We do not cover localiza
       tion, internationalization, or multi byte character set
       issues other than some discussion of UTF-8 and UTF-EBCDIC.

       Portions that are still incomplete are marked with XXX.


COMMON CHARACTER CODE SETS

       ASCII

       The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is
       a set of integers running from 0 to 127 (decimal) that
       imply character interpretation by the display and other
       system(s) of computers.  The range 0..127 can be covered
       by setting the bits in a 7-bit binary digit, hence the set
       is sometimes referred to as a "7-bit ASCII".  ASCII was
       described by the American National Standards Institute
       document ANSI X3.4-1986.  It was also described by ISO
       646:1991 (with localization for currency symbols).  The
       full ASCII set is given in the table below as the first
       128 elements.  Languages that can be written adequately
       with the characters in ASCII include English, Hawaiian,
       Indonesian, Swahili and some Native American languages.

       There are many character sets that extend the range of
       integers from 0..2**7-1 up to 2**8-1, or 8 bit bytes
       (octets if you prefer).  One common one is the ISO 8859-1
       character set.

       ISO 8859

       The ISO 8859-$n are a collection of character code sets
       from the International Organization for Standardization
       (ISO) each of which adds characters to the ASCII set that
       are typically found in European languages many of which
       are based on the Roman, or Latin, alphabet.

       Latin 1 (ISO 8859-1)

       A particular 8-bit extension to ASCII that includes grave
       and acute accented Latin characters.  Languages that can
       employ ISO 8859-1 include all the languages covered by
       ASCII as well as Afrikaans, Albanian, Basque, Catalan,
       Danish, Faroese, Finnish, Norwegian, Portuguese, Spanish,
       and Swedish.  Dutch is covered albeit without the ij liga
       ture.  French is covered too but without the oe ligature.
       German can use ISO 8859-1 but must do so without German-
       style quotation marks.  This set is based on Western Euro
       pean extensions to ASCII and is commonly encountered in
       world wide web work.  In IBM character code set identifi

       Some IBM EBCDIC character sets may be known by character
       code set identification numbers (CCSID numbers) or code
       page numbers.  Leading zero digits in CCSID numbers within
       this document are insignificant.  E.g. CCSID 0037 may be
       referred to as 37 in places.

       13 variant characters

       Among IBM EBCDIC character code sets there are 13 charac
       ters that are often mapped to different integer values.
       Those characters are known as the 13 "variant" characters
       and are:

           \ [ ] { } ^ ~ ! # | $ @ `

       0037

       Character code set ID 0037 is a mapping of the ASCII plus
       Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC set.
       0037 is used in North American English locales on the
       OS/400 operating system that runs on AS/400 computers.
       CCSID 37 differs from ISO 8859-1 in 237 places, in other
       words they agree on only 19 code point values.

       1047

       Character code set ID 1047 is also a mapping of the ASCII
       plus Latin-1 characters (i.e. ISO 8859-1) to an EBCDIC
       set.  1047 is used under Unix System Services for OS/390
       or z/OS, and OpenEdition for VM/ESA.  CCSID 1047 differs
       from CCSID 0037 in eight places.

       POSIX-BC

       The EBCDIC code page in use on Siemens' BS2000 system is
       distinct from 1047 and 0037.  It is identified below as
       the POSIX-BC set.

       Unicode code points versus EBCDIC code points

       In Unicode terminology a code point is the number assigned
       to a character: for example, in EBCDIC the character "A"
       is usually assigned the number 193.  In Unicode the char
       acter "A" is assigned the number 65.  This causes a prob
       lem with the semantics of the pack/unpack "U", which are
       supposed to pack Unicode code points to characters and
       back to numbers.  The problem is: which code points to use
       for code points less than 256?  (for 256 and over there's
       no problem: Unicode code points are used) In EBCDIC, for
       the low 256 the EBCDIC code points are used.  This means
       that the equivalences
           insensitive matching: for example, "/[\x{131}]/"
           (LATIN SMALL LETTER DOTLESS I) does not match "I"
           case-insensitively, as it should under Unicode.  (The
           match succeeds in ASCII-derived platforms.)

          The extensions Unicode::Collate and Unicode::Normal
           ized are not supported under EBCDIC, likewise for the
           encoding pragma.

       Unicode and UTF

       UTF is a Unicode Transformation Format.  UTF-8 is a Uni
       code conforming representation of the Unicode standard
       that looks very much like ASCII.  UTF-EBCDIC is an attempt
       to represent Unicode characters in an EBCDIC transparent
       manner.

       Using Encode

       Starting from Perl 5.8 you can use the standard new module
       Encode to translate from EBCDIC to Latin-1 code points

               use Encode 'from_to';

               my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );

               # $a is in EBCDIC code points
               from_to($a, $ebcdic{ord '^'}, 'latin1');
               # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points

       and from Latin-1 code points to EBCDIC code points

               use Encode 'from_to';

               my %ebcdic = ( 176 => 'cp37', 95 => 'cp1047', 106 => 'posix-bc' );

               # $a is ISO 8859-1 code points
               from_to($a, 'latin1', $ebcdic{ord '^'});
               # $a is in EBCDIC code points

       For doing I/O it is suggested that you use the autotrans
       lating features of PerlIO, see perluniintro.

       Since version 5.8 Perl uses the new PerlIO I/O library.
       This enables you to use different encodings per IO chan
       nel.  For example you may use

           use Encode;
           open($f, ">:encoding(ascii)", "test.ascii");
           print $f "Hello World!\n";
           open($f, ">:encoding(cp37)", "test.ebcdic");
           print $f "Hello World!\n";


SINGLE OCTET TABLES

       The following tables list the ASCII and Latin 1 ordered
       sets including the subsets: C0 controls (0..31), ASCII
       graphics (32..7e), delete (7f), C1 controls (80..9f), and
       Latin-1 (a.k.a. ISO 8859-1) (a0..ff).  In the table non-
       printing control character names as well as the Latin 1
       extensions to ASCII have been labelled with character
       names roughly corresponding to The Unicode Standard, Ver
       sion 3.0 albeit with substitutions such as s/LATIN// and
       s/VULGAR// in all cases, s/CAPITAL LETTER// in some cases,
       and s/SMALL LETTER ([A-Z])/\l$1/ in some other cases (the
       "charnames" pragma names unfortunately do not list
       explicit names for the C0 or C1 control characters).  The
       "names" of the C1 control set (128..159 in ISO 8859-1)
       listed here are somewhat arbitrary.  The differences
       between the 0037 and 1047 sets are flagged with ***.  The
       differences between the 1047 and POSIX-BC sets are flagged
       with ###.  All ord() numbers listed are decimal.  If you
       would rather see this table listing octal values then run
       the table (that is, the pod version of this document since
       this recipe may not work with a pod2_other_format transla
       tion) through:

       recipe 0

           perl -ne 'if(/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)/)' \
            -e '{printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}' perlebcdic.pod

       If you want to retain the UTF-x code points then in script
       form you might want to write:

       recipe 1

           open(FH,"<perlebcdic.pod") or die "Could not open perlebcdic.pod: $!";
           while (<FH>) {
               if (/(.{33})(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)\s+(\d+)\.?(\d*)/)  {
                   if ($7 ne '' && $9 ne '') {
                       printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%-3o.%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
                   }
                   elsif ($7 ne '') {
                       printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-3o.%-5o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
                   }
                   else {
                       printf("%s%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%-9o%o\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
                   }
               }
           }

       If you would rather see this table listing hexadecimal
       values then run the table through:

                       printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%-2X.%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9);
                   }
                   elsif ($7 ne '') {
                       printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-2X.%-6X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8);
                   }
                   else {
                       printf("%s%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%-9X%X\n",$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$8);
                   }
               }
           }

           <END OF TEXT>                3        3        3        3        3        3
           <END OF TRANSMISSION>        4        55       55       55       4        55
           <ENQUIRY>                    5        45       45       45       5        45
           <ACKNOWLEDGE>                6        46       46       46       6        46
           <BELL>                       7        47       47       47       7        47
           <BACKSPACE>                  8        22       22       22       8        22
           <HORIZONTAL TABULATION>      9        5        5        5        9        5
           <LINE FEED>                  10       37       21       21       10       21       ***
           <VERTICAL TABULATION>        11       11       11       11       11       11
           <FORM FEED>                  12       12       12       12       12       12
           <CARRIAGE RETURN>            13       13       13       13       13       13
           <SHIFT OUT>                  14       14       14       14       14       14
           <SHIFT IN>                   15       15       15       15       15       15
           <DATA LINK ESCAPE>           16       16       16       16       16       16
           <DEVICE CONTROL ONE>         17       17       17       17       17       17
           <DEVICE CONTROL TWO>         18       18       18       18       18       18
           <DEVICE CONTROL THREE>       19       19       19       19       19       19
           <DEVICE CONTROL FOUR>        20       60       60       60       20       60
           <NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE>       21       61       61       61       21       61
           <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE>           22       50       50       50       22       50
           <END OF TRANSMISSION BLOCK>  23       38       38       38       23       38
           <CANCEL>                     24       24       24       24       24       24
           <END OF MEDIUM>              25       25       25       25       25       25
           <SUBSTITUTE>                 26       63       63       63       26       63
           <ESCAPE>                     27       39       39       39       27       39
           <FILE SEPARATOR>             28       28       28       28       28       28
           <GROUP SEPARATOR>            29       29       29       29       29       29
           <RECORD SEPARATOR>           30       30       30       30       30       30
           <UNIT SEPARATOR>             31       31       31       31       31       31
           <SPACE>                      32       64       64       64       32       64
           !                            33       90       90       90       33       90
           "                            34       127      127      127      34       127
           #                            35       123      123      123      35       123
           $                            36       91       91       91       36       91
           %                            37       108      108      108      37       108
           &                            38       80       80       80       38       80
           '                            39       125      125      125      39       125
           (                            40       77       77       77       40       77
           )                            41       93       93       93       41       93
           *                            42       92       92       92       42       92
           +                            43       78       78       78       43       78
           ,                            44       107      107      107      44       107
           -                            45       96       96       96       45       96
           .                            46       75       75       75       46       75
           /                            47       97       97       97       47       97
           0                            48       240      240      240      48       240
           1                            49       241      241      241      49       241
           2                            50       242      242      242      50       242
           3                            51       243      243      243      51       243
           4                            52       244      244      244      52       244
           5                            53       245      245      245      53       245
           6                            54       246      246      246      54       246
           E                            69       197      197      197      69       197
           F                            70       198      198      198      70       198
           G                            71       199      199      199      71       199
           H                            72       200      200      200      72       200
           I                            73       201      201      201      73       201
           J                            74       209      209      209      74       209
           K                            75       210      210      210      75       210
           L                            76       211      211      211      76       211
           M                            77       212      212      212      77       212
           N                            78       213      213      213      78       213
           O                            79       214      214      214      79       214
           P                            80       215      215      215      80       215
           Q                            81       216      216      216      81       216
           R                            82       217      217      217      82       217
           S                            83       226      226      226      83       226
           T                            84       227      227      227      84       227
           U                            85       228      228      228      85       228
           V                            86       229      229      229      86       229
           W                            87       230      230      230      87       230
           X                            88       231      231      231      88       231
           Y                            89       232      232      232      89       232
           Z                            90       233      233      233      90       233
           [                            91       186      173      187      91       173      *** ###
           \                            92       224      224      188      92       224      ###
           ]                            93       187      189      189      93       189      ***
           ^                            94       176      95       106      94       95       *** ###
           _                            95       109      109      109      95       109
           `                            96       121      121      74       96       121      ###
           a                            97       129      129      129      97       129
           b                            98       130      130      130      98       130
           c                            99       131      131      131      99       131
           d                            100      132      132      132      100      132
           e                            101      133      133      133      101      133
           f                            102      134      134      134      102      134
           g                            103      135      135      135      103      135
           h                            104      136      136      136      104      136
           i                            105      137      137      137      105      137
           j                            106      145      145      145      106      145
           k                            107      146      146      146      107      146
           l                            108      147      147      147      108      147
           m                            109      148      148      148      109      148
           n                            110      149      149      149      110      149
           o                            111      150      150      150      111      150
           p                            112      151      151      151      112      151
           q                            113      152      152      152      113      152
           r                            114      153      153      153      114      153
           s                            115      162      162      162      115      162
           t                            116      163      163      163      116      163
           u                            117      164      164      164      117      164
           v                            118      165      165      165      118      165
           w                            119      166      166      166      119      166
           x                            120      167      167      167      120      167
           <C1 7>                       135      23       23       23       194.135  23
           <C1 8>                       136      40       40       40       194.136  40
           <C1 9>                       137      41       41       41       194.137  41
           <C1 10>                      138      42       42       42       194.138  42
           <C1 11>                      139      43       43       43       194.139  43
           <C1 12>                      140      44       44       44       194.140  44
           <C1 13>                      141      9        9        9        194.141  9
           <C1 14>                      142      10       10       10       194.142  10
           <C1 15>                      143      27       27       27       194.143  27
           <C1 16>                      144      48       48       48       194.144  48
           <C1 17>                      145      49       49       49       194.145  49
           <C1 18>                      146      26       26       26       194.146  26
           <C1 19>                      147      51       51       51       194.147  51
           <C1 20>                      148      52       52       52       194.148  52
           <C1 21>                      149      53       53       53       194.149  53
           <C1 22>                      150      54       54       54       194.150  54
           <C1 23>                      151      8        8        8        194.151  8
           <C1 24>                      152      56       56       56       194.152  56
           <C1 25>                      153      57       57       57       194.153  57
           <C1 26>                      154      58       58       58       194.154  58
           <C1 27>                      155      59       59       59       194.155  59
           <C1 28>                      156      4        4        4        194.156  4
           <C1 29>                      157      20       20       20       194.157  20
           <C1 30>                      158      62       62       62       194.158  62
           <C1 31>                      159      255      255      95       194.159  255      ###
           <NON-BREAKING SPACE>         160      65       65       65       194.160  128.65
           <INVERTED EXCLAMATION MARK>  161      170      170      170      194.161  128.66
           <CENT SIGN>                  162      74       74       176      194.162  128.67   ###
           <POUND SIGN>                 163      177      177      177      194.163  128.68
           <CURRENCY SIGN>              164      159      159      159      194.164  128.69
           <YEN SIGN>                   165      178      178      178      194.165  128.70
           <BROKEN BAR>                 166      106      106      208      194.166  128.71   ###
           <SECTION SIGN>               167      181      181      181      194.167  128.72
           <DIAERESIS>                  168      189      187      121      194.168  128.73   *** ###
           <COPYRIGHT SIGN>             169      180      180      180      194.169  128.74
           <FEMININE ORDINAL INDICATOR> 170      154      154      154      194.170  128.81
           <LEFT POINTING GUILLEMET>    171      138      138      138      194.171  128.82
           <NOT SIGN>                   172      95       176      186      194.172  128.83   *** ###
           <SOFT HYPHEN>                173      202      202      202      194.173  128.84
           <REGISTERED TRADE MARK SIGN> 174      175      175      175      194.174  128.85
           <MACRON>                     175      188      188      161      194.175  128.86   ###
           <DEGREE SIGN>                176      144      144      144      194.176  128.87
           <PLUS-OR-MINUS SIGN>         177      143      143      143      194.177  128.88
           <SUPERSCRIPT TWO>            178      234      234      234      194.178  128.89
           <SUPERSCRIPT THREE>          179      250      250      250      194.179  128.98
           <ACUTE ACCENT>               180      190      190      190      194.180  128.99
           <MICRO SIGN>                 181      160      160      160      194.181  128.100
           <PARAGRAPH SIGN>             182      182      182      182      194.182  128.101
           <MIDDLE DOT>                 183      179      179      179      194.183  128.102
           <CEDILLA>                    184      157      157      157      194.184  128.103
           <SUPERSCRIPT ONE>            185      218      218      218      194.185  128.104
           <MASC. ORDINAL INDICATOR>    186      155      155      155      194.186  128.105
           <E WITH ACUTE>               201      113      113      113      195.137  138.74
           <E WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          202      114      114      114      195.138  138.81
           <E WITH DIAERESIS>           203      115      115      115      195.139  138.82
           <I WITH GRAVE>               204      120      120      120      195.140  138.83
           <I WITH ACUTE>               205      117      117      117      195.141  138.84
           <I WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          206      118      118      118      195.142  138.85
           <I WITH DIAERESIS>           207      119      119      119      195.143  138.86
           <CAPITAL LETTER ETH>         208      172      172      172      195.144  138.87
           <N WITH TILDE>               209      105      105      105      195.145  138.88
           <O WITH GRAVE>               210      237      237      237      195.146  138.89
           <O WITH ACUTE>               211      238      238      238      195.147  138.98
           <O WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          212      235      235      235      195.148  138.99
           <O WITH TILDE>               213      239      239      239      195.149  138.100
           <O WITH DIAERESIS>           214      236      236      236      195.150  138.101
           <MULTIPLICATION SIGN>        215      191      191      191      195.151  138.102
           <O WITH STROKE>              216      128      128      128      195.152  138.103
           <U WITH GRAVE>               217      253      253      224      195.153  138.104  ###
           <U WITH ACUTE>               218      254      254      254      195.154  138.105
           <U WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          219      251      251      221      195.155  138.106  ###
           <U WITH DIAERESIS>           220      252      252      252      195.156  138.112
           <Y WITH ACUTE>               221      173      186      173      195.157  138.113  *** ###
           <CAPITAL LETTER THORN>       222      174      174      174      195.158  138.114
           <SMALL LETTER SHARP S>       223      89       89       89       195.159  138.115
           <a WITH GRAVE>               224      68       68       68       195.160  139.65
           <a WITH ACUTE>               225      69       69       69       195.161  139.66
           <a WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          226      66       66       66       195.162  139.67
           <a WITH TILDE>               227      70       70       70       195.163  139.68
           <a WITH DIAERESIS>           228      67       67       67       195.164  139.69
           <a WITH RING ABOVE>          229      71       71       71       195.165  139.70
           <SMALL LIGATURE ae>          230      156      156      156      195.166  139.71
           <c WITH CEDILLA>             231      72       72       72       195.167  139.72
           <e WITH GRAVE>               232      84       84       84       195.168  139.73
           <e WITH ACUTE>               233      81       81       81       195.169  139.74
           <e WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          234      82       82       82       195.170  139.81
           <e WITH DIAERESIS>           235      83       83       83       195.171  139.82
           <i WITH GRAVE>               236      88       88       88       195.172  139.83
           <i WITH ACUTE>               237      85       85       85       195.173  139.84
           <i WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          238      86       86       86       195.174  139.85
           <i WITH DIAERESIS>           239      87       87       87       195.175  139.86
           <SMALL LETTER eth>           240      140      140      140      195.176  139.87
           <n WITH TILDE>               241      73       73       73       195.177  139.88
           <o WITH GRAVE>               242      205      205      205      195.178  139.89
           <o WITH ACUTE>               243      206      206      206      195.179  139.98
           <o WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          244      203      203      203      195.180  139.99
           <o WITH TILDE>               245      207      207      207      195.181  139.100
           <o WITH DIAERESIS>           246      204      204      204      195.182  139.101
           <DIVISION SIGN>              247      225      225      225      195.183  139.102
           <o WITH STROKE>              248      112      112      112      195.184  139.103
           <u WITH GRAVE>               249      221      221      192      195.185  139.104  ###
           <u WITH ACUTE>               250      222      222      222      195.186  139.105
           <u WITH CIRCUMFLEX>          251      219      219      219      195.187  139.106
           <u WITH DIAERESIS>           252      220      220      220      195.188  139.112
            -e '          map{[$_,substr($_,42,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod

       If you would rather see it in CCSID 1047 order then change
       the digit 42 in the last line to 51, like this:

       recipe 5

           perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
            -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
            -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
            -e '          sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
            -e '          map{[$_,substr($_,51,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod

       If you would rather see it in POSIX-BC order then change
       the digit 51 in the last line to 60, like this:

       recipe 6

           perl -ne 'if(/.{33}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}\s{6,8}\d{1,3}/)'\
            -e '{push(@l,$_)}' \
            -e 'END{print map{$_->[0]}' \
            -e '          sort{$a->[1] <=> $b->[1]}' \
            -e '          map{[$_,substr($_,60,3)]}@l;}' perlebcdic.pod


IDENTIFYING CHARACTER CODE SETS

       To determine the character set you are running under from
       perl one could use the return value of ord() or chr() to
       test one or more character values.  For example:

           $is_ascii  = "A" eq chr(65);
           $is_ebcdic = "A" eq chr(193);

       Also, "\t" is a "HORIZONTAL TABULATION" character so that:

           $is_ascii  = ord("\t") == 9;
           $is_ebcdic = ord("\t") == 5;

       To distinguish EBCDIC code pages try looking at one or
       more of the characters that differ between them.  For
       example:

           $is_ebcdic_37   = "\n" eq chr(37);
           $is_ebcdic_1047 = "\n" eq chr(21);

       Or better still choose a character that is uniquely
       encoded in any of the code sets, e.g.:

           $is_ascii           = ord('[') == 91;
           $is_ebcdic_37       = ord('[') == 186;
           $is_ebcdic_1047     = ord('[') == 173;
           $is_ebcdic_POSIX_BC = ord('[') == 187;

       code page you can use the Config module like so:

           use Config;
           $is_ebcdic = $Config{'ebcdic'} eq 'define';


CONVERSIONS

       tr///

       In order to convert a string of characters from one char
       acter set to another a simple list of numbers, such as in
       the right columns in the above table, along with perl's
       tr/// operator is all that is needed.  The data in the
       table are in ASCII order hence the EBCDIC columns provide
       easy to use ASCII to EBCDIC operations that are also eas
       ily reversed.

       For example, to convert ASCII to code page 037 take the
       output of the second column from the output of recipe 0
       (modified to add \\ characters) and use it in tr/// like
       so:

           $cp_037 =
           '\000\001\002\003\234\011\206\177\227\215\216\013\014\015\016\017' .
           '\020\021\022\023\235\205\010\207\030\031\222\217\034\035\036\037' .
           '\200\201\202\203\204\012\027\033\210\211\212\213\214\005\006\007' .
           '\220\221\026\223\224\225\226\004\230\231\232\233\024\025\236\032' .
           '\040\240\342\344\340\341\343\345\347\361\242\056\074\050\053\174' .
           '\046\351\352\353\350\355\356\357\354\337\041\044\052\051\073\254' .
           '\055\057\302\304\300\301\303\305\307\321\246\054\045\137\076\077' .
           '\370\311\312\313\310\315\316\317\314\140\072\043\100\047\075\042' .
           '\330\141\142\143\144\145\146\147\150\151\253\273\360\375\376\261' .
           '\260\152\153\154\155\156\157\160\161\162\252\272\346\270\306\244' .
           '\265\176\163\164\165\166\167\170\171\172\241\277\320\335\336\256' .
           '\136\243\245\267\251\247\266\274\275\276\133\135\257\250\264\327' .
           '\173\101\102\103\104\105\106\107\110\111\255\364\366\362\363\365' .
           '\175\112\113\114\115\116\117\120\121\122\271\373\374\371\372\377' .
           '\134\367\123\124\125\126\127\130\131\132\262\324\326\322\323\325' .
           '\060\061\062\063\064\065\066\067\070\071\263\333\334\331\332\237' ;

           my $ebcdic_string = $ascii_string;
           eval '$ebcdic_string =~ tr/\000-\377/' . $cp_037 . '/';

       To convert from EBCDIC 037 to ASCII just reverse the order
       of the tr/// arguments like so:

           my $ascii_string = $ebcdic_string;
           eval '$ascii_string = tr/' . $cp_037 . '/\000-\377/';

       Similarly one could take the output of the third column
       from recipe 0 to obtain a $cp_1047 table.  The fourth col
       umn of the output from recipe 0 could provide a
       $cp_posix_bc table suitable for transcoding as well.

       or the inverse map:

           # OS/390 or z/OS example
           $ebcdic_data = `echo '$ascii_data'| iconv -f ISO8859-1 -t IBM-1047`

       For other perl based conversion options see the Convert::*
       modules on CPAN.

       C RTL

       The OS/390 and z/OS C run time libraries provide _atoe()
       and _etoa() functions.


OPERATOR DIFFERENCES

       The ".." range operator treats certain character ranges
       with care on EBCDIC machines.  For example the following
       array will have twenty six elements on either an EBCDIC
       machine or an ASCII machine:

           @alphabet = ('A'..'Z');   #  $#alphabet == 25

       The bitwise operators such as & ^ | may return different
       results when operating on string or character data in a
       perl program running on an EBCDIC machine than when run on
       an ASCII machine.  Here is an example adapted from the one
       in perlop:

           # EBCDIC-based examples
           print "j p \n" ^ " a h";                      # prints "JAPH\n"
           print "JA" | "  ph\n";                        # prints "japh\n"
           print "JAPH\nJunk" & "\277\277\277\277\277";  # prints "japh\n";
           print 'p N$' ^ " E<H\n";                      # prints "Perl\n";

       An interesting property of the 32 C0 control characters in
       the ASCII table is that they can "literally" be con
       structed as control characters in perl, e.g. "(chr(0) eq
       "\c@")" "(chr(1) eq "\cA")", and so on.  Perl on EBCDIC
       machines has been ported to take "\c@" to chr(0) and "\cA"
       to chr(1) as well, but the thirty three characters that
       result depend on which code page you are using.  The table
       below uses the character names from the previous table but
       with substitutions such as s/START OF/S.O./; s/END OF
       /E.O./; s/TRANSMISSION/TRANS./; s/TABULATION/TAB./; s/VER
       TICAL/VERT./; s/HORIZONTAL/HORIZ./; s/DEVICE CON
       TROL/D.C./; s/SEPARATOR/SEP./; s/NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE/NEG.
       ACK./;.  The POSIX-BC and 1047 sets are identical through
       out this range and differ from the 0037 set at only one
       spot (21 decimal).  Note that the "LINE FEED" character
       may be generated by "\cJ" on ASCII machines but by "\cU"
       on 1047 or POSIX-BC machines and cannot be generated as a
       "\c.letter." control character on 0037 machines.  Note
           "\cD"   4  <E.O. TRANS.>        <C1 28>             <C1 28>
           "\cE"   5  <ENQUIRY>            <HORIZ. TAB.>       <HORIZ. TAB.>
           "\cF"   6  <ACKNOWLEDGE>        <C1 6>              <C1 6>
           "\cG"   7  <BELL>               <DELETE>            <DELETE>
           "\cH"   8  <BACKSPACE>          <C1 23>             <C1 23>
           "\cI"   9  <HORIZ. TAB.>        <C1 13>             <C1 13>
           "\cJ"  10  <LINE FEED>          <C1 14>             <C1 14>
           "\cK"  11  <VERT. TAB.>         <VERT. TAB.>        <VERT. TAB.>
           "\cL"  12  <FORM FEED>          <FORM FEED>         <FORM FEED>
           "\cM"  13  <CARRIAGE RETURN>    <CARRIAGE RETURN>   <CARRIAGE RETURN>
           "\cN"  14  <SHIFT OUT>          <SHIFT OUT>         <SHIFT OUT>
           "\cO"  15  <SHIFT IN>           <SHIFT IN>          <SHIFT IN>
           "\cP"  16  <DATA LINK ESCAPE>   <DATA LINK ESCAPE>  <DATA LINK ESCAPE>
           "\cQ"  17  <D.C. ONE>           <D.C. ONE>          <D.C. ONE>
           "\cR"  18  <D.C. TWO>           <D.C. TWO>          <D.C. TWO>
           "\cS"  19  <D.C. THREE>         <D.C. THREE>        <D.C. THREE>
           "\cT"  20  <D.C. FOUR>          <C1 29>             <C1 29>
           "\cU"  21  <NEG. ACK.>          <C1 5>              <LINE FEED>    ***
           "\cV"  22  <SYNCHRONOUS IDLE>   <BACKSPACE>         <BACKSPACE>
           "\cW"  23  <E.O. TRANS. BLOCK>  <C1 7>              <C1 7>
           "\cX"  24  <CANCEL>             <CANCEL>            <CANCEL>
           "\cY"  25  <E.O. MEDIUM>        <E.O. MEDIUM>       <E.O. MEDIUM>
           "\cZ"  26  <SUBSTITUTE>         <C1 18>             <C1 18>
           "\c["  27  <ESCAPE>             <C1 15>             <C1 15>
           "\c\\" 28  <FILE SEP.>\         <FILE SEP.>\        <FILE SEP.>\
           "\c]"  29  <GROUP SEP.>         <GROUP SEP.>        <GROUP SEP.>
           "\c^"  30  <RECORD SEP.>        <RECORD SEP.>       <RECORD SEP.>  ***><
           "\c_"  31  <UNIT SEP.>          <UNIT SEP.>         <UNIT SEP.>    ***><


FUNCTION DIFFERENCES

       chr()   chr() must be given an EBCDIC code number argument
               to yield a desired character return value on an
               EBCDIC machine.  For example:

                   $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = chr(193);

       ord()   ord() will return EBCDIC code number values on an
               EBCDIC machine.  For example:

                   $the_number_193 = ord("A");

       pack()  The c and C templates for pack() are dependent
               upon character set encoding.  Examples of usage on
               EBCDIC include:

                   $foo = pack("CCCC",193,194,195,196);
                   # $foo eq "ABCD"
                   $foo = pack("C4",193,194,195,196);
                   # same thing

                   $foo = pack("ccxxcc",193,194,195,196);
                   # $foo eq "AB\0\0CD"

                   print "Content-type:\ttext/html\r\n\r\n"; # OK for DGW et alia

               That is because the translation from EBCDIC to
               ASCII is done by the web server in this case (such
               code will not be appropriate for the Macintosh
               however).  Consult your web server's documentation
               for further details.

       printf()
               The formats that can convert characters to numbers
               and vice versa will be different from their ASCII
               counterparts when executed on an EBCDIC machine.
               Examples include:

                   printf("%c%c%c",193,194,195);  # prints ABC

       sort()  EBCDIC sort results may differ from ASCII sort
               results especially for mixed case strings.  This
               is discussed in more detail below.

       sprintf()
               See the discussion of printf() above.  An example
               of the use of sprintf would be:

                   $CAPITAL_LETTER_A = sprintf("%c",193);

       unpack()
               See the discussion of pack() above.


REGULAR EXPRESSION DIFFERENCES

       As of perl 5.005_03 the letter range regular expression
       such as [A-Z] and [a-z] have been especially coded to not
       pick up gap characters.  For example, characters such as o
       "o WITH CIRCUMFLEX" that lie between I and J would not be
       matched by the regular expression range "/[H-K]/".  This
       works in the other direction, too, if either of the range
       end points is explicitly numeric: "[\x89-\x91]" will match
       "\x8e", even though "\x89" is "i" and "\x91 " is "j", and
       "\x8e" is a gap character from the alphabetic viewpoint.

       If you do want to match the alphabet gap characters in a
       single octet regular expression try matching the hex or
       octal code such as "/\313/" on EBCDIC or "/\364/" on ASCII
       machines to have your regular expression match "o WITH
       CIRCUMFLEX".

       Another construct to be wary of is the inappropriate use
       of hex or octal constants in regular expressions.  Con
       sider the following set of subs:

           sub is_c0 {
               $char eq "\177";
           }

           sub is_c1 {
               my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
               $char =~ /[\200-\237]/;
           }

           sub is_latin_1 {
               my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
               $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
           }

       The above would be adequate if the concern was only with
       numeric code points.  However, the concern may be with
       characters rather than code points and on an EBCDIC
       machine it may be desirable for constructs such as "if
       (is_print_ascii("A")) {print "A is a printable charac
       ter\n";}" to print out the expected message.  One way to
       represent the above collection of character classification
       subs that is capable of working across the four coded
       character sets discussed in this document is as follows:

           sub Is_c0 {
               my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
               if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
                   return $char =~ /[\000-\037]/;
               }
               if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
                   return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\045\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
               }
               if (ord('^')==95 || ord('^')==106) { # 1047 || posix-bc
                   return $char =~ /[\000-\003\067\055-\057\026\005\025\013-\023\074\075\062\046\030\031\077\047\034-\037]/;
               }
           }

           sub Is_print_ascii {
               my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
               $char =~ /[ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<=>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~]/;
           }

           sub Is_delete {
               my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
               if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
                   return $char eq "\177";
               }
               else  {              # ebcdic
                   return $char eq "\007";
               }
           }

               }
               if (ord('^')==95)  { # 1047
                   return $char =~ /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\377]/;
               }
               if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
                   return $char =~
                     /[\040-\045\006\027\050-\054\011\012\033\060\061\032\063-\066\010\070-\073\040\024\076\137]/;
               }
           }

           sub Is_latin_1 {
               my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
               if (ord('^')==94)  { # ascii
                   return $char =~ /[\240-\377]/;
               }
               if (ord('^')==176) { # 37
                   return $char =~
                     /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\275\264\232\212\137\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
               }
               if (ord('^')==95)  { # 1047
                   return $char =~
                     /[\101\252\112\261\237\262\152\265\273\264\232\212\260\312\257\274\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\375\376\373\374\272\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\335\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
               }
               if (ord('^')==106) { # posix-bc
                   return $char =~
                     /[\101\252\260\261\237\262\320\265\171\264\232\212\272\312\257\241\220\217\352\372\276\240\266\263\235\332\233\213\267\270\271\253\144\145\142\146\143\147\236\150\164\161-\163\170\165-\167\254\151\355\356\353\357\354\277\200\340\376\335\374\255\256\131\104\105\102\106\103\107\234\110\124\121-\123\130\125-\127\214\111\315\316\313\317\314\341\160\300\336\333\334\215\216\337]/;
               }
           }

       Note however that only the "Is_ascii_print()" sub is
       really independent of coded character set.  Another way to
       write "Is_latin_1()" would be to use the characters in the
       range explicitly:

           sub Is_latin_1 {
               my $char = substr(shift,0,1);
               $char =~ /[ ]/;
           }

       Although that form may run into trouble in network transit
       (due to the presence of 8 bit characters) or on non ISO-
       Latin character sets.


SOCKETS

       Most socket programming assumes ASCII character encodings
       in network byte order.  Exceptions can include CGI script
       writing under a host web server where the server may take
       care of translation for you.  Most host web servers con
       vert EBCDIC data to ISO-8859-1 or Unicode on output.


SORTING

       One big difference between ASCII based character sets and
       on an ASCII machine, but the latter (83) comes before the
       former (115) on an EBCDIC machine.  (Astute readers will
       note that the upper case version of ss "SMALL LETTER SHARP
       S" is simply "SS" and that the upper case version of ye "y
       WITH DIAERESIS" is not in the 0..255 range but it is at
       U+x0178 in Unicode, or "\x{178}" in a Unicode enabled
       Perl).

       The sort order will cause differences between results
       obtained on ASCII machines versus EBCDIC machines.  What
       follows are some suggestions on how to deal with these
       differences.

       Ignore ASCII vs. EBCDIC sort differences.

       This is the least computationally expensive strategy.  It
       may require some user education.

       MONO CASE then sort data.

       In order to minimize the expense of mono casing mixed test
       try to "tr///" towards the character set case most
       employed within the data.  If the data are primarily
       UPPERCASE non Latin 1 then apply tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/ then
       sort().  If the data are primarily lowercase non Latin 1
       then apply tr/[A-Z]/[a-z]/ before sorting.  If the data
       are primarily UPPERCASE and include Latin-1 characters
       then apply:

           tr/[a-z]/[A-Z]/;
           tr/[]/[]/;
           s//SS/g;

       then sort().  Do note however that such Latin-1 manipula
       tion does not address the ye "y WITH DIAERESIS" character
       that will remain at code point 255 on ASCII machines, but
       223 on most EBCDIC machines where it will sort to a place
       less than the EBCDIC numerals.  With a Unicode enabled
       Perl you might try:

           tr/^?/\x{178}/;

       The strategy of mono casing data before sorting does not
       preserve the case of the data and may not be acceptable
       for that reason.

       Convert, sort data, then re convert.

       This is the most expensive proposition that does not
       employ a network connection.

       Perform sorting on one type of machine only.
       them in an attempt to overcome character or protocol limi
       tation issues.  For example the tilde character is not on
       every keyboard hence a URL of the form:

           http://www.pvhp.com/~pvhp/

       may also be expressed as either of:

           http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/

           http://www.pvhp.com/%7epvhp/

       where 7E is the hexadecimal ASCII code point for '~'.
       Here is an example of decoding such a URL under CCSID
       1047:

           $url = 'http://www.pvhp.com/%7Epvhp/';
           # this array assumes code page 1047
           my @a2e_1047 = (
                 0,  1,  2,  3, 55, 45, 46, 47, 22,  5, 21, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15,
                16, 17, 18, 19, 60, 61, 50, 38, 24, 25, 63, 39, 28, 29, 30, 31,
                64, 90,127,123, 91,108, 80,125, 77, 93, 92, 78,107, 96, 75, 97,
               240,241,242,243,244,245,246,247,248,249,122, 94, 76,126,110,111,
               124,193,194,195,196,197,198,199,200,201,209,210,211,212,213,214,
               215,216,217,226,227,228,229,230,231,232,233,173,224,189, 95,109,
               121,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,145,146,147,148,149,150,
               151,152,153,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,192, 79,208,161,  7,
                32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37,  6, 23, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44,  9, 10, 27,
                48, 49, 26, 51, 52, 53, 54,  8, 56, 57, 58, 59,  4, 20, 62,255,
                65,170, 74,177,159,178,106,181,187,180,154,138,176,202,175,188,
               144,143,234,250,190,160,182,179,157,218,155,139,183,184,185,171,
               100,101, 98,102, 99,103,158,104,116,113,114,115,120,117,118,119,
               172,105,237,238,235,239,236,191,128,253,254,251,252,186,174, 89,
                68, 69, 66, 70, 67, 71,156, 72, 84, 81, 82, 83, 88, 85, 86, 87,
               140, 73,205,206,203,207,204,225,112,221,222,219,220,141,142,223
           );
           $url =~ s/%([0-9a-fA-F]{2})/pack("c",$a2e_1047[hex($1)])/ge;

       Conversely, here is a partial solution for the task of
       encoding such a URL under the 1047 code page:

                32,160,226,228,224,225,227,229,231,241,162, 46, 60, 40, 43,124,
                38,233,234,235,232,237,238,239,236,223, 33, 36, 42, 41, 59, 94,
                45, 47,194,196,192,193,195,197,199,209,166, 44, 37, 95, 62, 63,
               248,201,202,203,200,205,206,207,204, 96, 58, 35, 64, 39, 61, 34,
               216, 97, 98, 99,100,101,102,103,104,105,171,187,240,253,254,177,
               176,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,170,186,230,184,198,164,
               181,126,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,161,191,208, 91,222,174,
               172,163,165,183,169,167,182,188,189,190,221,168,175, 93,180,215,
               123, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73,173,244,246,242,243,245,
               125, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82,185,251,252,249,250,255,
                92,247, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90,178,212,214,210,211,213,
                48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57,179,219,220,217,218,159
           );
           # The following regular expression does not address the
           # mappings for: ('.' => '%2E', '/' => '%2F', ':' => '%3A')
           $url =~ s/([\t "#%&\(\),;<=>\?\@\[\\\]^`{|}~])/sprintf("%%%02X",$e2a_1047[ord($1)])/ge;

       where a more complete solution would split the URL into
       components and apply a full s/// substitution only to the
       appropriate parts.

       In the remaining examples a @e2a or @a2e array may be
       employed but the assignment will not be shown explicitly.
       For code page 1047 you could use the @a2e_1047 or
       @e2a_1047 arrays just shown.

       uu encoding and decoding

       The "u" template to pack() or unpack() will render EBCDIC
       data in EBCDIC characters equivalent to their ASCII coun
       terparts.  For example, the following will print "Yes
       indeed\n" on either an ASCII or EBCDIC computer:

           $all_byte_chrs = '';
           for (0..255) { $all_byte_chrs .= chr($_); }
           $uuencode_byte_chrs = pack('u', $all_byte_chrs);
           ($uu = <<'ENDOFHEREDOC') =~ s/^\s*//gm;
           M``$"`P0%!@<("0H+#`T.#Q`1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL
           M+2XO,#$R,S0U-C<X.3H[/#T^/T!!0D-$149'2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA9
           M6EM<75Y?8&%B8V1E9F=H:6IK;&UN;W!Q<G-T=79W>'EZ>WQ]?G^`@8*#A(6&
           MAXB)BHN,C8Z/D)&2DY25EI>8F9J;G)V>GZ"AHJ.DI::GJ*FJJZRMKJ^PL;*S
           MM+6VM[BYNKN\O;Z_P,'"P\3%QL?(R<K+S,W.S]#1TM/4U=;7V-G:V]S=WM_@
           ?X>+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O\/'R\_3U]O?X^?K[_/W^_P``
           ENDOFHEREDOC
           if ($uuencode_byte_chrs eq $uu) {
               print "Yes ";
           }
           $uudecode_byte_chrs = unpack('u', $uuencode_byte_chrs);
           if ($uudecode_byte_chrs eq $all_byte_chrs) {
               print "indeed\n";
           }

               next if /[a-z]/;
               next unless int(((($e2a[ord()] - 32 ) & 077) + 2) / 3) ==
                   int(length() / 4);
               print OUT unpack("u", $_);
           }
           close(OUT);
           chmod oct($mode), $file;

       Quoted-Printable encoding and decoding

       On ASCII encoded machines it is possible to strip charac
       ters outside of the printable set using:

           # This QP encoder works on ASCII only
           $qp_string =~ s/([=\x00-\x1F\x80-\xFF])/sprintf("=%02X",ord($1))/ge;

       Whereas a QP encoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC
       machines would look somewhat like the following (where the
       EBCDIC branch @e2a array is omitted for brevity):

           if (ord('A') == 65) {    # ASCII
               $delete = "\x7F";    # ASCII
               @e2a = (0 .. 255)    # ASCII to ASCII identity map
           }
           else {                   # EBCDIC
               $delete = "\x07";    # EBCDIC
               @e2a =               # EBCDIC to ASCII map (as shown above)
           }
           $qp_string =~
             s/([^ !"\#\$%&'()*+,\-.\/0-9:;<>?\@A-Z[\\\]^_`a-z{|}~$delete])/sprintf("=%02X",$e2a[ord($1)])/ge;

       (although in production code the substitutions might be
       done in the EBCDIC branch with the @e2a array and sepa
       rately in the ASCII branch without the expense of the
       identity map).

       Such QP strings can be decoded with:

           # This QP decoder is limited to ASCII only
           $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr hex $1/ge;
           $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;

       Whereas a QP decoder that works on both ASCII and EBCDIC
       machines would look somewhat like the following (where the
       @a2e array is omitted for brevity):

           $string =~ s/=([0-9A-Fa-f][0-9A-Fa-f])/chr $a2e[hex $1]/ge;
           $string =~ s/=[\n\r]+$//;

       Caesarian ciphers

       The practice of shifting an alphabet one or more charac

           while(<>){
               tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;
               print;
           }

       In one-liner form:

           perl -ne 'tr/n-za-mN-ZA-M/a-zA-Z/;print'


Hashing order and checksums

       To the extent that it is possible to write code that
       depends on hashing order there may be differences between
       hashes as stored on an ASCII based machine and hashes
       stored on an EBCDIC based machine.  XXX


I18N AND L10N

       Internationalization(I18N) and localization(L10N) are sup
       ported at least in principle even on EBCDIC machines.  The
       details are system dependent and discussed under the "OS
       ISSUES" in perlebcdic section below.


MULTI OCTET CHARACTER SETS

       Perl may work with an internal UTF-EBCDIC encoding form
       for wide characters on EBCDIC platforms in a manner analo
       gous to the way that it works with the UTF-8 internal
       encoding form on ASCII based platforms.

       Legacy multi byte EBCDIC code pages XXX.


OS ISSUES

       There may be a few system dependent issues of concern to
       EBCDIC Perl programmers.

       OS/400

       PASE    The PASE environment is runtime environment for
               OS/400 that can run executables built for PowerPC
               AIX in OS/400, see perlos400.  PASE is
               ASCII-based, not EBCDIC-based as the ILE.

       IFS access
               XXX.

       OS/390, z/OS

       Perl runs under Unix Systems Services or USS.

       chcp    chcp is supported as a shell utility for display
               ing and changing one's code page.  See also chcp.

               manual pages.

       locales On OS/390 or z/OS see locale for information on
               locales.  The L10N files are in /usr/nls/locale.
               $Config{d_setlocale} is 'define' on OS/390 or
               z/OS.

       VM/ESA?

       XXX.

       POSIX-BC?

       XXX.


BUGS

       This pod document contains literal Latin 1 characters and
       may encounter translation difficulties.  In particular one
       popular nroff implementation was known to strip accented
       characters to their unaccented counterparts while attempt
       ing to view this document through the pod2man program (for
       example, you may see a plain "y" rather than one with a
       diaeresis as in ye).  Another nroff truncated the resul
       tant manpage at the first occurrence of 8 bit characters.

       Not all shells will allow multiple "-e" string arguments
       to perl to be concatenated together properly as recipes 0,
       2, 4, 5, and 6 might seem to imply.


SEE ALSO

       perllocale, perlfunc, perlunicode, utf8.


REFERENCES

       http://anubis.dkuug.dk/i18n/charmaps

       http://www.unicode.org/

       http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr16/

       http://www.wps.com/texts/codes/ ASCII: American Standard
       Code for Information Infiltration Tom Jennings, September
       1999.

       The Unicode Standard, Version 3.0 The Unicode Consortium,
       Lisa Moore ed., ISBN 0-201-61633-5, Addison Wesley Devel
       opers Press, February 2000.

       CDRA: IBM - Character Data Representation Architecture -
       Reference and Registry, IBM SC09-2190-00, December 1996.

       "Demystifying Character Sets", Andrea Vine, Multilingual
       Computing & Technology, #26 Vol. 10 Issue 4,


AUTHOR

       Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com wrote this in 1999 and 2000
       with CCSID 0819 and 0037 help from Chris Leach and Andre
       Pirard A.Pirard@ulg.ac.be as well as POSIX-BC help from
       Thomas Dorner Thomas.Dorner@start.de.  Thanks also to
       Vickie Cooper, Philip Newton, William Raffloer, and Joe
       Smith.  Trademarks, registered trademarks, service marks
       and registered service marks used in this document are the
       property of their respective owners.

perl v5.8.1                 2003-09-02              PERLEBCDIC(1)

An undefined database error occurred. SELECT distinct pages.pagepath,pages.pageid FROM pages, page2command WHERE pages.pageid = page2command.pageid AND commandid =


  




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