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       欢迎来到 Perl 的天地!

       从 5.8.0 版开始, Perl 具备了完善的 Unicode (统一码) 支援,
       也连带支援了许多拉丁语系以外的编码方式; CJK (中日韩)
       便是其中的一部份.  Unicode 是国际性的标准,
       试图涵盖世界上所有的字符: 西方世界, 东方世界,
       以及两者间的一切 (希腊文, 叙利亚文, 亚拉伯文, 希伯来文,
       印度文, 印地安文, 等等). 它也容纳了多种作业系统与平台 (如
       PC 及麦金塔).

       Perl 本身以 Unicode 进行操作. 这表示 Perl
       内部的字符串数据可用 Unicode 表示; Perl 的函式与算符
       (例如正规表示式比对) 也能对 Unicode 进行操作.
       在输入及输出时, 为了处理以 Unicode
       之前的编码方式存放的数据, Perl 提供了 Encode 这个模块,

       Encode 延伸模块支援下列简体中文的编码方式 ('gb2312' 表示

           euc-cn      Unix 延伸字符集, 也就是俗称的国标码
           gb2312-raw  未经处理的 (低比特) GB2312 字符表
           gb12345     未经处理的中国用繁体中文编码
           iso-ir-165  GB2312 + GB6345 + GB8565 + 新增字符
           cp936       字码页 936, 也可以用 'GBK' (扩充国标码) 指明
           hz          7 比特逸出式 GB2312 编码

       举例来说, 将 EUC-CN 编码的档案转成 Unicode,

           perl -Mencoding=euc-cn,STDOUT,utf8 -pe1 < file.euc-cn > file.utf8

       Perl 也内附了 "piconv", 一支完全以 Perl
       写成的字符转换工具程序, 用法如下:

           piconv -f euc-cn -t utf8 < file.euc-cn > file.utf8
           piconv -f utf8 -t euc-cn < file.utf8 > file.euc-cn

       另外, 利用 encoding 模块,
       你可以轻易写出以字符为单位的程序码, 如下所示:

           #!/usr/bin/env perl
           # 启动 euc-cn 字串解析; 标准输出入及标准错误都设为 euc-cn 编码
           use encoding 'euc-cn', STDIN => 'euc-cn', STDOUT => 'euc-cn';
           print length("骆驼");            #  2 (双引号表示字符)
           print length('骆驼');            #  4 (单引号表示字节)
           print index("谆谆教诲", "蛔唤"); # -1 (不包含此子字符串)
           print index('谆谆教诲', '蛔唤'); #  1 (从第二个字节开始)

       在最后一列例子里, "谆" 的第二个字节与 "谆"
       的第一个字节结合成 EUC-CN 码的 "蛔"; "谆" 的第二个字节则与
           gbk-trad    GBK 简体中文与 Unicode 繁体中文互转

       若想在 GBK 与 Big5 之间互转, 请参考该模块内附的 b2g.pl 与
       g2b.pl 两支程序, 或在程序内使用下列写法:

           use Encode::HanConvert;
           $euc_cn = big5_to_gb($big5); # 从 Big5 转为 GBK
           $big5 = gb_to_big5($euc_cn); # 从 GBK 转为 Big5


       请参考 Perl 内附的大量说明文件 (不幸全是用英文写的),
       来学习更多关于 Perl 的知识, 以及 Unicode 的使用方式. 不过,

       提供 Perl 资源的网址

           Perl 的首页 (由欧莱礼公司维护)

           Perl 综合典藏网 (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network)

           Perl 邮递论坛一览

       学习 Perl 的网址

           简体中文版的欧莱礼 Perl 书藉

       Perl 使用者集会

           中国 Perl 推广组一览

       Unicode 相关网址

           Unicode 学术学会 (Unicode 标准的制定者)

           Unix/Linux 上的 UTF-8 及 Unicode 答客问


       Encode, Encode::CN, encoding, perluniintro, perlunicode


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