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       This document will help you configure, make, test and
       install Perl on Cygwin.  This document also describes fea­
       tures of Cygwin that will affect how Perl behaves at run­

       NOTE: There are pre-built Perl packages available for Cyg­
       win and a version of Perl is provided in the normal Cygwin
       install.  If you do not need to customize the configura­
       tion, consider using one of those packages.


       Cygwin = GNU+Cygnus+Windows (Don't leave UNIX without it)

       The Cygwin tools are ports of the popular GNU development
       tools for Win32 platforms.  They run thanks to the Cygwin
       library which provides the UNIX system calls and environ­
       ment these programs expect.  More information about this
       project can be found at:


       A recent net or commercial release of Cygwin is required.

       At the time this document was last updated, Cygwin 1.5.2
       was current.

       Cygwin Configuration

       While building Perl some changes may be necessary to your
       Cygwin setup so that Perl builds cleanly.  These changes
       are not required for normal Perl usage.

       NOTE: The binaries that are built will run on all Win32
       versions.  They do not depend on your host system
       (Win9x/WinME, WinNT/Win2K) or your Cygwin configuration
       (ntea, ntsec, binary/text mounts).  The only dependencies
       come from hard-coded pathnames like "/usr/local".  How­
       ever, your host system and Cygwin configuration will
       affect Perl's runtime behavior (see "TEST").

       * "PATH"
           Set the "PATH" environment variable so that Configure
           finds the Cygwin versions of programs.  Any Windows
           directories should be removed or moved to the end of
           your "PATH".

       * nroff
           If you do not have nroff (which is part of the groff
           package), Configure will not prompt you to install man

           the ownership to what you would expect on a UNIX sys­


       The default options gathered by Configure with the assis­
       tance of hints/cygwin.sh will build a Perl that supports
       dynamic loading (which requires a shared libperl.dll).

       This will run Configure and keep a record:

         ./Configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure

       If you are willing to accept all the defaults run Config­
       ure with -de.  However, several useful customizations are

       Stripping Perl Binaries on Cygwin

       It is possible to strip the EXEs and DLLs created by the
       build process.  The resulting binaries will be signifi­
       cantly smaller.  If you want the binaries to be stripped,
       you can either add a -s option when Configure prompts you,

         Any additional ld flags (NOT including libraries)? [none] -s
         Any special flags to pass to gcc to use dynamic linking? [none] -s
         Any special flags to pass to ld2 to create a dynamically loaded library?
         [none] -s

       or you can edit hints/cygwin.sh and uncomment the relevant
       variables near the end of the file.

       Optional Libraries for Perl on Cygwin

       Several Perl functions and modules depend on the existence
       of some optional libraries.  Configure will find them if
       they are installed in one of the directories listed as
       being used for library searches.  Pre-built packages for
       most of these are available from the Cygwin installer.

       * "-lcrypt"
           The crypt package distributed with Cygwin is a Linux
           compatible 56-bit DES crypt port by Corinna Vinschen.

           Alternatively, the crypt libraries in GNU libc have
           been ported to Cygwin.

           The DES based Ultra Fast Crypt port was done by Alexey


           NOTE: There are various export restrictions on DES

           NOTE: The BerkeleyDB library only completely works on
           NTFS partitions.

       * "-lcygipc" ("use IPC::SysV")
           A port of SysV IPC is available for Cygwin.

           NOTE: This has not been extensively tested.  In par­
           ticular, "d_semctl_semun" is undefined because it
           fails a Configure test and on Win9x the shm*() func­
           tions seem to hang.  It also creates a compile time
           dependency because perl.h includes <sys/ipc.h> and
           <sys/sem.h> (which will be required in the future when
           compiling CPAN modules). CURRENTLY NOT SUPPORTED!

       * "-lutil"
           Included with the standard Cygwin netrelease is the
           inetutils package which includes libutil.a.

       Configure-time Options for Perl on Cygwin

       The INSTALL document describes several Configure-time
       options.  Some of these will work with Cygwin, others are
       not yet possible.  Also, some of these are experimental.
       You can either select an option when Configure prompts you
       or you can define (undefine) symbols on the command line.

       * "-Uusedl"
           Undefining this symbol forces Perl to be compiled

       * "-Uusemymalloc"
           By default Perl uses the "malloc()" included with the
           Perl source.  If you want to force Perl to build with
           the system "malloc()" undefine this symbol.

       * "-Uuseperlio"
           Undefining this symbol disables the PerlIO abstrac­
           tion.  PerlIO is now the default; it is not recom­
           mended to disable PerlIO.

       * "-Dusemultiplicity"
           Multiplicity is required when embedding Perl in a C
           program and using more than one interpreter instance.
           This works with the Cygwin port.

       * "-Duse64bitint"
           By default Perl uses 32 bit integers.  If you want to
           use larger 64 bit integers, define this symbol.

       * "-Duselongdouble"
           gcc supports long doubles (12 bytes).  However, sev­

       * "-Dmksymlinks"
           Use this to build perl outside of the source tree.
           This works with Cygwin.  Details can be found in the
           INSTALL document.  This is the recommended way to
           build perl from sources.

       Suspicious Warnings on Cygwin

       You may see some messages during Configure that seem sus­

       * dlsym()
           ld2 is needed to build dynamic libraries, but it does
           not exist when "dlsym()" checking occurs (it is not
           created until `"make"' runs).  You will see the fol­
           lowing message:

             Checking whether your C<dlsym()> needs a leading underscore ...
             ld2: not found
             I can't compile and run the test program.
             I'm guessing that dlsym doesn't need a leading underscore.

           Since the guess is correct, this is not a problem.

       * Win9x and "d_eofnblk"
           Win9x does not correctly report "EOF" with a non-
           blocking read on a closed pipe.  You will see the fol­
           lowing messages:

             But it also returns -1 to signal EOF, so be careful!
             WARNING: you can't distinguish between EOF and no data!

             *** WHOA THERE!!! ***
                 The recommended value for $d_eofnblk on this machine was "define"!
                 Keep the recommended value? [y]

           At least for consistency with WinNT, you should keep
           the recommended value.

       * Compiler/Preprocessor defines
           The following error occurs because of the Cygwin
           "#define" of "_LONG_DOUBLE":

             Guessing which symbols your C compiler and preprocessor define...
             try.c:<line#>: missing binary operator

           This failure does not seem to cause any problems.
           With older gcc versions, "parse error" is reported
           instead of "missing binary operator".


       Simply run make and wait:
       During `"make"', ld2 will be created and installed in your
       $installbin directory (where you said to put public exe­
       cutables).  It does not wait until the `"make install"'
       process to install the ld2 script, this is because the
       remainder of the `"make"' refers to ld2 without fully
       specifying its path and does this from multiple subdirec­
       tories.  The assumption is that $installbin is in your
       current "PATH".  If this is not the case `"make"' will
       fail at some point.  If this happens, just manually copy
       ld2 from the source directory to somewhere in your "PATH".


       There are two steps to running the test suite:

         make test 2>&1 | tee log.make-test

         cd t;./perl harness 2>&1 | tee ../log.harness

       The same tests are run both times, but more information is
       provided when running as `"./perl harness"'.

       Test results vary depending on your host system and your
       Cygwin configuration.  If a test can pass in some Cygwin
       setup, it is always attempted and explainable test fail­
       ures are documented.  It is possible for Perl to pass all
       the tests, but it is more likely that some tests will fail
       for one of the reasons listed below.

       File Permissions on Cygwin

       UNIX file permissions are based on sets of mode bits for
       {read,write,execute} for each {user,group,other}.  By
       default Cygwin only tracks the Win32 read-only attribute
       represented as the UNIX file user write bit (files are
       always readable, files are executable if they have a
       .{com,bat,exe} extension or begin with "#!", directories
       are always readable and executable).  On WinNT with the
       ntea "CYGWIN" setting, the additional mode bits are stored
       as extended file attributes.  On WinNT with the ntsec
       "CYGWIN" setting, permissions use the standard WinNT secu­
       rity descriptors and access control lists.  Without one of
       these options, these tests will fail (listing not updated

         Failed Test           List of failed
         io/fs.t               5, 7, 9-10
         lib/anydbm.t          2
         lib/db-btree.t        20
         lib/db-hash.t         16
         lib/db-recno.t        18
         lib/gdbm.t            2

        ../ext/NDBM_File/ndbm.t       13  3328    71   59  83.10%  1-2 4 16-71
        ../ext/ODBM_File/odbm.t      255 65280    ??   ??       %  ??
        ../lib/AnyDBM_File.t           2   512    12    2  16.67%  1 4
        ../lib/Memoize/t/errors.t      0   139    11    5  45.45%  7-11
        ../lib/Memoize/t/tie_ndbm.t   13  3328     4    4 100.00%  1-4
        run/fresh_perl.t                          97    1   1.03%  91

       If you intend to run only on FAT (or if using AnyDBM_File
       on FAT), run Configure with the -Ui_ndbm and -Ui_dbm
       options to prevent NDBM_File and ODBM_File being built.

       With NTFS (and CYGWIN=ntsec), there should be no problems
       even if perl was built on FAT.

       "fork()" failures in io_* tests

       A "fork()" failure may result in the following tests fail­


       See comment on fork in Miscellaneous below.

       Script Portability on Cygwin

       Cygwin does an outstanding job of providing UNIX-like
       semantics on top of Win32 systems.  However, in addition
       to the items noted above, there are some differences that
       you should know about.  This is a very brief guide to
       portability, more information can be found in the Cygwin

       * Pathnames
           Cygwin pathnames can be separated by forward (/) or
           backward (\\) slashes.  They may also begin with drive
           letters (C:) or Universal Naming Codes (//UNC).  DOS
           device names (aux, con, prn, com*, lpt?, nul) are
           invalid as base filenames.  However, they can be used
           in extensions (e.g., hello.aux).  Names may contain
           all printable characters except these:

             : * ? " < > |

           File names are case insensitive, but case preserving.
           A pathname that contains a backslash or drive letter
           is a Win32 pathname (and not subject to the transla­
           tions applied to POSIX style pathnames).

       * Text/Binary
           When a file is opened it is in either text or binary
           The text/binary issue is covered at length in the Cyg­
           win documentation.

       * PerlIO
           PerlIO overrides the default Cygwin Text/Binary
           behaviour.  A file will always treated as binary,
           regardless which mode of the mount it lives on, just
           like it is in UNIX.  So CR/LF translation needs to be
           requested in either the "open()" call like this:

             open(FH, ">:crlf", "out.txt");

           which will do conversion from LF to CR/LF on the out­
           put, or in the environment settings (add this to your

             export PERLIO=crlf

           which will pull in the crlf PerlIO layer which does LF
           -> CRLF conversion on every output generated by perl.

       * .exe
           The Cygwin "stat()", "lstat()" and "readlink()" func­
           tions make the .exe extension transparent by looking
           for foo.exe when you ask for foo (unless a foo also
           exists).  Cygwin does not require a .exe extension,
           but gcc adds it automatically when building a program.
           However, when accessing an executable as a normal file
           (e.g., cp in a makefile) the .exe is not transparent.
           The install included with Cygwin automatically appends
           a .exe when necessary.

       * "chown()"
           On WinNT "chown()" can change a file's user and group
           IDs.  On Win9x "chown()" is a no-op, although this is
           appropriate since there is no security model.

       * Miscellaneous
           File locking using the "F_GETLK" command to "fcntl()"
           is a stub that returns "ENOSYS".

           Win9x can not "rename()" an open file (although WinNT

           The Cygwin "chroot()" implementation has holes (it can
           not restrict file access by native Win32 programs).

           Inplace editing "perl -i" of files doesn't work with­
           out doing a backup of the file being edited "perl
           -i.bak" because of windowish restrictions, therefore
           Perl adds the suffix ".bak" automatically if you use
           "perl -i" without specifying a backup extension.


       This will install Perl, including man pages.

         make install 2>&1 | tee log.make-install

       NOTE: If "STDERR" is redirected `"make install"' will not
       prompt you to install perl into /usr/bin.

       You may need to be Administrator to run `"make install"'.
       If you are not, you must have write access to the directo­
       ries in question.

       Information on installing the Perl documentation in HTML
       format can be found in the INSTALL document.


       These are the files in the Perl release that contain ref­
       erences to Cygwin.  These very brief notes attempt to
       explain the reason for all conditional code.  Hopefully,
       keeping this up to date will allow the Cygwin port to be
       kept as clean as possible (listing not updated yet).

             INSTALL README.cygwin README.win32 MANIFEST
             Changes Changes5.005 Changes5.004 Changes5.6
             pod/perl.pod pod/perlport.pod pod/perlfaq3.pod
             pod/perldelta.pod pod/perl5004delta.pod pod/perl56delta.pod
             pod/perlhist.pod pod/perlmodlib.pod perl/buildtoc pod/perltoc.pod

       Build, Configure, Make, Install
             Configure             - help finding hints from uname,
                                     shared libperl required for dynamic loading
             Makefile.SH           - linklibperl
             Porting/patchls       - cygwin in port list
             installman            - man pages with :: translated to .
             installperl           - install dll/ld2/perlld, install to pods
             makedepend.SH         - uwinfix

             t/io/tell.t           - binmode
             t/lib/b.t             - ignore Cwd from os_extras
             t/lib/glob-basic.t    - Win32 directory list access differs from read mode
             t/op/magic.t          - $^X/symlink WORKAROUND, s/.exe//
             t/op/stat.t           - no /dev, skip Win32 ftCreationTime quirk
             util.c                - use setenv

       Compiled Module Source
             ext/POSIX/POSIX.xs    - tzname defined externally
                                   - EXTCONST needs to be redefined from EXTERN.h
                                   - binary open

       Perl Modules/Scripts
             lib/Cwd.pm            - hook to internal Cwd::cwd
                                   - require MM_Cygwin.pm
                                   - canonpath, cflags, manifypods, perl_archive
             lib/File/Find.pm      - on remote drives stat() always sets st_nlink to 1
             lib/File/Spec/Unix.pm - preserve //unc
             lib/File/Temp.pm      - no directory sticky bit
             lib/perl5db.pl        - use stdin not /dev/tty
             utils/perldoc.PL      - version comment


       Support for swapping real and effective user and group IDs
       is incomplete.  On WinNT Cygwin provides "setuid()",
       "seteuid()", "setgid()" and "setegid()".  However, addi­
       tional Cygwin calls for manipulating WinNT access tokens
       and security contexts are required.


       Charles Wilson <cwilson@ece.gatech.edu>, Eric Fifer
       <egf7@columbia.edu>, alexander smishlajev <als@turn­
       here.com>, Steven Morlock <newspost@morlock.net>,
       Sebastien Barre <Sebastien.Barre@utc.fr>, Teun Burgers
       <burgers@ecn.nl>, Gerrit P. Haase <gp@familiehaase.de>.


       Last updated: 2003-08-12

perl v5.8.1                 2003-09-02              PERLCYGWIN(1)

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