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perldiag



DESCRIPTION

       These messages are classified as follows (listed in
       increasing order of desperation):

           (W) A warning (optional).
           (D) A deprecation (optional).
           (S) A severe warning (default).
           (F) A fatal error (trappable).
           (P) An internal error you should never see (trappable).
           (X) A very fatal error (nontrappable).
           (A) An alien error message (not generated by Perl).

       The majority of messages from the first three classifica­
       tions above (W, D & S) can be controlled using the "warn­
       ings" pragma.

       If a message can be controlled by the "warnings" pragma,
       its warning category is included with the classification
       letter in the description below.

       Optional warnings are enabled by using the "warnings"
       pragma or the -w and -W switches. Warnings may be captured
       by setting $SIG{__WARN__} to a reference to a routine that
       will be called on each warning instead of printing it.
       See perlvar.

       Default warnings are always enabled unless they are
       explicitly disabled with the "warnings" pragma or the -X
       switch.

       Trappable errors may be trapped using the eval operator.
       See "eval" in perlfunc.  In almost all cases, warnings may
       be selectively disabled or promoted to fatal errors using
       the "warnings" pragma.  See warnings.

       The messages are in alphabetical order, without regard to
       upper or lower-case.  Some of these messages are generic.
       Spots that vary are denoted with a %s or other printf-
       style escape.  These escapes are ignored by the alphabeti­
       cal order, as are all characters other than letters.  To
       look up your message, just ignore anything that is not a
       letter.

       accept() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do an accept on a closed
           socket.  Did you forget to check the return value of
           your socket() call?  See "accept" in perlfunc.

       Allocation too large: %lx
           (X) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS
           machine.

           ify the name with its package.  Alternatively, you can
           import the subroutine (or pretend that it's imported
           with the "use subs" pragma).

           To silently interpret it as the Perl operator, use the
           "CORE::" prefix on the operator (e.g. "CORE::log($x)")
           or declare the subroutine to be an object method (see
           "Subroutine Attributes" in perlsub or attributes).

       Ambiguous range in transliteration operator
           (F) You wrote something like "tr/a-z-0//" which
           doesn't mean anything at all.  To include a "-" char­
           acter in a transliteration, put it either first or
           last.  (In the past, "tr/a-z-0//" was synonymous with
           "tr/a-y//", which was probably not what you would have
           expected.)

       Ambiguous use of %s resolved as %s
           (W ambiguous)(S) You said something that may not be
           interpreted the way you thought.  Normally it's pretty
           easy to disambiguate it by supplying a missing quote,
           operator, parenthesis pair or declaration.

       '|' and '<' may not both be specified on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own com­
           mand line redirection, and found that STDIN was a
           pipe, and that you also tried to redirect STDIN using
           '<'.  Only one STDIN stream to a customer, please.

       '|' and '>' may not both be specified on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own com­
           mand line redirection, and thinks you tried to redi­
           rect stdout both to a file and into a pipe to another
           command.  You need to choose one or the other, though
           nothing's stopping you from piping into a program or
           Perl script which 'splits' output into two streams,
           such as

               open(OUT,">$ARGV[0]") or die "Can't write to $ARGV[0]: $!";
               while (<STDIN>) {
                   print;
                   print OUT;
               }
               close OUT;

       Applying %s to %s will act on scalar(%s)
           (W misc) The pattern match ("//"), substitution
           ("s///"), and transliteration ("tr///") operators work
           on scalar values.  If you apply one of them to an
           array or a hash, it will convert the array or hash to
           a scalar value -- the length of an array, or the popu­
           lation info of a hash -- and then work on that scalar

       %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element
           (F) The argument to exists() must be a hash or array
           element, such as:

               $foo{$bar}
               $ref->{"susie"}[12]

       %s argument is not a HASH or ARRAY element or slice
           (F) The argument to delete() must be either a hash or
           array element, such as:

               $foo{$bar}
               $ref->{"susie"}[12]

           or a hash or array slice, such as:

               @foo[$bar, $baz, $xyzzy]
               @{$ref->[12]}{"susie", "queue"}

       %s argument is not a subroutine name
           (F) The argument to exists() for "exists &sub" must be
           a subroutine name, and not a subroutine call.  "exists
           &sub()" will generate this error.

       Argument "%s" isn't numeric%s
           (W numeric) The indicated string was fed as an argu­
           ment to an operator that expected a numeric value
           instead.  If you're fortunate the message will iden­
           tify which operator was so unfortunate.

       Argument list not closed for PerlIO layer "%s"
           (W layer) When pushing a layer with arguments onto the
           Perl I/O system you forgot the ) that closes the argu­
           ment list.  (Layers take care of transforming data
           between external and internal representations.)  Perl
           stopped parsing the layer list at this point and did
           not attempt to push this layer.  If your program
           didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it
           may be the result of the value of the environment
           variable PERLIO.

       Array @%s missing the @ in argument %d of %s()
           (D deprecated) Really old Perl let you omit the @ on
           array names in some spots.  This is now heavily depre­
           cated.

       assertion botched: %s
           (P) The malloc package that comes with Perl had an
           internal failure.

       Assertion failed: file "%s"
           by joining them, and only then exit from the main
           thread.  See threads.

       Attempt to access disallowed key '%s' in a restricted hash
           (F) The failing code has attempted to get or set a key
           which is not in the current set of allowed keys of a
           restricted hash.

       Attempt to bless into a reference
           (F) The CLASSNAME argument to the bless() operator is
           expected to be the name of the package to bless the
           resulting object into. You've supplied instead a ref­
           erence to something: perhaps you wrote

               bless $self, $proto;

           when you intended

               bless $self, ref($proto) || $proto;

           If you actually want to bless into the stringified
           version of the reference supplied, you need to
           stringify it yourself, for example by:

               bless $self, "$proto";

       Attempt to delete disallowed key '%s' from a restricted
       hash
           (F) The failing code attempted to delete from a
           restricted hash a key which is not in its key set.

       Attempt to delete readonly key '%s' from a restricted hash
           (F) The failing code attempted to delete a key whose
           value has been declared readonly from a restricted
           hash.

       Attempt to free non-arena SV: 0x%lx
           (P internal) All SV objects are supposed to be allo­
           cated from arenas that will be garbage collected on
           exit.  An SV was discovered to be outside any of those
           arenas.

       Attempt to free nonexistent shared string
           (P internal) Perl maintains a reference counted inter­
           nal table of strings to optimize the storage and
           access of hash keys and other strings.  This indicates
           someone tried to decrement the reference count of a
           string that can no longer be found in the table.

       Attempt to free temp prematurely
           (W debugging) Mortalized values are supposed to be
           freed by the free_tmps() routine.  This indicates that
           freed.  This could indicate that SvREFCNT_dec() was
           called too many times, or that SvREFCNT_inc() was
           called too few times, or that the SV was mortalized
           when it shouldn't have been, or that memory has been
           corrupted.

       Attempt to join self
           (F) You tried to join a thread from within itself,
           which is an impossible task.  You may be joining the
           wrong thread, or you may need to move the join() to
           some other thread.

       Attempt to pack pointer to temporary value
           (W pack) You tried to pass a temporary value (like the
           result of a function, or a computed expression) to the
           "p" pack() template.  This means the result contains a
           pointer to a location that could become invalid any­
           time, even before the end of the current statement.
           Use literals or global values as arguments to the "p"
           pack() template to avoid this warning.

       Attempt to use reference as lvalue in substr
           (W substr) You supplied a reference as the first argu­
           ment to substr() used as an lvalue, which is pretty
           strange.  Perhaps you forgot to dereference it first.
           See "substr" in perlfunc.

       Bad arg length for %s, is %d, should be %s
           (F) You passed a buffer of the wrong size to one of
           msgctl(), semctl() or shmctl().  In C parlance, the
           correct sizes are, respectively,
           sizeof(struct msqid_ds *), sizeof(struct semid_ds *),
           and sizeof(struct shmid_ds *).

       Bad evalled substitution pattern
           (F) You've used the "/e" switch to evaluate the
           replacement for a substitution, but perl found a syn­
           tax error in the code to evaluate, most likely an
           unexpected right brace '}'.

       Bad filehandle: %s
           (F) A symbol was passed to something wanting a file­
           handle, but the symbol has no filehandle associated
           with it.  Perhaps you didn't do an open(), or did it
           in another package.

       Bad free() ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called free() on some­
           thing that had never been malloc()ed in the first
           place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by setting envi­
           ronment variable "PERL_BADFREE" to 0.

       Badly placed ()'s
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh
           instead of Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed
           your script into Perl yourself.

       Bad name after %s::
           (F) You started to name a symbol by using a package
           prefix, and then didn't finish the symbol.  In partic­
           ular, you can't interpolate outside of quotes, so

               $var = 'myvar';
               $sym = mypack::$var;

           is not the same as

               $var = 'myvar';
               $sym = "mypack::$var";

       Bad realloc() ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on
           something that had never been malloc()ed in the first
           place. Mandatory, but can be disabled by setting envi­
           ronment variable "PERL_BADFREE" to 1.

       Bad symbol for array
           (P) An internal request asked to add an array entry to
           something that wasn't a symbol table entry.

       Bad symbol for filehandle
           (P) An internal request asked to add a filehandle
           entry to something that wasn't a symbol table entry.

       Bad symbol for hash
           (P) An internal request asked to add a hash entry to
           something that wasn't a symbol table entry.

       Bareword found in conditional
           (W bareword) The compiler found a bareword where it
           expected a conditional, which often indicates that an
           || or && was parsed as part of the last argument of
           the previous construct, for example:

               open FOO || die;

           It may also indicate a misspelled constant that has
           been interpreted as a bareword:

               use constant TYPO => 1;
               if (TYOP) { print "foo" }

           The "strict" pragma is useful in avoiding such errors.

           a BEGIN subroutine.  Compilation stops immediately and
           the interpreter is exited.

       BEGIN not safe after errors--compilation aborted
           (F) Perl found a "BEGIN {}" subroutine (or a "use"
           directive, which implies a "BEGIN {}") after one or
           more compilation errors had already occurred.  Since
           the intended environment for the "BEGIN {}" could not
           be guaranteed (due to the errors), and since subse­
           quent code likely depends on its correct operation,
           Perl just gave up.

       \1 better written as $1
           (W syntax) Outside of patterns, backreferences live on
           as variables.  The use of backslashes is grandfathered
           on the right-hand side of a substitution, but stylis­
           tically it's better to use the variable form because
           other Perl programmers will expect it, and it works
           better if there are more than 9 backreferences.

       Binary number > 0b11111111111111111111111111111111 non-
       portable
           (W portable) The binary number you specified is larger
           than 2**32-1 (4294967295) and therefore non-portable
           between systems.  See perlport for more on portability
           concerns.

       bind() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a bind on a closed socket.
           Did you forget to check the return value of your
           socket() call?  See "bind" in perlfunc.

       binmode() on closed filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried binmode() on a filehandle that
           was never opened.  Check you control flow and number
           of arguments.

       Bit vector size > 32 non-portable
           (W portable) Using bit vector sizes larger than 32 is
           non-portable.

       Bizarre copy of %s in %s
           (P) Perl detected an attempt to copy an internal value
           that is not copyable.

       Buffer overflow in prime_env_iter: %s
           (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  While Perl
           was preparing to iterate over %ENV, it encountered a
           logical name or symbol definition which was too long,
           so it was truncated to the string shown.

       Callback called exit

       Cannot compress integer in pack
           (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was too large to com­
           press.  The BER compressed integer format can only be
           used with positive integers, and you attempted to com­
           press Infinity or a very large number (> 1e308).  See
           "pack" in perlfunc.

       Cannot compress negative numbers in pack
           (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was negative.  The
           BER compressed integer format can only be used with
           positive integers.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Can only compress unsigned integers in pack
           (F) An argument to pack("w",...) was not an integer.
           The BER compressed integer format can only be used
           with positive integers, and you attempted to compress
           something else.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Can't bless non-reference value
           (F) Only hard references may be blessed.  This is how
           Perl "enforces" encapsulation of objects.  See per­
           lobj.

       Can't call method "%s" in empty package "%s"
           (F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly
           indicated a package functioning as a class, but that
           package doesn't have ANYTHING defined in it, let alone
           methods.  See perlobj.

       Can't call method "%s" on an undefined value
           (F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot
           filled by the object reference or package name con­
           tains an undefined value.  Something like this will
           reproduce the error:

               $BADREF = undef;
               process $BADREF 1,2,3;
               $BADREF->process(1,2,3);

       Can't call method "%s" on unblessed reference
           (F) A method call must know in what package it's sup­
           posed to run.  It ordinarily finds this out from the
           object reference you supply, but you didn't supply an
           object reference in this case.  A reference isn't an
           object reference until it has been blessed.  See per­
           lobj.

       Can't call method "%s" without a package or object refer­
       ence
           (F) You used the syntax of a method call, but the slot
           filled by the object reference or package name con­
           (P) For some reason you can't check the filesystem of
           the script for nosuid.

       Can't coerce array into hash
           (F) You used an array where a hash was expected, but
           the array has no information on how to map from keys
           to array indices.  You can do that only with arrays
           that have a hash reference at index 0.

       Can't coerce %s to integer in %s
           (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol
           table entries (typeglobs), can't be forced to stop
           being what they are.  So you can't say things like:

               *foo += 1;

           You CAN say

               $foo = *foo;
               $foo += 1;

           but then $foo no longer contains a glob.

       Can't coerce %s to number in %s
           (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol
           table entries (typeglobs), can't be forced to stop
           being what they are.

       Can't coerce %s to string in %s
           (F) Certain types of SVs, in particular real symbol
           table entries (typeglobs), can't be forced to stop
           being what they are.

       Can't create pipe mailbox
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  The process is suffer­
           ing from exhausted quotas or other plumbing problems.

       Can't declare class for non-scalar %s in "%s"
           (F) Currently, only scalar variables can be declared
           with a specific class qualifier in a "my" or "our"
           declaration.  The semantics may be extended for other
           types of variables in future.

       Can't declare %s in "%s"
           (F) Only scalar, array, and hash variables may be
           declared as "my" or "our" variables.  They must have
           ordinary identifiers as names.

       Can't do inplace edit: %s is not a regular file
           (S inplace) You tried to use the -i switch on a spe­
           cial file, such as a file in /dev, or a FIFO.  The
           file was ignored.
           -i switch.  The file was ignored.

       Can't do {n,m} with n > m in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (F) Minima must be less than or equal to maxima. If
           you really want your regexp to match something 0
           times, just put {0}. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
           expression about where the problem was discovered. See
           perlre.

       Can't do setegid!
           (P) The setegid() call failed for some reason in the
           setuid emulator of suidperl.

       Can't do seteuid!
           (P) The setuid emulator of suidperl failed for some
           reason.

       Can't do setuid
           (F) This typically means that ordinary perl tried to
           exec suidperl to do setuid emulation, but couldn't
           exec it.  It looks for a name of the form sperl5.000
           in the same directory that the perl executable resides
           under the name perl5.000, typically /usr/local/bin on
           Unix machines.  If the file is there, check the exe­
           cute permissions.  If it isn't, ask your sysadmin why
           he and/or she removed it.

       Can't do waitpid with flags
           (F) This machine doesn't have either waitpid() or
           wait4(), so only waitpid() without flags is emulated.

       Can't emulate -%s on #! line
           (F) The #! line specifies a switch that doesn't make
           sense at this point.  For example, it'd be kind of
           silly to put a -x on the #!  line.

       Can't exec "%s": %s
           (W exec) A system(), exec(), or piped open call could
           not execute the named program for the indicated rea­
           son.  Typical reasons include: the permissions were
           wrong on the file, the file wasn't found in
           $ENV{PATH}, the executable in question was compiled
           for another architecture, or the #! line in a script
           points to an interpreter that can't be run for similar
           reasons.  (Or maybe your system doesn't support #! at
           all.)

       Can't exec %s
           (F) Perl was trying to execute the indicated program
           for you because that's what the #! line said.  If
           that's not what you wanted, you may need to mention
           erty by that name could not be found. Maybe you mis­
           spelled the name of the property (remember that the
           names of character properties consist only of alphanu­
           meric characters), or maybe you forgot the "Is" or
           "In" prefix?

       Can't find label %s
           (F) You said to goto a label that isn't mentioned any­
           where that it's possible for us to go to.  See "goto"
           in perlfunc.

       Can't find %s on PATH
           (F) You used the -S switch, but the script to execute
           could not be found in the PATH.

       Can't find %s on PATH, '.' not in PATH
           (F) You used the -S switch, but the script to execute
           could not be found in the PATH, or at least not with
           the correct permissions.  The script exists in the
           current directory, but PATH prohibits running it.

       Can't find %s property definition %s
           (F) You may have tried to use "\p" which means a Uni­
           code property (for example "\p{Lu}" is all uppercase
           letters).  If you did mean to use a Unicode property,
           see perlunicode for the list of known properties.  If
           you didn't mean to use a Unicode property, escape the
           "\p", either by "\\p" (just the "\p") or by "\Q\p"
           (the rest of the string, until possible "\E").

       Can't find string terminator %s anywhere before EOF
           (F) Perl strings can stretch over multiple lines.
           This message means that the closing delimiter was
           omitted.  Because bracketed quotes count nesting lev­
           els, the following is missing its final parenthesis:

               print q(The character '(' starts a side comment.);

           If you're getting this error from a here-document, you
           may have included unseen whitespace before or after
           your closing tag. A good programmer's editor will have
           a way to help you find these characters.

       Can't fork
           (F) A fatal error occurred while trying to fork while
           opening a pipeline.

       Can't get filespec - stale stat buffer?
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  This arises because of
           the difference between access checks under VMS and
           under the Unix model Perl assumes.  Under VMS, access
           checks are done by filename, rather than by bits in
           this warning in response to a Perl command; it arises
           only if some internal code takes stat buffers
           lightly.)

       Can't get pipe mailbox device name
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  After creating a mail­
           box to act as a pipe, Perl can't retrieve its name for
           later use.

       Can't get SYSGEN parameter value for MAXBUF
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl asked $GETSYI how
           big you want your mailbox buffers to be, and didn't
           get an answer.

       Can't "goto" into the middle of a foreach loop
           (F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump into the
           middle of a foreach loop.  You can't get there from
           here.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't "goto" out of a pseudo block
           (F) A "goto" statement was executed to jump out of
           what might look like a block, except that it isn't a
           proper block.  This usually occurs if you tried to
           jump out of a sort() block or subroutine, which is a
           no-no.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't goto subroutine from an eval-string
           (F) The "goto subroutine" call can't be used to jump
           out of an eval "string".  (You can use it to jump out
           of an eval {BLOCK}, but you probably don't want to.)

       Can't goto subroutine outside a subroutine
           (F) The deeply magical "goto subroutine" call can only
           replace one subroutine call for another.  It can't
           manufacture one out of whole cloth.  In general you
           should be calling it out of only an AUTOLOAD routine
           anyway.  See "goto" in perlfunc.

       Can't ignore signal CHLD, forcing to default
           (W signal) Perl has detected that it is being run with
           the SIGCHLD signal (sometimes known as SIGCLD) dis­
           abled.  Since disabling this signal will interfere
           with proper determination of exit status of child pro­
           cesses, Perl has reset the signal to its default
           value.  This situation typically indicates that the
           parent program under which Perl may be running (e.g.
           cron) is being very careless.

       Can't "last" outside a loop block
           (F) A "last" statement was executed to break out of
           the current block, except that there's this itty bitty
           problem called there isn't a current block.  Note that

       Can't localize pseudo-hash element
           (F) You said something like "local $ar->{'key'}",
           where $ar is a reference to a pseudo-hash.  That
           hasn't been implemented yet, but you can get a similar
           effect by localizing the corresponding array element
           directly -- "local $ar->[$ar->[0]{'key'}]".

       Can't localize through a reference
           (F) You said something like "local $$ref", which Perl
           can't currently handle, because when it goes to
           restore the old value of whatever $ref pointed to
           after the scope of the local() is finished, it can't
           be sure that $ref will still be a reference.

       Can't locate %s
           (F) You said to "do" (or "require", or "use") a file
           that couldn't be found. Perl looks for the file in all
           the locations mentioned in @INC, unless the file name
           included the full path to the file.  Perhaps you need
           to set the PERL5LIB or PERL5OPT environment variable
           to say where the extra library is, or maybe the script
           needs to add the library name to @INC.  Or maybe you
           just misspelled the name of the file.  See "require"
           in perlfunc and lib.

       Can't locate auto/%s.al in @INC
           (F) A function (or method) was called in a package
           which allows autoload, but there is no function to
           autoload.  Most probable causes are a misprint in a
           function/method name or a failure to "AutoSplit" the
           file, say, by doing "make install".

       Can't locate object method "%s" via package "%s"
           (F) You called a method correctly, and it correctly
           indicated a package functioning as a class, but that
           package doesn't define that particular method, nor
           does any of its base classes.  See perlobj.

       Can't locate package %s for @%s::ISA
           (W syntax) The @ISA array contained the name of
           another package that doesn't seem to exist.

       Can't locate PerlIO%s
           (F) You tried to use in open() a PerlIO layer that
           does not exist, e.g. open(FH, ">:nosuchlayer", "some­
           file").

       Can't make list assignment to \%ENV on this system
           (F) List assignment to %ENV is not supported on some
           systems, notably VMS.

       Can't modify %s in %s
           (F) The target of a msgrcv must be modifiable to be
           used as a receive buffer.

       Can't "next" outside a loop block
           (F) A "next" statement was executed to reiterate the
           current block, but there isn't a current block.  Note
           that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loop­
           ish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
           or grep().  You can usually double the curlies to get
           the same effect though, because the inner curlies will
           be considered a block that loops once.  See "next" in
           perlfunc.

       Can't open %s: %s
           (S inplace) The implicit opening of a file through use
           of the "<>" filehandle, either implicitly under the
           "-n" or "-p" command-line switches, or explicitly,
           failed for the indicated reason.  Usually this is
           because you don't have read permission for a file
           which you named on the command line.

       Can't open a reference
           (W io) You tried to open a scalar reference for read­
           ing or writing, using the 3-arg open() syntax :

               open FH, '>', $ref;

           but your version of perl is compiled without perlio,
           and this form of open is not supported.

       Can't open bidirectional pipe
           (W pipe) You tried to say "open(CMD, "|cmd|")", which
           is not supported.  You can try any of several modules
           in the Perl library to do this, such as IPC::Open2.
           Alternately, direct the pipe's output to a file using
           ">", and then read it in under a different file han­
           dle.

       Can't open error file %s as stderr
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own com­
           mand line redirection, and couldn't open the file
           specified after '2>' or '2>>' on the command line for
           writing.

       Can't open input file %s as stdin
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own com­
           mand line redirection, and couldn't open the file
           specified after '<' on the command line for reading.

       Can't open output file %s as stdout
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl does its own com­
           mand line redirection, and couldn't open the file
           element of %ENV from the CRTL's internal environment
           array and discovered the array was missing.  You need
           to figure out where your CRTL misplaced its environ or
           define PERL_ENV_TABLES (see perlvms) so that environ
           is not searched.

       Can't redefine active sort subroutine %s
           (F) Perl optimizes the internal handling of sort sub­
           routines and keeps pointers into them.  You tried to
           redefine one such sort subroutine when it was cur­
           rently active, which is not allowed.  If you really
           want to do this, you should write "sort { &func } @x"
           instead of "sort func @x".

       Can't "redo" outside a loop block
           (F) A "redo" statement was executed to restart the
           current block, but there isn't a current block.  Note
           that an "if" or "else" block doesn't count as a "loop­
           ish" block, as doesn't a block given to sort(), map()
           or grep().  You can usually double the curlies to get
           the same effect though, because the inner curlies will
           be considered a block that loops once.  See "redo" in
           perlfunc.

       Can't remove %s: %s, skipping file
           (S inplace) You requested an inplace edit without cre­
           ating a backup file.  Perl was unable to remove the
           original file to replace it with the modified file.
           The file was left unmodified.

       Can't rename %s to %s: %s, skipping file
           (S inplace) The rename done by the -i switch failed
           for some reason, probably because you don't have write
           permission to the directory.

       Can't reopen input pipe (name: %s) in binary mode
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl thought stdin was
           a pipe, and tried to reopen it to accept binary data.
           Alas, it failed.

       Can't resolve method `%s' overloading `%s' in package `%s'
           (F|P) Error resolving overloading specified by a
           method name (as opposed to a subroutine reference): no
           such method callable via the package. If method name
           is "???", this is an internal error.

       Can't reswap uid and euid
           (P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the
           setuid emulator of suidperl.

       Can't return %s from lvalue subroutine
           (F) Perl detected an attempt to return illegal lvalues
           that the call should be in list context.

       Can't stat script "%s"
           (P) For some reason you can't fstat() the script even
           though you have it open already.  Bizarre.

       Can't swap uid and euid
           (P) The setreuid() call failed for some reason in the
           setuid emulator of suidperl.

       Can't take log of %g
           (F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the log­
           arithm of a negative number or zero. There's a
           Math::Complex package that comes standard with Perl,
           though, if you really want to do that for the negative
           numbers.

       Can't take sqrt of %g
           (F) For ordinary real numbers, you can't take the
           square root of a negative number.  There's a
           Math::Complex package that comes standard with Perl,
           though, if you really want to do that.

       Can't undef active subroutine
           (F) You can't undefine a routine that's currently run­
           ning.  You can, however, redefine it while it's run­
           ning, and you can even undef the redefined subroutine
           while the old routine is running.  Go figure.

       Can't unshift
           (F) You tried to unshift an "unreal" array that can't
           be unshifted, such as the main Perl stack.

       Can't upgrade that kind of scalar
           (P) The internal sv_upgrade routine adds "members" to
           an SV, making it into a more specialized kind of SV.
           The top several SV types are so specialized, however,
           that they cannot be interconverted.  This message
           indicates that such a conversion was attempted.

       Can't upgrade to undef
           (P) The undefined SV is the bottom of the totem pole,
           in the scheme of upgradability.  Upgrading to undef
           indicates an error in the code calling sv_upgrade.

       Can't use anonymous symbol table for method lookup
           (P) The internal routine that does method lookup was
           handed a symbol table that doesn't have a name.  Sym­
           bol tables can become anonymous for example by
           undefining stashes: "undef %Some::Package::".

       Can't use an undefined value as %s reference

       Can't use %s for loop variable
           (F) Only a simple scalar variable may be used as a
           loop variable on a foreach.

       Can't use global %s in "my"
           (F) You tried to declare a magical variable as a lexi­
           cal variable.  This is not allowed, because the magic
           can be tied to only one location (namely the global
           variable) and it would be incredibly confusing to have
           variables in your program that looked like magical
           variables but weren't.

       Can't use "my %s" in sort comparison
           (F) The global variables $a and $b are reserved for
           sort comparisons.  You mentioned $a or $b in the same
           line as the <=> or cmp operator, and the variable had
           earlier been declared as a lexical variable.  Either
           qualify the sort variable with the package name, or
           rename the lexical variable.

       Can't use %s ref as %s ref
           (F) You've mixed up your reference types.  You have to
           dereference a reference of the type needed.  You can
           use the ref() function to test the type of the refer­
           ence, if need be.

       Can't use string ("%s") as %s ref while "strict refs" in
       use
           (F) Only hard references are allowed by "strict refs".
           Symbolic references are disallowed.  See perlref.

       Can't use subscript on %s
           (F) The compiler tried to interpret a bracketed
           expression as a subscript.  But to the left of the
           brackets was an expression that didn't look like an
           array reference, or anything else subscriptable.

       Can't use \%c to mean $%c in expression
           (W syntax) In an ordinary expression, backslash is a
           unary operator that creates a reference to its argu­
           ment.  The use of backslash to indicate a backrefer­
           ence to a matched substring is valid only as part of a
           regular expression pattern.  Trying to do this in
           ordinary Perl code produces a value that prints out
           looking like SCALAR(0xdecaf).  Use the $1 form
           instead.

       Can't weaken a nonreference
           (F) You attempted to weaken something that was not a
           reference.  Only references can be weakened.

           Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you meant

               pack("C", $x & 255)

           If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use
           the "U" format instead.

       Character in "c" format wrapped in pack
           (W pack) You said

               pack("c", $x)

           where $x is either less than -128 or more than 127;
           the "c" format is only for encoding native operating
           system characters (ASCII, EBCDIC, and so on) and not
           for Unicode characters, so Perl behaved as if you
           meant

               pack("c", $x & 255);

           If you actually want to pack Unicode codepoints, use
           the "U" format instead.

       close() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to close a filehandle that was
           never opened.

       Code missing after '/'
           (F) You had a (sub-)template that ends with a '/'.
           There must be another template code following the
           slash. See "pack" in perlfunc.

       %s: Command not found
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh
           instead of Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed
           your script into Perl yourself.

       Compilation failed in require
           (F) Perl could not compile a file specified in a
           "require" statement.  Perl uses this generic message
           when none of the errors that it encountered were
           severe enough to halt compilation immediately.

       Complex regular subexpression recursion limit (%d)
       exceeded
           (W regexp) The regular expression engine uses recur­
           sion in complex situations where back-tracking is
           required.  Recursion depth is limited to 32766, or
           perhaps less in architectures where the stack cannot
           grow arbitrarily.  ("Simple" and "medium" situations
           are handled without recursion and are not subject to a
           limit.)  Try shortening the string under examination;
           able. This lock attempt will only succeed after the
           other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relin­
           quished the lock.

       cond_signal() called on unlocked variable
           (W threads) Within a thread-enabled program, you tried
           to call cond_signal() on a variable which wasn't
           locked. The cond_signal() function  is used to wake up
           another thread that is waiting in a cond_wait(). To
           ensure that the signal isn't sent before the other
           thread has a chance to enter the wait, it is usual for
           the signaling thread to first wait for a lock on vari­
           able. This lock attempt will only succeed after the
           other thread has entered cond_wait() and thus relin­
           quished the lock.

       connect() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a connect on a closed
           socket.  Did you forget to check the return value of
           your socket() call?  See "connect" in perlfunc.

       Constant(%s)%s: %s
           (F) The parser found inconsistencies either while
           attempting to define an overloaded constant, or when
           trying to find the character name specified in the
           "\N{...}" escape.  Perhaps you forgot to load the cor­
           responding "overload" or "charnames" pragma?  See
           charnames and overload.

       Constant is not %s reference
           (F) A constant value (perhaps declared using the "use
           constant" pragma) is being dereferenced, but it
           amounts to the wrong type of reference.  The message
           indicates the type of reference that was expected.
           This usually indicates a syntax error in dereferencing
           the constant value.  See "Constant Functions" in perl­
           sub and constant.

       Constant subroutine %s redefined
           (S) You redefined a subroutine which had previously
           been eligible for inlining.  See "Constant Functions"
           in perlsub for commentary and workarounds.

       Constant subroutine %s undefined
           (W misc) You undefined a subroutine which had previ­
           ously been eligible for inlining.  See "Constant Func­
           tions" in perlsub for commentary and workarounds.

       Copy method did not return a reference
           (F) The method which overloads "=" is buggy. See "Copy
           Constructor" in overload.

           internal failure.

       Count after length/code in unpack
           (F) You had an unpack template indicating a counted-
           length string, but you have also specified an explicit
           size for the string.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Deep recursion on subroutine "%s"
           (W recursion) This subroutine has called itself
           (directly or indirectly) 100 times more than it has
           returned.  This probably indicates an infinite recur­
           sion, unless you're writing strange benchmark pro­
           grams, in which case it indicates something else.

       defined(@array) is deprecated
           (D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on
           arrays because it checks for an undefined scalar
           value.  If you want to see if the array is empty, just
           use "if (@array) { # not empty }" for example.

       defined(%hash) is deprecated
           (D deprecated) defined() is not usually useful on
           hashes because it checks for an undefined scalar
           value.  If you want to see if the hash is empty, just
           use "if (%hash) { # not empty }" for example.

       %s defines neither package nor VERSION--version check
       failed
           (F) You said something like "use Module 42" but in the
           Module file there are neither package declarations nor
           a $VERSION.

       Delimiter for here document is too long
           (F) In a here document construct like "<<FOO", the
           label "FOO" is too long for Perl to handle.  You have
           to be seriously twisted to write code that triggers
           this error.

       Did not produce a valid header
           See Server error.

       %s did not return a true value
           (F) A required (or used) file must return a true value
           to indicate that it compiled correctly and ran its
           initialization code correctly.  It's traditional to
           end such a file with a "1;", though any true value
           would do.  See "require" in perlfunc.

       (Did you mean &%s instead?)
           (W) You probably referred to an imported subroutine
           &FOO as $FOO or some such.


       Document contains no data
           See Server error.

       %s does not define %s::VERSION--version check failed
           (F) You said something like "use Module 42" but the
           Module did not define a "$VERSION."

       '/' does not take a repeat count
           (F) You cannot put a repeat count of any kind right
           after the '/' code.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Don't know how to handle magic of type '%s'
           (P) The internal handling of magical variables has
           been cursed.

       do_study: out of memory
           (P) This should have been caught by safemalloc()
           instead.

       (Do you need to predeclare %s?)
           (S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with
           the message "%s found where operator expected".  It
           often means a subroutine or module name is being ref­
           erenced that hasn't been declared yet.  This may be
           because of ordering problems in your file, or because
           of a missing "sub", "package", "require", or "use"
           statement.  If you're referencing something that isn't
           defined yet, you don't actually have to define the
           subroutine or package before the current location.
           You can use an empty "sub foo;" or "package FOO;" to
           enter a "forward" declaration.

       dump() better written as CORE::dump()
           (W misc) You used the obsolescent "dump()" built-in
           function, without fully qualifying it as
           "CORE::dump()".  Maybe it's a typo.  See "dump" in
           perlfunc.

       Duplicate free() ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called free() on some­
           thing that had already been freed.

       elseif should be elsif
           (S) There is no keyword "elseif" in Perl because Larry
           thinks it's ugly.  Your code will be interpreted as an
           attempt to call a method named "elseif" for the class
           returned by the following block.  This is unlikely to
           be what you want.

       Empty %s
           (F) "\p" and "\P" are used to introduce a named Uni­
           case the conversion routines don't handle.  Drat.

       %s: Eval-group in insecure regular expression
           (F) Perl detected tainted data when trying to compile
           a regular expression that contains the "(?{ ... })"
           zero-width assertion, which is unsafe.  See "(?{ code
           })" in perlre, and perlsec.

       %s: Eval-group not allowed at run time
           (F) Perl tried to compile a regular expression con­
           taining the "(?{ ... })" zero-width assertion at run
           time, as it would when the pattern contains interpo­
           lated values.  Since that is a security risk, it is
           not allowed.  If you insist, you may still do this by
           explicitly building the pattern from an interpolated
           string at run time and using that in an eval().  See
           "(?{ code })" in perlre.

       %s: Eval-group not allowed, use re 'eval'
           (F) A regular expression contained the "(?{ ... })"
           zero-width assertion, but that construct is only
           allowed when the "use re 'eval'" pragma is in effect.
           See "(?{ code })" in perlre.

       Excessively long <> operator
           (F) The contents of a <> operator may not exceed the
           maximum size of a Perl identifier.  If you're just
           trying to glob a long list of filenames, try using the
           glob() operator, or put the filenames into a variable
           and glob that.

       exec? I'm not *that* kind of operating system
           (F) The "exec" function is not implemented in MacPerl.
           See perlport.

       Execution of %s aborted due to compilation errors
           (F) The final summary message when a Perl compilation
           fails.

       Exiting eval via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting an eval by unconventional
           means, such as a goto, or a loop control statement.

       Exiting format via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a format by unconventional
           means, such as a goto, or a loop control statement.

       Exiting pseudo-block via %s
           (W exiting) You are exiting a rather special block
           construct (like a sort block or subroutine) by uncon­
           ventional means, such as a goto, or a loop control
           statement.  See "sort" in perlfunc.
           into the package main.  This is usually not what you
           want.  Consider providing a default target package,
           e.g. bless($ref, $p || 'MyPackage');

       %s: Expression syntax
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh
           instead of Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed
           your script into Perl yourself.

       %s failed--call queue aborted
           (F) An untrapped exception was raised while executing
           a CHECK, INIT, or END subroutine.  Processing of the
           remainder of the queue of such routines has been pre­
           maturely ended.

       False [] range "%s" in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) A character class range must start and end
           at a literal character, not another character class
           like "\d" or "[:alpha:]".  The "-" in your false range
           is interpreted as a literal "-".  Consider quoting the
           "-", "\-".  The <-- HERE shows in the regular expres­
           sion about where the problem was discovered.  See
           perlre.

       Fatal VMS error at %s, line %d
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Something untoward hap­
           pened in a VMS system service or RTL routine; Perl's
           exit status should provide more details.  The filename
           in "at %s" and the line number in "line %d" tell you
           which section of the Perl source code is distressed.

       fcntl is not implemented
           (F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement fcntl().
           What is this, a PDP-11 or something?

       Filehandle %s opened only for input
           (W io) You tried to write on a read-only filehandle.
           If you intended it to be a read-write filehandle, you
           needed to open it with "+<" or "+>" or "+>>" instead
           of with "<" or nothing.  If you intended only to write
           the file, use ">" or ">>".  See "open" in perlfunc.

       Filehandle %s opened only for output
           (W io) You tried to read from a filehandle opened only
           for writing, If you intended it to be a read/write
           filehandle, you needed to open it with "+<" or "+>" or
           "+>>" instead of with "<" or nothing.  If you intended
           only to read from the file, use "<".  See "open" in
           perlfunc.  Another possibility is that you attempted
           to open filedescriptor 0 (also known as STDIN) for
           output (maybe you closed STDIN earlier?).

           meant to introduce a variable name that happens to be
           missing.  So you have to put either the backslash or
           the name.

       flock() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're attempting to flock()
           got itself closed some time before now.  Check your
           control flow.  flock() operates on filehandles.  Are
           you attempting to call flock() on a dirhandle by the
           same name?

       Format not terminated
           (F) A format must be terminated by a line with a soli­
           tary dot.  Perl got to the end of your file without
           finding such a line.

       Format %s redefined
           (W redefine) You redefined a format.  To suppress this
           warning, say

               {
                   no warnings 'redefine';
                   eval "format NAME =...";
               }

       Found = in conditional, should be ==
           (W syntax) You said

               if ($foo = 123)

           when you meant

               if ($foo == 123)

           (or something like that).

       %s found where operator expected
           (S) The Perl lexer knows whether to expect a term or
           an operator.  If it sees what it knows to be a term
           when it was expecting to see an operator, it gives you
           this warning.  Usually it indicates that an operator
           or delimiter was omitted, such as a semicolon.

       gdbm store returned %d, errno %d, key "%s"
           (S) A warning from the GDBM_File extension that a
           store failed.

       gethostent not implemented
           (F) Your C library apparently doesn't implement geth­
           ostent(), probably because if it did, it'd feel
           morally obligated to return every hostname on the
           Internet.
           value of your socket() call?  See "getsockopt" in
           perlfunc.

       Global symbol "%s" requires explicit package name
           (F) You've said "use strict vars", which indicates
           that all variables must either be lexically scoped
           (using "my"), declared beforehand using "our", or
           explicitly qualified to say which package the global
           variable is in (using "::").

       glob failed (%s)
           (W glob) Something went wrong with the external pro­
           gram(s) used for "glob" and "<*.c>".  Usually, this
           means that you supplied a "glob" pattern that caused
           the external program to fail and exit with a nonzero
           status.  If the message indicates that the abnormal
           exit resulted in a coredump, this may also mean that
           your csh (C shell) is broken.  If so, you should
           change all of the csh-related variables in config.sh:
           If you have tcsh, make the variables refer to it as if
           it were csh (e.g.  "full_csh='/usr/bin/tcsh'"); other­
           wise, make them all empty (except that "d_csh" should
           be 'undef') so that Perl will think csh is missing.
           In either case, after editing config.sh, run "./Con­
           figure -S" and rebuild Perl.

       Glob not terminated
           (F) The lexer saw a left angle bracket in a place
           where it was expecting a term, so it's looking for the
           corresponding right angle bracket, and not finding it.
           Chances are you left some needed parentheses out ear­
           lier in the line, and you really meant a "less than".

       Got an error from DosAllocMem
           (P) An error peculiar to OS/2.  Most probably you're
           using an obsolete version of Perl, and this should not
           happen anyway.

       goto must have label
           (F) Unlike with "next" or "last", you're not allowed
           to goto an unspecified destination.  See "goto" in
           perlfunc.

       ()-group starts with a count
           (F) A ()-group started with a count.  A count is sup­
           posed to follow something: a template character or a
           ()-group.
            See "pack" in perlfunc.

       %s had compilation errors
           (F) The final summary message when a "perl -c" fails.

           likely be uninformative.

       Hexadecimal number > 0xffffffff non-portable
           (W portable) The hexadecimal number you specified is
           larger than 2**32-1 (4294967295) and therefore non-
           portable between systems.  See perlport for more on
           portability concerns.

       Identifier too long
           (F) Perl limits identifiers (names for variables,
           functions, etc.) to about 250 characters for simple
           names, and somewhat more for compound names (like
           $A::B).  You've exceeded Perl's limits.  Future ver­
           sions of Perl are likely to eliminate these arbitrary
           limitations.

       Illegal binary digit %s
           (F) You used a digit other than 0 or 1 in a binary
           number.

       Illegal binary digit %s ignored
           (W digit) You may have tried to use a digit other than
           0 or 1 in a binary number.  Interpretation of the
           binary number stopped before the offending digit.

       Illegal character %s (carriage return)
           (F) Perl normally treats carriage returns in the pro­
           gram text as it would any other whitespace, which
           means you should never see this error when Perl was
           built using standard options.  For some reason, your
           version of Perl appears to have been built without
           this support.  Talk to your Perl administrator.

       Illegal character in prototype for %s : %s
           (W syntax) An illegal character was found in a proto­
           type declaration.  Legal characters in prototypes are
           $, @, %, *, ;, [, ], &, and \.

       Illegal declaration of anonymous subroutine
           (F) When using the "sub" keyword to construct an
           anonymous subroutine, you must always specify a block
           of code. See perlsub.

       Illegal division by zero
           (F) You tried to divide a number by 0.  Either some­
           thing was wrong in your logic, or you need to put a
           conditional in to guard against meaningless input.

       Illegal hexadecimal digit %s ignored
           (W digit) You may have tried to use a character other
           than 0 - 9 or A - F, a - f in a hexadecimal number.
           Interpretation of the hexadecimal number stopped

       Illegal octal digit %s ignored
           (W digit) You may have tried to use an 8 or 9 in an
           octal number.  Interpretation of the octal number
           stopped before the 8 or 9.

       Illegal switch in PERL5OPT: %s
           (X) The PERL5OPT environment variable may only be used
           to set the following switches: -[DIMUdmtw].

       Ill-formed CRTL environ value "%s"
           (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to
           read the CRTL's internal environ array, and encoun­
           tered an element without the "=" delimiter used to
           separate keys from values.  The element is ignored.

       Ill-formed message in prime_env_iter: |%s|
           (W internal) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to
           read a logical name or CLI symbol definition when
           preparing to iterate over %ENV, and didn't see the
           expected delimiter between key and value, so the line
           was ignored.

       (in cleanup) %s
           (W misc) This prefix usually indicates that a
           DESTROY() method raised the indicated exception.
           Since destructors are usually called by the system at
           arbitrary points during execution, and often a vast
           number of times, the warning is issued only once for
           any number of failures that would otherwise result in
           the same message being repeated.

           Failure of user callbacks dispatched using the
           "G_KEEPERR" flag could also result in this warning.
           See "G_KEEPERR" in perlcall.

       In EBCDIC the v-string components cannot exceed 2147483647
           (F) An error peculiar to EBCDIC.  Internally,
           v-strings are stored as Unicode code points, and
           encoded in EBCDIC as UTF-EBCDIC.  The UTF-EBCDIC
           encoding is limited to code points no larger than
           2147483647 (0x7FFFFFFF).

       Insecure dependency in %s
           (F) You tried to do something that the tainting mecha­
           nism didn't like.  The tainting mechanism is turned on
           when you're running setuid or setgid, or when you
           specify -T to turn it on explicitly.  The tainting
           mechanism labels all data that's derived directly or
           indirectly from the user, who is considered to be
           unworthy of your trust.  If any such data is used in a
           "dangerous" operation, you get this error.  See
           perlsec for more information.

       Integer overflow in %s number
           (W overflow) The hexadecimal, octal or binary number
           you have specified either as a literal or as an argu­
           ment to hex() or oct() is too big for your architec­
           ture, and has been converted to a floating point num­
           ber.  On a 32-bit architecture the largest hexadeci­
           mal, octal or binary number representable without
           overflow is 0xFFFFFFFF, 037777777777, or
           0b11111111111111111111111111111111 respectively.  Note
           that Perl transparently promotes all numbers to a
           floating point representation internally--subject to
           loss of precision errors in subsequent operations.

       Internal disaster in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (P) Something went badly wrong in the regular expres­
           sion parser.  The <-- HERE shows in the regular
           expression about where the problem was discovered.

       Internal inconsistency in tracking vforks
           (S) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl keeps track of
           the number of times you've called "fork" and "exec",
           to determine whether the current call to "exec" should
           affect the current script or a subprocess (see "exec
           LIST" in perlvms).  Somehow, this count has become
           scrambled, so Perl is making a guess and treating this
           "exec" as a request to terminate the Perl script and
           execute the specified command.

       Internal urp in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (P) Something went badly awry in the regular expres­
           sion parser. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expres­
           sion about where the problem was discovered.

       %s (...) interpreted as function
           (W syntax) You've run afoul of the rule that says that
           any list operator followed by parentheses turns into a
           function, with all the list operators arguments found
           inside the parentheses.  See "Terms and List Operators
           (Leftward)" in perlop.

       Invalid %s attribute: %s
           The indicated attribute for a subroutine or variable
           was not recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied han­
           dler.  See attributes.

       Invalid %s attributes: %s
           The indicated attributes for a subroutine or variable
           were not recognized by Perl or by a user-supplied han­
           dler.  See attributes.

       Invalid conversion in %s: "%s"
           (F) The range specified in the tr/// or y/// operator
           had a minimum character greater than the maximum char­
           acter.  See perlop.

       Invalid separator character %s in attribute list
           (F) Something other than a colon or whitespace was
           seen between the elements of an attribute list.  If
           the previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter
           list, perhaps that list was terminated too soon.  See
           attributes.

       Invalid separator character %s in PerlIO layer specifica­
       tion %s
           (W layer) When pushing layers onto the Perl I/O sys­
           tem, something other than a colon or whitespace was
           seen between the elements of a layer list.  If the
           previous attribute had a parenthesised parameter list,
           perhaps that list was terminated too soon.

       Invalid type '%s' in %s
           (F) The given character is not a valid pack or unpack
           type.  See "pack" in perlfunc.  (W) The given charac­
           ter is not a valid pack or unpack type but used to be
           silently ignored.

       ioctl is not implemented
           (F) Your machine apparently doesn't implement ioctl(),
           which is pretty strange for a machine that supports C.

       ioctl() on unopened %s
           (W unopened) You tried ioctl() on a filehandle that
           was never opened.  Check you control flow and number
           of arguments.

       IO layers (like "%s") unavailable
           (F) Your Perl has not been configured to have PerlIO,
           and therefore you cannot use IO layers.  To have Per­
           lIO Perl must be configured with 'useperlio'.

       IO::Socket::atmark not implemented on this architecture
           (F) Your machine doesn't implement the sockatmark()
           functionality, neither as a system call or an ioctl
           call (SIOCATMARK).

       `%s' is not a code reference
           (W overload) The second (fourth, sixth, ...) argument
           of overload::constant needs to be a code reference.
           Either an anonymous subroutine, or a reference to a
           subroutine.

       `%s' is not an overloadable type
           (W overload) You tried to overload a constant type the
           where you were called from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       Label not found for "redo %s"
           (F) You named a loop to restart, but you're not cur­
           rently in a loop of that name, not even if you count
           where you were called from.  See "last" in perlfunc.

       leaving effective %s failed
           (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, switching
           the real and effective uids or gids failed.

       length/code after end of string in unpack
           (F) While unpacking, the string buffer was alread used
           up when an unpack length/code combination tried to
           obtain more data. This results in an undefined value
           for the length. See "pack" in perlfunc.

       listen() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a listen on a closed
           socket.  Did you forget to check the return value of
           your socket() call?  See "listen" in perlfunc.

       Lookbehind longer than %d not implemented in regex; marked
       by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) There is currently a limit on the length of string
           which lookbehind can handle. This restriction may be
           eased in a future release. The <-- HERE shows in the
           regular expression about where the problem was discov­
           ered.

       lstat() on filehandle %s
           (W io) You tried to do an lstat on a filehandle.  What
           did you mean by that?  lstat() makes sense only on
           filenames.  (Perl did a fstat() instead on the file­
           handle.)

       Lvalue subs returning %s not implemented yet
           (F) Due to limitations in the current implementation,
           array and hash values cannot be returned in subrou­
           tines used in lvalue context.  See "Lvalue subrou­
           tines" in perlsub.

       Malformed integer in [] in  pack
           (F) Between the  brackets enclosing a numeric repeat
           count only digits are permitted.  See "pack" in perl­
           func.

       Malformed integer in [] in unpack
           (F) Between the  brackets enclosing a numeric repeat
           count only digits are permitted.  See "pack" in perl­
           func.


       Malformed prototype for %s: %s
           (F) You tried to use a function with a malformed pro­
           totype.  The syntax of function prototypes is given a
           brief compile-time check for obvious errors like
           invalid characters.  A more rigorous check is run when
           the function is called.

       Malformed UTF-8 character (%s)
           Perl detected something that didn't comply with UTF-8
           encoding rules.

           One possible cause is that you read in data that you
           thought to be in UTF-8 but it wasn't (it was for exam­
           ple legacy 8-bit data).  Another possibility is care­
           less use of utf8::upgrade().

       Malformed UTF-16 surrogate
           Perl thought it was reading UTF-16 encoded character
           data but while doing it Perl met a malformed Unicode
           surrogate.

       %s matches null string many times in regex; marked by <--
       HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) The pattern you've specified would be an
           infinite loop if the regular expression engine didn't
           specifically check for that.  The <-- HERE shows in
           the regular expression about where the problem was
           discovered.  See perlre.

       "%s" may clash with future reserved word
           (W) This warning may be due to running a perl5 script
           through a perl4 interpreter, especially if the word
           that is being warned about is "use" or "my".

       % may not be used in pack
           (F) You can't pack a string by supplying a checksum,
           because the checksumming process loses information,
           and you can't go the other way.  See "unpack" in perl­
           func.

       Method for operation %s not found in package %s during
       blessing
           (F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an
           overloading table that doesn't resolve to a valid sub­
           routine.  See overload.

       Method %s not permitted
           See Server error.

       Might be a runaway multi-line %s string starting on line
       %d
           (F) While certain functions allow you to specify a
           filehandle or an "indirect object" before the argument
           list, this ain't one of them.

       Missing command in piped open
           (W pipe) You used the "open(FH, "| command")" or
           "open(FH, "command |")" construction, but the command
           was missing or blank.

       Missing control char name in \c
           (F) A double-quoted string ended with "\c", without
           the required control character name.

       Missing name in "my sub"
           (F) The reserved syntax for lexically scoped subrou­
           tines requires that they have a name with which they
           can be found.

       Missing $ on loop variable
           (F) Apparently you've been programming in csh too
           much.  Variables are always mentioned with the $ in
           Perl, unlike in the shells, where it can vary from one
           line to the next.

       (Missing operator before %s?)
           (S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with
           the message "%s found where operator expected".  Often
           the missing operator is a comma.

       Missing right brace on %s
           (F) Missing right brace in "\p{...}" or "\P{...}".

       Missing right curly or square bracket
           (F) The lexer counted more opening curly or square
           brackets than closing ones.  As a general rule, you'll
           find it's missing near the place you were last edit­
           ing.

       (Missing semicolon on previous line?)
           (S) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with
           the message "%s found where operator expected".  Don't
           automatically put a semicolon on the previous line
           just because you saw this message.

       Modification of a read-only value attempted
           (F) You tried, directly or indirectly, to change the
           value of a constant.  You didn't, of course, try "2 =
           1", because the compiler catches that.  But an easy
           way to do the same thing is:

               sub mod { $_[0] = 1 }
               mod(2);

           tence, and the subscript was probably negative, even
           counting from end of the array backwards.

       Modification of non-creatable hash value attempted, %s
           (P) You tried to make a hash value spring into exis­
           tence, and it couldn't be created for some peculiar
           reason.

       Module name must be constant
           (F) Only a bare module name is allowed as the first
           argument to a "use".

       Module name required with -%c option
           (F) The "-M" or "-m" options say that Perl should load
           some module, but you omitted the name of the module.
           Consult perlrun for full details about "-M" and "-m".

       More than one argument to open
           (F) The "open" function has been asked to open multi­
           ple files. This can happen if you are trying to open a
           pipe to a command that takes a list of arguments, but
           have forgotten to specify a piped open mode.  See
           "open" in perlfunc for details.

       msg%s not implemented
           (F) You don't have System V message IPC on your sys­
           tem.

       Multidimensional syntax %s not supported
           (W syntax) Multidimensional arrays aren't written like
           $foo[1,2,3].  They're written like $foo[1][2][3], as
           in C.

       '/' must be followed by 'a*', 'A*' or 'Z*'
           (F) You had a pack template indicating a counted-
           length string, Currently the only things that can have
           their length counted are a*, A* or Z*.  See "pack" in
           perlfunc.

       '/' must follow a numeric type in unpack
           (F) You had an unpack template that contained a '/',
           but this did not follow some unpack specification pro­
           ducing a numeric value.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       "my sub" not yet implemented
           (F) Lexically scoped subroutines are not yet imple­
           mented.  Don't try that yet.

       "my" variable %s can't be in a package
           (F) Lexically scoped variables aren't in a package, so
           it doesn't make sense to try to declare one with a
           package qualifier on the front.  Use local() if you

       Negative '/' count in unpack
           (F) The length count obtained from a length/code
           unpack operation was negative.  See "pack" in perl­
           func.

       Negative length
           (F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation
           with a buffer length that is less than 0.  This is
           difficult to imagine.

       Negative offset to vec in lvalue context
           (F) When "vec" is called in an lvalue context, the
           second argument must be greater than or equal to zero.

       Nested quantifiers in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) You can't quantify a quantifier without interven­
           ing parentheses. So things like ** or +* or ?* are
           illegal. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
           about where the problem was discovered.

           Note that the minimal matching quantifiers, "*?",
           "+?", and "??" appear to be nested quantifiers, but
           aren't.  See perlre.

       %s never introduced
           (S internal) The symbol in question was declared but
           somehow went out of scope before it could possibly
           have been used.

       Newline in left-justified string for %s
           (W printf) There is a newline in a string to be left
           justified by "printf" or "sprintf".

           The padding spaces will appear after the newline,
           which is probably not what you wanted.  Usually you
           should remove the newline from the string and put for­
           matting characters in the "sprintf" format.

       No %s allowed while running setuid
           (F) Certain operations are deemed to be too insecure
           for a setuid or setgid script to even be allowed to
           attempt.  Generally speaking there will be another way
           to do what you want that is, if not secure, at least
           securable.  See perlsec.

       No comma allowed after %s
           (F) A list operator that has a filehandle or "indirect
           object" is not allowed to have a comma between that
           and the following arguments.  Otherwise it'd be just
           another one of the arguments.


       No command into which to pipe on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own
           command line redirection, and found a '|' at the end
           of the command line, so it doesn't know where you want
           to pipe the output from this command.

       No DB::DB routine defined
           (F) The currently executing code was compiled with the
           -d switch, but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or
           some facsimile thereof) didn't define a routine to be
           called at the beginning of each statement.  Which is
           odd, because the file should have been required auto­
           matically, and should have blown up the require if it
           didn't parse right.

       No dbm on this machine
           (P) This is counted as an internal error, because
           every machine should supply dbm nowadays, because Perl
           comes with SDBM.  See SDBM_File.

       No DBsub routine
           (F) The currently executing code was compiled with the
           -d switch, but for some reason the perl5db.pl file (or
           some facsimile thereof) didn't define a DB::sub rou­
           tine to be called at the beginning of each ordinary
           subroutine call.

       No -e allowed in setuid scripts
           (F) A setuid script can't be specified by the user.

       No error file after 2> or 2>> on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own
           command line redirection, and found a '2>' or a '2>>'
           on the command line, but can't find the name of the
           file to which to write data destined for stderr.

       No group ending character '%c' found in template
           (F) A pack or unpack template has an opening '(' or
           '[' without its matching counterpart. See "pack" in
           perlfunc.

       No input file after < on command line
           (F) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl handles its own
           command line redirection, and found a '<' on the com­
           mand line, but can't find the name of the file from
           which to read data for stdin.

       No #! line
           (F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a
           well-formed #! line even on machines that don't sup­
           port the #! construct.
           command line redirection, and found a '>' or a '>>' on
           the command line, but can't find the name of the file
           to which to write data destined for stdout.

       No package name allowed for variable %s in "our"
           (F) Fully qualified variable names are not allowed in
           "our" declarations, because that doesn't make much
           sense under existing semantics.  Such syntax is
           reserved for future extensions.

       No Perl script found in input
           (F) You called "perl -x", but no line was found in the
           file beginning with #! and containing the word "perl".

       No setregid available
           (F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the
           setregid() call for your system.

       No setreuid available
           (F) Configure didn't find anything resembling the
           setreuid() call for your system.

       No space allowed after -%c
           (F) The argument to the indicated command line switch
           must follow immediately after the switch, without
           intervening spaces.

       No %s specified for -%c
           (F) The indicated command line switch needs a manda­
           tory argument, but you haven't specified one.

       No such class %s
           (F) You provided a class qualifier in a "my" or "our"
           declaration, but this class doesn't exist at this
           point in your program.

       No such pipe open
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  The internal routine
           my_pclose() tried to close a pipe which hadn't been
           opened.  This should have been caught earlier as an
           attempt to close an unopened filehandle.

       No such pseudo-hash field "%s"
           (F) You tried to access an array as a hash, but the
           field name used is not defined.  The hash at index 0
           should map all valid field names to array indices for
           that to work.

       No such pseudo-hash field "%s" in variable %s of type %s
           (F) You tried to access a field of a typed variable
           where the type does not know about the field name.
           The field names are looked up in the %FIELDS hash in
           See also perlref.

       Not a format reference
           (F) I'm not sure how you managed to generate a refer­
           ence to an anonymous format, but this indicates you
           did, and that it didn't exist.

       Not a GLOB reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a
           "typeglob" (that is, a symbol table entry that looks
           like *foo), but found a reference to something else
           instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out
           what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a HASH reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a hash
           value, but found a reference to something else
           instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out
           what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not an ARRAY reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to an
           array value, but found a reference to something else
           instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out
           what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a perl script
           (F) The setuid emulator requires that scripts have a
           well-formed #! line even on machines that don't sup­
           port the #! construct.  The line must mention perl.

       Not a SCALAR reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a
           scalar value, but found a reference to something else
           instead.  You can use the ref() function to find out
           what kind of ref it really was.  See perlref.

       Not a subroutine reference
           (F) Perl was trying to evaluate a reference to a code
           value (that is, a subroutine), but found a reference
           to something else instead.  You can use the ref()
           function to find out what kind of ref it really was.
           See also perlref.

       Not a subroutine reference in overload table
           (F) An attempt was made to specify an entry in an
           overloading table that doesn't somehow point to a
           valid subroutine.  See overload.

       Not enough arguments for %s
           (F) The function requires more arguments than you
           specified.
           define the logical name SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL to
           translate to the number of seconds which need to be
           added to UTC to get local time.

       Null filename used
           (F) You can't require the null filename, especially
           because on many machines that means the current direc­
           tory!  See "require" in perlfunc.

       NULL OP IN RUN
           (P debugging) Some internal routine called run() with
           a null opcode pointer.

       Null picture in formline
           (F) The first argument to formline must be a valid
           format picture specification.  It was found to be
           empty, which probably means you supplied it an unini­
           tialized value.  See perlform.

       Null realloc
           (P) An attempt was made to realloc NULL.

       NULL regexp argument
           (P) The internal pattern matching routines blew it big
           time.

       NULL regexp parameter
           (P) The internal pattern matching routines are out of
           their gourd.

       Number too long
           (F) Perl limits the representation of decimal numbers
           in programs to about 250 characters.  You've exceeded
           that length.  Future versions of Perl are likely to
           eliminate this arbitrary limitation.  In the meantime,
           try using scientific notation (e.g. "1e6" instead of
           "1_000_000").

       Octal number in vector unsupported
           (F) Numbers with a leading 0 are not currently allowed
           in vectors.  The octal number interpretation of such
           numbers may be supported in a future version.

       Octal number > 037777777777 non-portable
           (W portable) The octal number you specified is larger
           than 2**32-1 (4294967295) and therefore non-portable
           between systems.  See perlport for more on portability
           concerns.

           See also perlport for writing portable code.

       Odd number of arguments for overload::constant
       Offset outside string
           (F) You tried to do a read/write/send/recv operation
           with an offset pointing outside the buffer.  This is
           difficult to imagine.  The sole exception to this is
           that "sysread()"ing past the buffer will extend the
           buffer and zero pad the new area.

       %s() on unopened %s
           (W unopened) An I/O operation was attempted on a file­
           handle that was never initialized.  You need to do an
           open(), a sysopen(), or a socket() call, or call a
           constructor from the FileHandle package.

       -%s on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to invoke a file test operator
           on a filehandle that isn't open.  Check your control
           flow.  See also "-X" in perlfunc.

       oops: oopsAV
           (S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is
           screwed up.

       oops: oopsHV
           (S internal) An internal warning that the grammar is
           screwed up.

       Operation `%s': no method found, %s
           (F) An attempt was made to perform an overloaded oper­
           ation for which no handler was defined.  While some
           handlers can be autogenerated in terms of other han­
           dlers, there is no default handler for any operation,
           unless "fallback" overloading key is specified to be
           true.  See overload.

       Operator or semicolon missing before %s
           (S ambiguous) You used a variable or subroutine call
           where the parser was expecting an operator.  The
           parser has assumed you really meant to use an opera­
           tor, but this is highly likely to be incorrect.  For
           example, if you say "*foo *foo" it will be interpreted
           as if you said "*foo * 'foo'".

       "our" variable %s redeclared
           (W misc) You seem to have already declared the same
           global once before in the current lexical scope.

       Out of memory!
           (X) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating there
           was insufficient remaining memory (or virtual memory)
           to satisfy the request.  Perl has no option but to
           exit immediately.


       Out of memory during request for %s
           (X|F) The malloc() function returned 0, indicating
           there was insufficient remaining memory (or virtual
           memory) to satisfy the request.

           The request was judged to be small, so the possibility
           to trap it depends on the way perl was compiled.  By
           default it is not trappable.  However, if compiled for
           this, Perl may use the contents of $^M as an emergency
           pool after die()ing with this message.  In this case
           the error is trappable once, and the error message
           will include the line and file where the failed
           request happened.

       Out of memory during ridiculously large request
           (F) You can't allocate more than 2^31+"small amount"
           bytes.  This error is most likely to be caused by a
           typo in the Perl program. e.g., $arr[time] instead of
           $arr[$time].

       Out of memory for yacc stack
           (F) The yacc parser wanted to grow its stack so it
           could continue parsing, but realloc() wouldn't give it
           more memory, virtual or otherwise.

       '@' outside of string in unpack
           (F) You had a template that specified an absolute
           position outside the string being unpacked.  See
           "pack" in perlfunc.

       %s package attribute may clash with future reserved word:
       %s
           (W reserved) A lowercase attribute name was used that
           had a package-specific handler.  That name might have
           a meaning to Perl itself some day, even though it
           doesn't yet.  Perhaps you should use a mixed-case
           attribute name, instead.  See attributes.

       pack/unpack repeat count overflow
           (F) You can't specify a repeat count so large that it
           overflows your signed integers.  See "pack" in perl­
           func.

       page overflow
           (W io) A single call to write() produced more lines
           than can fit on a page.  See perlform.

       panic: %s
           (P) An internal error.

       panic: ck_grep

       panic: Devel::DProf inconsistent subroutine return
           (P) Devel::DProf called a subroutine that exited using
           goto(LABEL), last(LABEL) or next(LABEL). Leaving that
           way a subroutine called from an XSUB will lead very
           probably to a crash of the interpreter. This is a bug
           that will hopefully one day get fixed.

       panic: die %s
           (P) We popped the context stack to an eval context,
           and then discovered it wasn't an eval context.

       panic: do_subst
           (P) The internal pp_subst() routine was called with
           invalid operational data.

       panic: do_trans_%s
           (P) The internal do_trans routines were called with
           invalid operational data.

       panic: frexp
           (P) The library function frexp() failed, making
           printf("%f") impossible.

       panic: goto
           (P) We popped the context stack to a context with the
           specified label, and then discovered it wasn't a con­
           text we know how to do a goto in.

       panic: INTERPCASEMOD
           (P) The lexer got into a bad state at a case modifier.

       panic: INTERPCONCAT
           (P) The lexer got into a bad state parsing a string
           with brackets.

       panic: kid popen errno read
           (F) forked child returned an incomprehensible message
           about its errno.

       panic: last
           (P) We popped the context stack to a block context,
           and then discovered it wasn't a block context.

       panic: leave_scope clearsv
           (P) A writable lexical variable became read-only some­
           how within the scope.

       panic: leave_scope inconsistency
           (P) The savestack probably got out of sync.  At least,
           there was an invalid enum on the top of it.

           null AV pointer.

       panic: pad_alloc
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad
           it was allocating and freeing temporaries and lexicals
           from.

       panic: pad_free curpad
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad
           it was allocating and freeing temporaries and lexicals
           from.

       panic: pad_free po
           (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected inter­
           nally.

       panic: pad_reset curpad
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad
           it was allocating and freeing temporaries and lexicals
           from.

       panic: pad_sv po
           (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected inter­
           nally.

       panic: pad_swipe curpad
           (P) The compiler got confused about which scratch pad
           it was allocating and freeing temporaries and lexicals
           from.

       panic: pad_swipe po
           (P) An invalid scratch pad offset was detected inter­
           nally.

       panic: pp_iter
           (P) The foreach iterator got called in a non-loop con­
           text frame.

       panic: pp_match%s
           (P) The internal pp_match() routine was called with
           invalid operational data.

       panic: pp_split
           (P) Something terrible went wrong in setting up for
           the split.

       panic: realloc
           (P) Something requested a negative number of bytes of
           realloc.

       panic: restartop
           (P) Some internal routine requested a goto (or some­

       panic: top_env
           (P) The compiler attempted to do a goto, or something
           weird like that.

       panic: utf16_to_utf8: odd bytelen
           (P) Something tried to call utf16_to_utf8 with an odd
           (as opposed to even) byte length.

       panic: yylex
           (P) The lexer got into a bad state while processing a
           case modifier.

       Parentheses missing around "%s" list
           (W parenthesis) You said something like

               my $foo, $bar = @_;

           when you meant

               my ($foo, $bar) = @_;

           Remember that "my", "our", and "local" bind tighter
           than comma.

       "-p" destination: %s
           (F) An error occurred during the implicit output
           invoked by the "-p" command-line switch.  (This output
           goes to STDOUT unless you've redirected it with
           select().)

       (perhaps you forgot to load "%s"?)
           (F) This is an educated guess made in conjunction with
           the message "Can't locate object method \"%s\" via
           package \"%s\"".  It often means that a method
           requires a package that has not been loaded.

       Perl %s required--this is only version %s, stopped
           (F) The module in question uses features of a version
           of Perl more recent than the currently running ver­
           sion.  How long has it been since you upgraded, any­
           way?  See "require" in perlfunc.

       PERL_SH_DIR too long
           (F) An error peculiar to OS/2. PERL_SH_DIR is the
           directory to find the "sh"-shell in.  See
           "PERL_SH_DIR" in perlos2.

       PERL_SIGNALS illegal: "%s"
           See "PERL_SIGNALS" in perlrun for legal values.

       perl: warning: Setting locale failed.
           Exactly what were the failed locale settings varies.
           In the above the settings were that the LC_ALL was
           "En_US" and the LANG had no value.  This error means
           that Perl detected that you and/or your operating sys­
           tem supplier and/or system administrator have set up
           the so-called locale system but Perl could not use
           those settings.  This was not dead serious, fortu­
           nately: there is a "default locale" called "C" that
           Perl can and will use, the script will be run.  Before
           you really fix the problem, however, you will get the
           same error message each time you run Perl.  How to
           really fix the problem can be found in perllocale sec­
           tion LOCALE PROBLEMS.

       Permission denied
           (F) The setuid emulator in suidperl decided you were
           up to no good.

       pid %x not a child
           (W exec) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Waitpid() was
           asked to wait for a process which isn't a subprocess
           of the current process.  While this is fine from VMS'
           perspective, it's probably not what you intended.

       'P' must have an explicit size in unpack
           (F) The unpack format P must have an explicit size,
           not "*".

       -P not allowed for setuid/setgid script
           (F) The script would have to be opened by the C pre­
           processor by name, which provides a race condition
           that breaks security.

       POSIX class [:%s:] unknown in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (F) The class in the character class [: :] syntax is
           unknown.  The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
           about where the problem was discovered.  Note that the
           POSIX character classes do not have the "is" prefix
           the corresponding C interfaces have: in other words,
           it's "[[:print:]]", not "isprint".  See perlre.

       POSIX getpgrp can't take an argument
           (F) Your system has POSIX getpgrp(), which takes no
           argument, unlike the BSD version, which takes a pid.

       POSIX syntax [%s] belongs inside character classes in
       regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) The character class constructs [: :], [=
           =], and [. .]  go inside character classes, the [] are
           part of the construct, for example:
           /[012[:alpha:]345]/.  Note that [= =] and [. .] are
           problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       POSIX syntax [= =] is reserved for future extensions in
       regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Within regular expression character classes ([])
           the syntax beginning with "[=" and ending with "=]" is
           reserved for future extensions.  If you need to repre­
           sent those character sequences inside a regular
           expression character class, just quote the square
           brackets with the backslash: "\[=" and "=\]".  The <--
           HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
           problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Possible attempt to put comments in qw() list
           (W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whites­
           pace; as with literal strings, comment characters are
           not ignored, but are instead treated as literal data.
           (You may have used different delimiters than the
           parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
           used.)

           You probably wrote something like this:

               @list = qw(
                   a # a comment
                   b # another comment
               );

           when you should have written this:

               @list = qw(
                   a
                   b
               );

           If you really want comments, build your list the old-
           fashioned way, with quotes and commas:

               @list = (
                   'a',    # a comment
                   'b',    # another comment
               );

       Possible attempt to separate words with commas
           (W qw) qw() lists contain items separated by whites­
           pace; therefore commas aren't needed to separate the
           items.  (You may have used different delimiters than
           the parentheses shown here; braces are also frequently
           used.)

           You probably wrote something like this:

           See "ioctl" in perlfunc.

       Possible precedence problem on bitwise %c operator
           (W precedence) Your program uses a bitwise logical
           operator in conjunction with a numeric comparison
           operator, like this :

               if ($x & $y == 0) { ... }

           This expression is actually equivalent to "$x & ($y ==
           0)", due to the higher precedence of "==". This is
           probably not what you want. (If you really meant to
           write this, disable the warning, or, better, put the
           parentheses explicitly and write "$x & ($y == 0)").

       Possible unintended interpolation of %s in string
           (W ambiguous) You said something like `@foo' in a dou­
           ble-quoted string but there was no array @foo in scope
           at the time. If you wanted a literal @foo, then write
           it as \@foo; otherwise find out what happened to the
           array you apparently lost track of.

       Possible Y2K bug: %s
           (W y2k) You are concatenating the number 19 with
           another number, which could be a potential Year 2000
           problem.

       pragma "attrs" is deprecated, use "sub NAME : ATTRS"
       instead
           (D deprecated) You have written something like this:

               sub doit
               {
                   use attrs qw(locked);
               }

           You should use the new declaration syntax instead.

               sub doit : locked
               {
                   ...

           The "use attrs" pragma is now obsolete, and is only
           provided for backward-compatibility. See "Subroutine
           Attributes" in perlsub.

       Precedence problem: open %s should be open(%s)
           (S precedence) The old irregular construct

               open FOO || die;

           is now misinterpreted as
           closed sometime before now.  Check your control flow.

       print() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're printing on got
           itself closed sometime before now.  Check your control
           flow.

       Process terminated by SIG%s
           (W) This is a standard message issued by OS/2 applica­
           tions, while *nix applications die in silence.  It is
           considered a feature of the OS/2 port.  One can easily
           disable this by appropriate sighandlers, see "Signals"
           in perlipc.  See also "Process terminated by
           SIGTERM/SIGINT" in perlos2.

       Prototype mismatch: %s vs %s
           (S prototype) The subroutine being declared or defined
           had previously been declared or defined with a differ­
           ent function prototype.

       Prototype not terminated
           (F) You've omitted the closing parenthesis in a func­
           tion prototype definition.

       Pseudo-hashes are deprecated
           (D deprecated)  Pseudo-hashes were deprecated in Perl
           5.8.0 and they will be removed in Perl 5.10.0, see
           perl58delta for more details.  You can continue to use
           the "fields" pragma.

       Quantifier follows nothing in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (F) You started a regular expression with a quanti­
           fier. Backslash it if you meant it literally. The <--
           HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
           problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Quantifier in {,} bigger than %d in regex; marked by <--
       HERE in m/%s/
           (F) There is currently a limit to the size of the min
           and max values of the {min,max} construct. The <--
           HERE shows in the regular expression about where the
           problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Quantifier unexpected on zero-length expression; marked by
       <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) You applied a regular expression quantifier
           in a place where it makes no sense, such as on a zero-
           width assertion.  Try putting the quantifier inside
           the assertion instead.  For example, the way to match
           "abc" provided that it is followed by three repeti­
           tions of "xyz" is "/abc(?=(?:xyz){3})/", not
           itself closed sometime before now.  Check your control
           flow.

       read() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) You tried to read from a closed filehandle.

       read() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that
           was never opened.

       Reallocation too large: %lx
           (F) You can't allocate more than 64K on an MS-DOS
           machine.

       realloc() of freed memory ignored
           (S malloc) An internal routine called realloc() on
           something that had already been freed.

       Recompile perl with -DDEBUGGING to use -D switch
           (F debugging) You can't use the -D option unless the
           code to produce the desired output is compiled into
           Perl, which entails some overhead, which is why it's
           currently left out of your copy.

       Recursive inheritance detected in package '%s'
           (F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were used.
           Probably indicates an unintended loop in your inheri­
           tance hierarchy.

       Recursive inheritance detected while looking for method %s
           (F) More than 100 levels of inheritance were encoun­
           tered while invoking a method.  Probably indicates an
           unintended loop in your inheritance hierarchy.

       Reference found where even-sized list expected
           (W misc) You gave a single reference where Perl was
           expecting a list with an even number of elements (for
           assignment to a hash). This usually means that you
           used the anon hash constructor when you meant to use
           parens. In any case, a hash requires key/value pairs.

               %hash = { one => 1, two => 2, };    # WRONG
               %hash = [ qw/ an anon array / ];    # WRONG
               %hash = ( one => 1, two => 2, );    # right
               %hash = qw( one 1 two 2 );                  # also fine

       Reference is already weak
           (W misc) You have attempted to weaken a reference that
           is already weak.  Doing so has no effect.

       Reference miscount in sv_replace()
           (W internal) The internal sv_replace() function was

       regexp memory corruption
           (P) The regular expression engine got confused by what
           the regular expression compiler gave it.

       Regexp out of space
           (P) A "can't happen" error, because safemalloc()
           should have caught it earlier.

       Reversed %s= operator
           (W syntax) You wrote your assignment operator back­
           wards.  The = must always comes last, to avoid ambigu­
           ity with subsequent unary operators.

       Runaway format
           (F) Your format contained the ~~ repeat-until-blank
           sequence, but it produced 200 lines at once, and the
           200th line looked exactly like the 199th line.  Appar­
           ently you didn't arrange for the arguments to exhaust
           themselves, either by using ^ instead of @ (for scalar
           variables), or by shifting or popping (for array vari­
           ables).  See perlform.

       Scalars leaked: %d
           (P) Something went wrong in Perl's internal bookkeep­
           ing of scalars: not all scalar variables were deallo­
           cated by the time Perl exited.  What this usually
           indicates is a memory leak, which is of course bad,
           especially if the Perl program is intended to be
           long-running.

       Scalar value @%s[%s] better written as $%s[%s]
           (W syntax) You've used an array slice (indicated by @)
           to select a single element of an array.  Generally
           it's better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by
           $).  The difference is that $foo[&bar] always behaves
           like a scalar, both when assigning to it and when
           evaluating its argument, while @foo[&bar] behaves like
           a list when you assign to it, and provides a list con­
           text to its subscript, which can do weird things if
           you're expecting only one subscript.

           On the other hand, if you were actually hoping to
           treat the array element as a list, you need to look
           into how references work, because Perl will not magi­
           cally convert between scalars and lists for you.  See
           perlref.

       Scalar value @%s{%s} better written as $%s{%s}
           (W syntax) You've used a hash slice (indicated by @)
           to select a single element of a hash.  Generally it's
           better to ask for a scalar value (indicated by $).
           (F) Oddly, the suidperl program was invoked on a
           script without a setuid or setgid bit set.  This
           doesn't make much sense.

       Search pattern not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a
           // or m{} construct.  Remember that bracketing delim­
           iters count nesting level.  Missing the leading "$"
           from a variable $m may cause this error.

           Note that since Perl 5.9.0 a // can also be the
           defined-or construct, not just the empty search pat­
           tern.  Therefore code written in Perl 5.9.0 or later
           that uses the // as the defined-or can be misparsed by
           pre-5.9.0 Perls as a non-terminated search pattern.

       %sseek() on unopened filehandle
           (W unopened) You tried to use the seek() or sysseek()
           function on a filehandle that was either never opened
           or has since been closed.

       select not implemented
           (F) This machine doesn't implement the select() system
           call.

       Self-ties of arrays and hashes are not supported
           (F) Self-ties are of arrays and hashes are not sup­
           ported in the current implementation.

       Semicolon seems to be missing
           (W semicolon) A nearby syntax error was probably
           caused by a missing semicolon, or possibly some other
           missing operator, such as a comma.

       semi-panic: attempt to dup freed string
           (S internal) The internal newSVsv() routine was called
           to duplicate a scalar that had previously been marked
           as free.

       sem%s not implemented
           (F) You don't have System V semaphore IPC on your sys­
           tem.

       send() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) The socket you're sending to got itself
           closed sometime before now.  Check your control flow.

       Sequence (? incomplete in regex; marked by <-- HERE in
       m/%s/
           (F) A regular expression ended with an incomplete
           extension (?. The <-- HERE shows in the regular
           expression about where the problem was discovered. See
           See perlre.

       Sequence (?#... not terminated in regex; marked by <--
       HERE in m/%s/
           (F) A regular expression comment must be terminated by
           a closing parenthesis.  Embedded parentheses aren't
           allowed.  The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
           about where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Sequence (?{...}) not terminated or not {}-balanced in
       regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) If the contents of a (?{...}) clause contains
           braces, they must balance for Perl to properly detect
           the end of the clause. The <-- HERE shows in the regu­
           lar expression about where the problem was discovered.
           See perlre.

       500 Server error
           See Server error.

       Server error
           This is the error message generally seen in a browser
           window when trying to run a CGI program (including
           SSI) over the web. The actual error text varies widely
           from server to server. The most frequently-seen vari­
           ants are "500 Server error", "Method (something) not
           permitted", "Document contains no data", "Premature
           end of script headers", and "Did not produce a valid
           header".

           This is a CGI error, not a Perl error.

           You need to make sure your script is executable, is
           accessible by the user CGI is running the script under
           (which is probably not the user account you tested it
           under), does not rely on any environment variables
           (like PATH) from the user it isn't running under, and
           isn't in a location where the CGI server can't find
           it, basically, more or less.  Please see the following
           for more information:

                   http://www.perl.org/CGI_MetaFAQ.html
                   http://www.htmlhelp.org/faq/cgifaq.html
                   http://www.w3.org/Security/Faq/

           You should also look at perlfaq9.

       setegid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $), and your operating sys­
           tem doesn't support the setegid() system call (or
           equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.


       setruid() not implemented
           (F) You tried to assign to $<, and your operating sys­
           tem doesn't support the setruid() system call (or
           equivalent), or at least Configure didn't think so.

       setsockopt() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to set a socket option on a
           closed socket.  Did you forget to check the return
           value of your socket() call?  See "setsockopt" in
           perlfunc.

       Setuid/gid script is writable by world
           (F) The setuid emulator won't run a script that is
           writable by the world, because the world might have
           written on it already.

       shm%s not implemented
           (F) You don't have System V shared memory IPC on your
           system.

       <> should be quotes
           (F) You wrote "require <file>" when you should have
           written "require 'file'".

       /%s/ should probably be written as "%s"
           (W syntax) You have used a pattern where Perl expected
           to find a string, as in the first argument to "join".
           Perl will treat the true or false result of matching
           the pattern against $_ as the string, which is proba­
           bly not what you had in mind.

       shutdown() on closed socket %s
           (W closed) You tried to do a shutdown on a closed
           socket.  Seems a bit superfluous.

       SIG%s handler "%s" not defined
           (W signal) The signal handler named in %SIG doesn't,
           in fact, exist.  Perhaps you put it into the wrong
           package?

       sort is now a reserved word
           (F) An ancient error message that almost nobody ever
           runs into anymore.  But before sort was a keyword,
           people sometimes used it as a filehandle.

       Sort subroutine didn't return a numeric value
           (F) A sort comparison routine must return a number.
           You probably blew it by not using "<=>" or "cmp", or
           by not using them correctly.  See "sort" in perlfunc.

       Sort subroutine didn't return single value
           split shouldn't iterate more times than there are
           characters of input, which is what happened.) See
           "split" in perlfunc.

       Statement unlikely to be reached
           (W exec) You did an exec() with some statement after
           it other than a die().  This is almost always an
           error, because exec() never returns unless there was a
           failure.  You probably wanted to use system() instead,
           which does return.  To suppress this warning, put the
           exec() in a block by itself.

       stat() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to use the stat() function on a
           filehandle that was either never opened or has since
           been closed.

       Stub found while resolving method `%s' overloading %s
           (P) Overloading resolution over @ISA tree may be bro­
           ken by importation stubs.  Stubs should never be
           implicitly created, but explicit calls to "can" may
           break this.

       Subroutine %s redefined
           (W redefine) You redefined a subroutine.  To suppress
           this warning, say

               {
                   no warnings 'redefine';
                   eval "sub name { ... }";
               }

       Substitution loop
           (P) The substitution was looping infinitely.  (Obvi­
           ously, a substitution shouldn't iterate more times
           than there are characters of input, which is what hap­
           pened.)  See the discussion of substitution in "Quote
           and Quote-like Operators" in perlop.

       Substitution pattern not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of
           an s/// or s{}{} construct.  Remember that bracketing
           delimiters count nesting level.  Missing the leading
           "$" from variable $s may cause this error.

       Substitution replacement not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of an
           s/// or s{}{} construct.  Remember that bracketing
           delimiters count nesting level.  Missing the leading
           "$" from variable $s may cause this error.

       substr outside of string
       regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) A (?(condition)if-clause|else-clause) construct
           can have at most two branches (the if-clause and the
           else-clause). If you want one or both to contain
           alternation, such as using "this|that|other", enclose
           it in clustering parentheses:

               (?(condition)(?:this|that|other)|else-clause)

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
           where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Switch condition not recognized in regex; marked by <--
       HERE in m/%s/
           (F) If the argument to the
           (?(...)if-clause|else-clause) construct is a number,
           it can be only a number. The <-- HERE shows in the
           regular expression about where the problem was discov­
           ered. See perlre.

       switching effective %s is not implemented
           (F) While under the "use filetest" pragma, we cannot
           switch the real and effective uids or gids.

       %s syntax
           (F) The final summary message when a "perl -c" suc­
           ceeds.

       syntax error
           (F) Probably means you had a syntax error.  Common
           reasons include:

               A keyword is misspelled.
               A semicolon is missing.
               A comma is missing.
               An opening or closing parenthesis is missing.
               An opening or closing brace is missing.
               A closing quote is missing.

           Often there will be another error message associated
           with the syntax error giving more information.  (Some­
           times it helps to turn on -w.)  The error message
           itself often tells you where it was in the line when
           it decided to give up.  Sometimes the actual error is
           several tokens before this, because Perl is good at
           understanding random input.  Occasionally the line
           number may be misleading, and once in a blue moon the
           only way to figure out what's triggering the error is
           to call "perl -c" repeatedly, chopping away half the
           program each time to see if the error went away.  Sort
           of the cybernetic version of 20 questions.

       sysread() on unopened filehandle %s
           (W unopened) You tried to read from a filehandle that
           was never opened.

       System V %s is not implemented on this machine
           (F) You tried to do something with a function begin­
           ning with "sem", "shm", or "msg" but that System V IPC
           is not implemented in your machine.  In some machines
           the functionality can exist but be unconfigured.  Con­
           sult your system support.

       syswrite() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself
           closed sometime before now.  Check your control flow.

       "-T" and "-B" not implemented on filehandles
           (F) Perl can't peek at the stdio buffer of filehandles
           when it doesn't know about your kind of stdio.  You'll
           have to use a filename instead.

       Target of goto is too deeply nested
           (F) You tried to use "goto" to reach a label that was
           too deeply nested for Perl to reach.  Perl is doing
           you a favor by refusing.

       tell() on unopened filehandle
           (W unopened) You tried to use the tell() function on a
           filehandle that was either never opened or has since
           been closed.

       That use of $[ is unsupported
           (F) Assignment to $[ is now strictly circumscribed,
           and interpreted as a compiler directive.  You may say
           only one of

               $[ = 0;
               $[ = 1;
               ...
               local $[ = 0;
               local $[ = 1;
               ...

           This is to prevent the problem of one module changing
           the array base out from under another module inadver­
           tently.  See "$[" in perlvar.

       The crypt() function is unimplemented due to excessive
       paranoia
           (F) Configure couldn't find the crypt() function on
           your machine, probably because your vendor didn't sup­
           ply it, probably because they think the U.S. Govern­
           ment thinks it's a secret, or at least that they will

       This Perl can't set CRTL environ elements (%s=%s)
           (W internal) Warnings peculiar to VMS.  You tried to
           change or delete an element of the CRTL's internal
           environ array, but your copy of Perl wasn't built with
           a CRTL that contained the setenv() function.  You'll
           need to rebuild Perl with a CRTL that does, or rede­
           fine PERL_ENV_TABLES (see perlvms) so that the environ
           array isn't the target of the change to %ENV which
           produced the warning.

       thread failed to start: %s
           (F) The entry point function of threads->create()
           failed for some reason.

       5.005 threads are deprecated
           (D deprecated)  The 5.005-style threads (activated by
           "use Thread;") are deprecated and one should use the
           new ithreads instead, see perl58delta for more
           details.

       Tied variable freed while still in use
           (F) An access method for a tied variable (e.g. FETCH)
           did something to free the variable.  Since continuing
           the current operation is likely to result in a core­
           dump, Perl is bailing out instead.

       times not implemented
           (F) Your version of the C library apparently doesn't
           do times().  I suspect you're not running on Unix.

       To%s: illegal mapping '%s'
           (F) You tried to define a customized To-mapping for
           lc(), lcfirst, uc(), or ucfirst() (or their string-
           inlined versions), but you specified an illegal map­
           ping.  See "User-Defined Character Properties" in per­
           lunicode.

       Too deeply nested ()-groups
           (F) Your template contains ()-groups with a ridicu­
           lously deep nesting level.

       Too few args to syscall
           (F) There has to be at least one argument to syscall()
           to specify the system call to call, silly dilly.

       Too late for "-%s" option
           (X) The #! line (or local equivalent) in a Perl script
           contains the -M or -m option.  This is an error
           because -M and -m options are not intended for use
           inside scripts.  Use the "use" pragma instead.

       Too late for "-T" option
           name", then the -T option must appear on the command
           line: "perl -T scriptname".

       Too late to run %s block
           (W void) A CHECK or INIT block is being defined during
           run time proper, when the opportunity to run them has
           already passed.  Perhaps you are loading a file with
           "require" or "do" when you should be using "use"
           instead.  Or perhaps you should put the "require" or
           "do" inside a BEGIN block.

       Too many args to syscall
           (F) Perl supports a maximum of only 14 args to
           syscall().

       Too many arguments for %s
           (F) The function requires fewer arguments than you
           specified.

       Too many )'s
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh
           instead of Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed
           your script into Perl yourself.

       Too many ('s
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh
           instead of Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed
           your script into Perl yourself.

       Trailing \ in regex m/%s/
           (F) The regular expression ends with an unbackslashed
           backslash.  Backslash it.   See perlre.

       Transliteration pattern not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the interior delimiter of
           a tr/// or tr[][] or y/// or y[][] construct.  Missing
           the leading "$" from variables $tr or $y may cause
           this error.

       Transliteration replacement not terminated
           (F) The lexer couldn't find the final delimiter of a
           tr/// or tr[][] construct.

       '%s' trapped by operation mask
           (F) You tried to use an operator from a Safe compart­
           ment in which it's disallowed. See Safe.

       truncate not implemented
           (F) Your machine doesn't implement a file truncation
           mechanism that Configure knows about.

       Type of arg %d to %s must be %s (not %s)

       Unbalanced context: %d more PUSHes than POPs
           (W internal) The exit code detected an internal incon­
           sistency in how many execution contexts were entered
           and left.

       Unbalanced saves: %d more saves than restores
           (W internal) The exit code detected an internal incon­
           sistency in how many values were temporarily local­
           ized.

       Unbalanced scopes: %d more ENTERs than LEAVEs
           (W internal) The exit code detected an internal incon­
           sistency in how many blocks were entered and left.

       Unbalanced tmps: %d more allocs than frees
           (W internal) The exit code detected an internal incon­
           sistency in how many mortal scalars were allocated and
           freed.

       Undefined format "%s" called
           (F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist.  Per­
           haps it's really in another package?  See perlform.

       Undefined sort subroutine "%s" called
           (F) The sort comparison routine specified doesn't seem
           to exist.  Perhaps it's in a different package?  See
           "sort" in perlfunc.

       Undefined subroutine &%s called
           (F) The subroutine indicated hasn't been defined, or
           if it was, it has since been undefined.

       Undefined subroutine called
           (F) The anonymous subroutine you're trying to call
           hasn't been defined, or if it was, it has since been
           undefined.

       Undefined subroutine in sort
           (F) The sort comparison routine specified is declared
           but doesn't seem to have been defined yet.  See "sort"
           in perlfunc.

       Undefined top format "%s" called
           (F) The format indicated doesn't seem to exist.  Per­
           haps it's really in another package?  See perlform.

       Undefined value assigned to typeglob
           (W misc) An undefined value was assigned to a type­
           glob, a la "*foo = undef".  This does nothing.  It's
           possible that you really mean "undef *foo".

           doing you can turn off this warning by "no warnings
           'utf8';".

       Unknown BYTEORDER
           (F) There are no byte-swapping functions for a machine
           with this byte order.

       Unknown open() mode '%s'
           (F) The second argument of 3-argument open() is not
           among the list of valid modes: "<", ">", ">>", "+<",
           "+>", "+>>", "-|", "|-", "<&", ">&".

       Unknown PerlIO layer "%s"
           (W layer) An attempt was made to push an unknown layer
           onto the Perl I/O system.  (Layers take care of trans­
           forming data between external and internal representa­
           tions.)  Note that some layers, such as "mmap", are
           not supported in all environments.  If your program
           didn't explicitly request the failing operation, it
           may be the result of the value of the environment
           variable PERLIO.

       Unknown process %x sent message to prime_env_iter: %s
           (P) An error peculiar to VMS.  Perl was reading values
           for %ENV before iterating over it, and someone else
           stuck a message in the stream of data Perl expected.
           Someone's very confused, or perhaps trying to subvert
           Perl's population of %ENV for nefarious purposes.

       Unknown "re" subpragma '%s' (known ones are: %s)
           You tried to use an unknown subpragma of the "re"
           pragma.

       Unknown switch condition (?(%.2s in regex; marked by <--
       HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The condition part of a (?(condi­
           tion)if-clause|else-clause) construct is not known.
           The condition may be lookahead or lookbehind (the con­
           dition is true if the lookahead or lookbehind is
           true), a (?{...})  construct (the condition is true if
           the code evaluates to a true value), or a number (the
           condition is true if the set of capturing parentheses
           named by the number matched).

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
           where the problem was discovered.  See perlre.

       Unknown Unicode option letter '%c'
           You specified an unknown Unicode option.  See perlrun
           documentation of the "-C" switch for the list of known
           options.


       unmatched [ in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) The brackets around a character class must match.
           If you wish to include a closing bracket in a charac­
           ter class, backslash it or put it first. The <-- HERE
           shows in the regular expression about where the prob­
           lem was discovered. See perlre.

       unmatched ( in regex; marked by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (F) Unbackslashed parentheses must always be balanced
           in regular expressions. If you're a vi user, the % key
           is valuable for finding the matching parenthesis. The
           <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about where
           the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Unmatched right %s bracket
           (F) The lexer counted more closing curly or square
           brackets than opening ones, so you're probably missing
           a matching opening bracket.  As a general rule, you'll
           find the missing one (so to speak) near the place you
           were last editing.

       Unquoted string "%s" may clash with future reserved word
           (W reserved) You used a bareword that might someday be
           claimed as a reserved word.  It's best to put such a
           word in quotes, or capitalize it somehow, or insert an
           underbar into it.  You might also declare it as a sub­
           routine.

       Unrecognized character %s
           (F) The Perl parser has no idea what to do with the
           specified character in your Perl script (or eval).
           Perhaps you tried to run a compressed script, a binary
           program, or a directory as a Perl program.

       /%s/: Unrecognized escape \\%c in character class passed
       through
           (W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination
           which is not recognized by Perl inside character
           classes.  The character was understood literally.

       Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through
           (W misc) You used a backslash-character combination
           which is not recognized by Perl.

       Unrecognized escape \\%c passed through in regex; marked
       by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) You used a backslash-character combination
           which is not recognized by Perl. This combination
           appears in an interpolated variable or a "'"-delimited
           regular expression. The character was understood lit­
           erally. The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression
           (W newline) A file operation was attempted on a file­
           name, and that operation failed, PROBABLY because the
           filename contained a newline, PROBABLY because you
           forgot to chomp() it off.  See "chomp" in perlfunc.

       Unsupported directory function "%s" called
           (F) Your machine doesn't support opendir() and read­
           dir().

       Unsupported function %s
           (F) This machine doesn't implement the indicated func­
           tion, apparently.  At least, Configure doesn't think
           so.

       Unsupported function fork
           (F) Your version of executable does not support fork­
           ing.

           Note that under some systems, like OS/2, there may be
           different flavors of Perl executables, some of which
           may support fork, some not. Try changing the name you
           call Perl by to "perl_", "perl__", and so on.

       Unsupported script encoding
           (F) Your program file begins with a Unicode Byte Order
           Mark (BOM) which declares it to be in a Unicode encod­
           ing that Perl cannot yet read.

       Unsupported socket function "%s" called
           (F) Your machine doesn't support the Berkeley socket
           mechanism, or at least that's what Configure thought.

       Unterminated attribute list
           (F) The lexer found something other than a simple
           identifier at the start of an attribute, and it wasn't
           a semicolon or the start of a block.  Perhaps you ter­
           minated the parameter list of the previous attribute
           too soon.  See attributes.

       Unterminated attribute parameter in attribute list
           (F) The lexer saw an opening (left) parenthesis char­
           acter while parsing an attribute list, but the match­
           ing closing (right) parenthesis character was not
           found.  You may need to add (or remove) a backslash
           character to get your parentheses to balance.  See
           attributes.

       Unterminated compressed integer
           (F) An argument to unpack("w",...) was incompatible
           with the BER compressed integer format and could not
           be converted to an integer.  See "pack" in perlfunc.


       Usage: Win32::%s(%s)
           (F) You called a Win32 function with incorrect argu­
           ments.  See Win32 for more information.

       Useless (?-%s) - don't use /%s modifier in regex; marked
       by <-- HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) You have used an internal modifier such as
           (?-o) that has no meaning unless removed from the
           entire regexp:

               if ($string =~ /(?-o)$pattern/o) { ... }

           must be written as

               if ($string =~ /$pattern/) { ... }

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
           where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Useless (?%s) - use /%s modifier in regex; marked by <--
       HERE in m/%s/
           (W regexp) You have used an internal modifier such as
           (?o) that has no meaning unless applied to the entire
           regexp:

               if ($string =~ /(?o)$pattern/) { ... }

           must be written as

               if ($string =~ /$pattern/o) { ... }

           The <-- HERE shows in the regular expression about
           where the problem was discovered. See perlre.

       Useless use of %s in void context
           (W void) You did something without a side effect in a
           context that does nothing with the return value, such
           as a statement that doesn't return a value from a
           block, or the left side of a scalar comma operator.
           Very often this points not to stupidity on your part,
           but a failure of Perl to parse your program the way
           you thought it would.  For example, you'd get this if
           you mixed up your C precedence with Python precedence
           and said

               $one, $two = 1, 2;

           when you meant to say

               ($one, $two) = (1, 2);

           throws away the left argument, which is not what you
           want.  See perlref for more on this.

           This warning will not be issued for numerical con­
           stants equal to 0 or 1 since they are often used in
           statements like

               1 while sub_with_side_effects() ;

           String constants that would normally evaluate to 0 or
           1 are warned about.

       Useless use of "re" pragma
           (W) You did "use re;" without any arguments.   That
           isn't very useful.

       Useless use of sort in scalar context
           (W void) You used sort in scalar context, as in :

               my $x = sort @y;

           This is not very useful, and perl currently optimizes
           this away.

       Useless use of %s with no values
           (W syntax) You used the push() or unshift() function
           with no arguments apart from the array, like
           "push(@x)" or "unshift(@foo)". That won't usually have
           any effect on the array, so is completely useless.
           It's possible in principle that push(@tied_array)
           could have some effect if the array is tied to a class
           which implements a PUSH method. If so, you can write
           it as "push(@tied_array,())" to avoid this warning.

       "use" not allowed in expression
           (F) The "use" keyword is recognized and executed at
           compile time, and returns no useful value.  See
           perlmod.

       Use of bare << to mean <<"" is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the
           explicitly quoted form if you wish to use an empty
           line as the terminator of the here-document.

       Use of chdir('') or chdir(undef) as chdir() deprecated
           (D deprecated) chdir() with no arguments is documented
           to change to $ENV{HOME} or $ENV{LOGDIR}.  chdir(undef)
           and chdir('') share this behavior, but that has been
           deprecated.  In future versions they will simply fail.

           Be careful to check that what you pass to chdir() is
           defined and not blank, else you might find yourself in

       iterated array within the loop?)
           (F) This is typically caused by code like the follow­
           ing:

               @a = (3,4);
               @a = () for (1,2,@a);

           You are not supposed to modify arrays while they are
           being iterated over.  For speed and efficiency rea­
           sons, Perl internally does not do full reference-
           counting of iterated items, hence deleting such an
           item in the middle of an iteration causes Perl to see
           a freed value.

       Use of *glob{FILEHANDLE} is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You are now encouraged to use the
           shorter *glob{IO} form to access the filehandle slot
           within a typeglob.

       Use of /g modifier is meaningless in split
           (W regexp) You used the /g modifier on the pattern for
           a "split" operator.  Since "split" always tries to
           match the pattern repeatedly, the "/g" has no effect.

       Use of implicit split to @_ is deprecated
           (D deprecated) It makes a lot of work for the compiler
           when you clobber a subroutine's argument list, so it's
           better if you assign the results of a split() explic­
           itly to an array (or list).

       Use of inherited AUTOLOAD for non-method %s() is depre­
       cated
           (D deprecated) As an (ahem) accidental feature,
           "AUTOLOAD" subroutines are looked up as methods (using
           the @ISA hierarchy) even when the subroutines to be
           autoloaded were called as plain functions (e.g.
           "Foo::bar()"), not as methods (e.g. "Foo->bar()" or
           "$obj->bar()").

           This bug will be rectified in future by using method
           lookup only for methods' "AUTOLOAD"s.  However, there
           is a significant base of existing code that may be
           using the old behavior.  So, as an interim step, Perl
           currently issues an optional warning when non-methods
           use inherited "AUTOLOAD"s.

           The simple rule is:  Inheritance will not work when
           autoloading non-methods.  The simple fix for old code
           is:  In any module that used to depend on inheriting
           "AUTOLOAD" for non-methods from a base class named
           "BaseClass", execute "*AUTOLOAD = \&Base­
           Class::AUTOLOAD" during startup.
           luckless subroutine that you happen to call.  You
           should use the new "//m" and "//s" modifiers now to do
           that without the dangerous action-at-a-distance
           effects of $*.

       Use of $# is deprecated
           (D deprecated) This was an ill-advised attempt to emu­
           late a poorly defined awk feature.  Use an explicit
           printf() or sprintf() instead.

       Use of %s is deprecated
           (D deprecated) The construct indicated is no longer
           recommended for use, generally because there's a bet­
           ter way to do it, and also because the old way has bad
           side effects.

       Use of -l on filehandle %s
           (W io) A filehandle represents an opened file, and
           when you opened the file it already went past any sym­
           link you are presumably trying to look for.  The oper­
           ation returned "undef".  Use a filename instead.

       Use of "package" with no arguments is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You used the "package" keyword without
           specifying a package name. So no namespace is current
           at all. Using this can cause many otherwise reasonable
           constructs to fail in baffling ways. "use strict;"
           instead.

       Use of reference "%s" as array index
           (W misc) You tried to use a reference as an array
           index; this probably isn't what you mean, because ref­
           erences in numerical context tend to be huge numbers,
           and so usually indicates programmer error.

           If you really do mean it, explicitly numify your ref­
           erence, like so: $array[0+$ref].  This warning is not
           given for overloaded objects, either, because you can
           overload the numification and stringification opera­
           tors and then you assumedly know what you are doing.

       Use of reserved word "%s" is deprecated
           (D deprecated) The indicated bareword is a reserved
           word.  Future versions of perl may use it as a key­
           word, so you're better off either explicitly quoting
           the word in a manner appropriate for its context of
           use, or using a different name altogether.  The warn­
           ing can be suppressed for subroutine names by either
           adding a "&" prefix, or using a package qualifier,
           e.g. "&our()", or "Foo::our()".

       Use of tainted arguments in %s is deprecated
           Note, however, that perl optimizes your program and
           the operation displayed in the warning may not neces­
           sarily appear literally in your program.  For example,
           "that $foo" is usually optimized into ""that " .
           $foo", and the warning will refer to the "concatena­
           tion (.)" operator, even though there is no "." in
           your program.

       Using a hash as a reference is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You tried to use a hash as a reference,
           as in "%foo->{"bar"}" or "%$ref->{"hello"}".  Versions
           of perl <= 5.6.1 used to allow this syntax, but
           shouldn't have. It is now deprecated, and will be
           removed in a future version.

       Using an array as a reference is deprecated
           (D deprecated) You tried to use an array as a refer­
           ence, as in "@foo->[23]" or "@$ref->[99]".  Versions
           of perl <= 5.6.1 used to allow this syntax, but
           shouldn't have. It is now deprecated, and will be
           removed in a future version.

       UTF-16 surrogate %s
           (W utf8) You tried to generate half of an UTF-16 sur­
           rogate by requesting a Unicode character between the
           code points 0xD800 and 0xDFFF (inclusive).  That range
           is reserved exclusively for the use of UTF-16 encoding
           (by having two 16-bit UCS-2 characters); but Perl
           encodes its characters in UTF-8, so what you got is a
           very illegal character.  If you really know what you
           are doing you can turn off this warning by "no warn­
           ings 'utf8';".

       Value of %s can be "0"; test with defined()
           (W misc) In a conditional expression, you used <HAN­
           DLE>, <*> (glob), "each()", or "readdir()" as a
           boolean value.  Each of these constructs can return a
           value of "0"; that would make the conditional expres­
           sion false, which is probably not what you intended.
           When using these constructs in conditional expres­
           sions, test their values with the "defined" operator.

       Value of CLI symbol "%s" too long
           (W misc) A warning peculiar to VMS.  Perl tried to
           read the value of an %ENV element from a CLI symbol
           table, and found a resultant string longer than 1024
           characters.  The return value has been truncated to
           1024 characters.

       Variable "%s" is not imported%s
           (F) While "use strict" in effect, you referred to a
           global variable that you apparently thought was
           in the current scope or statement, effectively elimi­
           nating all access to the previous instance.  This is
           almost always a typographical error.  Note that the
           earlier variable will still exist until the end of the
           scope or until all closure referents to it are
           destroyed.

       Variable "%s" may be unavailable
           (W closure) An inner (nested) anonymous subroutine is
           inside a named subroutine, and outside that is another
           subroutine; and the anonymous (innermost) subroutine
           is referencing a lexical variable defined in the out­
           ermost subroutine.  For example:

              sub outermost { my $a; sub middle { sub { $a } } }

           If the anonymous subroutine is called or referenced
           (directly or indirectly) from the outermost subrou­
           tine, it will share the variable as you would expect.
           But if the anonymous subroutine is called or refer­
           enced when the outermost subroutine is not active, it
           will see the value of the shared variable as it was
           before and during the *first* call to the outermost
           subroutine, which is probably not what you want.

           In these circumstances, it is usually best to make the
           middle subroutine anonymous, using the "sub {}" syn­
           tax.  Perl has specific support for shared variables
           in nested anonymous subroutines; a named subroutine in
           between interferes with this feature.

       Variable syntax
           (A) You've accidentally run your script through csh
           instead of Perl.  Check the #! line, or manually feed
           your script into Perl yourself.

       Variable "%s" will not stay shared
           (W closure) An inner (nested) named subroutine is ref­
           erencing a lexical variable defined in an outer sub­
           routine.

           When the inner subroutine is called, it will probably
           see the value of the outer subroutine's variable as it
           was before and during the *first* call to the outer
           subroutine; in this case, after the first call to the
           outer subroutine is complete, the inner and outer sub­
           routines will no longer share a common value for the
           variable.  In other words, the variable will no longer
           be shared.

           Furthermore, if the outer subroutine is anonymous and
           references a lexical variable outside itself, then the

       Warning: something's wrong
           (W) You passed warn() an empty string (the equivalent
           of "warn """) or you called it with no args and $_ was
           empty.

       Warning: unable to close filehandle %s properly
           (S) The implicit close() done by an open() got an
           error indication on the close().  This usually indi­
           cates your file system ran out of disk space.

       Warning: Use of "%s" without parentheses is ambiguous
           (S ambiguous) You wrote a unary operator followed by
           something that looks like a binary operator that could
           also have been interpreted as a term or unary opera­
           tor.  For instance, if you know that the rand function
           has a default argument of 1.0, and you write

               rand + 5;

           you may THINK you wrote the same thing as

               rand() + 5;

           but in actual fact, you got

               rand(+5);

           So put in parentheses to say what you really mean.

       Wide character in %s
           (W utf8) Perl met a wide character (>255) when it
           wasn't expecting one.  This warning is by default on
           for I/O (like print).  The easiest way to quiet this
           warning is simply to add the ":utf8" layer to the out­
           put, e.g. "binmode STDOUT, ':utf8'".  Another way to
           turn off the warning is to add "no warnings 'utf8';"
           but that is often closer to cheating.  In general, you
           are supposed to explicitly mark the filehandle with an
           encoding, see open and "binmode" in perlfunc.

       Within []-length '%c' not allowed
           (F) The count in the (un)pack template may be replaced
           by "[TEMPLATE]" only if "TEMPLATE" always matches the
           same amount of packed bytes that can be determined
           from the template alone. This is not possible if it
           contains an of the codes @, /, U, u, w or a *-length.
           Redesign the template.

       write() on closed filehandle %s
           (W closed) The filehandle you're writing to got itself
           closed sometime before now.  Check your control flow.
           (un)packed.  See "pack" in perlfunc.

       'x' outside of string in unpack
           (F) You had a pack template that specified a relative
           position after the end of the string being unpacked.
           See "pack" in perlfunc.

       Xsub "%s" called in sort
           (F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort com­
           parison is not yet supported.

       Xsub called in sort
           (F) The use of an external subroutine as a sort com­
           parison is not yet supported.

       YOU HAVEN'T DISABLED SET-ID SCRIPTS IN THE KERNEL YET!
           (F) And you probably never will, because you probably
           don't have the sources to your kernel, and your vendor
           probably doesn't give a rip about what you want.  Your
           best bet is to put a setuid C wrapper around your
           script.

       You need to quote "%s"
           (W syntax) You assigned a bareword as a signal handler
           name.  Unfortunately, you already have a subroutine of
           that name declared, which means that Perl 5 will try
           to call the subroutine when the assignment is exe­
           cuted, which is probably not what you want.  (If it IS
           what you want, put an & in front.)

       Your random numbers are not that random
           (F) When trying to initialise the random seed for
           hashes, Perl could not get any randomness out of your
           system.  This usually indicates Something Very Wrong.

perl v5.8.1                 2003-09-02                PERLDIAG(1)

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