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       If you're not familiar with objects from other languages,
       some of the other Perl object documentation may be a lit­
       tle daunting, such as perlobj, a basic reference in using
       objects, and perltoot, which introduces readers to the
       peculiarities of Perl's object system in a tutorial way.

       So, let's take a different approach, presuming no prior
       object experience. It helps if you know about subroutines
       (perlsub), references (perlref et. seq.), and packages
       (perlmod), so become familiar with those first if you
       haven't already.

       If we could talk to the animals...

       Let's let the animals talk for a moment:

           sub Cow::speak {
             print "a Cow goes moooo!\n";
           sub Horse::speak {
             print "a Horse goes neigh!\n";
           sub Sheep::speak {
             print "a Sheep goes baaaah!\n"


       This results in:

           a Cow goes moooo!
           a Horse goes neigh!
           a Sheep goes baaaah!

       Nothing spectacular here.  Simple subroutines, albeit from
       separate packages, and called using the full package name.
       So let's create an entire pasture:

           # Cow::speak, Horse::speak, Sheep::speak as before
           @pasture = qw(Cow Cow Horse Sheep Sheep);
           foreach $animal (@pasture) {

       This results in:

           a Cow goes moooo!
           a Cow goes moooo!
           a Horse goes neigh!

       For now, let's say that "Class->method" invokes subroutine
       "method" in package "Class".  (Here, "Class" is used in
       its "category" meaning, not its "scholastic" meaning.)
       That's not completely accurate, but we'll do this one step
       at a time.  Now let's use it like so:

           # Cow::speak, Horse::speak, Sheep::speak as before

       And once again, this results in:

           a Cow goes moooo!
           a Horse goes neigh!
           a Sheep goes baaaah!

       That's not fun yet.  Same number of characters, all con­
       stant, no variables.  But yet, the parts are separable
       now.  Watch:

           $a = "Cow";
           $a->speak; # invokes Cow->speak

       Ahh!  Now that the package name has been parted from the
       subroutine name, we can use a variable package name.  And
       this time, we've got something that works even when "use
       strict refs" is enabled.

       Invoking a barnyard

       Let's take that new arrow invocation and put it back in
       the barnyard example:

           sub Cow::speak {
             print "a Cow goes moooo!\n";
           sub Horse::speak {
             print "a Horse goes neigh!\n";
           sub Sheep::speak {
             print "a Sheep goes baaaah!\n"

           @pasture = qw(Cow Cow Horse Sheep Sheep);
           foreach $animal (@pasture) {

       There!  Now we have the animals all talking, and safely at
       that, without the use of symbolic coderefs.


       attempts to invoke subroutine "Class::method" as:

           Class::method("Class", @args);

       (If the subroutine can't be found, "inheritance" kicks in,
       but we'll get to that later.)  This means that we get the
       class name as the first parameter (the only parameter, if
       no arguments are given).  So we can rewrite the "Sheep"
       speaking subroutine as:

           sub Sheep::speak {
             my $class = shift;
             print "a $class goes baaaah!\n";

       And the other two animals come out similarly:

           sub Cow::speak {
             my $class = shift;
             print "a $class goes moooo!\n";
           sub Horse::speak {
             my $class = shift;
             print "a $class goes neigh!\n";

       In each case, $class will get the value appropriate for
       that subroutine.  But once again, we have a lot of similar
       structure.  Can we factor that out even further?  Yes, by
       calling another method in the same class.

       Calling a second method to simplify things

       Let's call out from "speak" to a helper method called
       "sound".  This method provides the constant text for the
       sound itself.

           { package Cow;
             sub sound { "moooo" }
             sub speak {
               my $class = shift;
               print "a $class goes ", $class->sound, "!\n"

       Now, when we call "Cow->speak", we get a $class of "Cow"
       in "speak".  This in turn selects the "Cow->sound" method,
       which returns "moooo".  But how different would this be
       for the "Horse"?

       Only the name of the package and the specific sound
       change.  So can we somehow share the definition for
       "speak" between the Cow and the Horse?  Yes, with inheri­

       Inheriting the windpipes

       We'll define a common subroutine package called "Animal",
       with the definition for "speak":

           { package Animal;
             sub speak {
               my $class = shift;
               print "a $class goes ", $class->sound, "!\n"

       Then, for each animal, we say it "inherits" from "Animal",
       along with the animal-specific sound:

           { package Cow;
             @ISA = qw(Animal);
             sub sound { "moooo" }

       Note the added @ISA array.  We'll get to that in a minute.

       But what happens when we invoke "Cow->speak" now?

       First, Perl constructs the argument list.  In this case,
       it's just "Cow".  Then Perl looks for "Cow::speak".  But
       that's not there, so Perl checks for the inheritance array
       @Cow::ISA.  It's there, and contains the single name "Ani­

       Perl next checks for "speak" inside "Animal" instead, as
       in "Animal::speak".  And that's found, so Perl invokes
       that subroutine with the already frozen argument list.

       Inside the "Animal::speak" subroutine, $class becomes
       "Cow" (the first argument).  So when we get to the step of
       invoking "$class->sound", it'll be looking for
       "Cow->sound", which gets it on the first try without look­
       ing at @ISA.  Success!

       A few notes about @ISA

       This magical @ISA variable (pronounced "is a" not
       "ice-uh"), has declared that "Cow" "is a" "Animal".  Note
       that it's an array, not a simple single value, because on
       rare occasions, it makes sense to have more than one par­

       The easiest is to just spell the package name out:

           @Cow::ISA = qw(Animal);

       Or allow it as an implicitly named package variable:

           package Cow;
           use vars qw(@ISA);
           @ISA = qw(Animal);

       If you're bringing in the class from outside, via an
       object-oriented module, you change:

           package Cow;
           use Animal;
           use vars qw(@ISA);
           @ISA = qw(Animal);

       into just:

           package Cow;
           use base qw(Animal);

       And that's pretty darn compact.

       Overriding the methods

       Let's add a mouse, which can barely be heard:

           # Animal package from before
           { package Mouse;
             @ISA = qw(Animal);
             sub sound { "squeak" }
             sub speak {
               my $class = shift;
               print "a $class goes ", $class->sound, "!\n";
               print "[but you can barely hear it!]\n";


       which results in:

           a Mouse goes squeak!
           [but you can barely hear it!]

       Here, "Mouse" has its own speaking routine, so
       "Mouse->speak" doesn't immediately invoke "Animal->speak".
       This is known as "overriding".  In fact, we didn't even
             @ISA = qw(Animal);
             sub sound { "squeak" }
             sub speak {
               my $class = shift;
               print "[but you can barely hear it!]\n";

       Note that we have to include the $class parameter (almost
       surely the value of "Mouse") as the first parameter to
       "Animal::speak", since we've stopped using the method
       arrow.  Why did we stop?  Well, if we invoke "Ani­
       mal->speak" there, the first parameter to the method will
       be "Animal" not "Mouse", and when time comes for it to
       call for the "sound", it won't have the right class to
       come back to this package.

       Invoking "Animal::speak" directly is a mess, however.
       What if "Animal::speak" didn't exist before, and was being
       inherited from a class mentioned in @Animal::ISA?  Because
       we are no longer using the method arrow, we get one and
       only one chance to hit the right subroutine.

       Also note that the "Animal" classname is now hardwired
       into the subroutine selection.  This is a mess if someone
       maintains the code, changing @ISA for <Mouse> and didn't
       notice "Animal" there in "speak".  So, this is probably
       not the right way to go.

       Starting the search from a different place

       A better solution is to tell Perl to search from a higher
       place in the inheritance chain:

           # same Animal as before
           { package Mouse;
             # same @ISA, &sound as before
             sub speak {
               my $class = shift;
               print "[but you can barely hear it!]\n";

       Ahh.  This works.  Using this syntax, we start with "Ani­
       mal" to find "speak", and use all of "Animal"'s inheri­
       tance chain if not found immediately.  And yet the first
       parameter will be $class, so the found "speak" method will
       get "Mouse" as its first entry, and eventually work its
       way back to "Mouse::sound" for the details.

           # same Animal as before
           { package Mouse;
             # same @ISA, &sound as before
             sub speak {
               my $class = shift;
               print "[but you can barely hear it!]\n";

       So, "SUPER::speak" means look in the current package's
       @ISA for "speak", invoking the first one found.

       Where we're at so far...

       So far, we've seen the method arrow syntax:


       or the equivalent:

         $a = "Class";

       which constructs an argument list of:

         ("Class", @args)

       and attempts to invoke

         Class::method("Class", @Args);

       However, if "Class::method" is not found, then @Class::ISA
       is examined (recursively) to locate a package that does
       indeed contain "method", and that subroutine is invoked

       Using this simple syntax, we have class methods, (multi­
       ple) inheritance, overriding, and extending.  Using just
       what we've seen so far, we've been able to factor out com­
       mon code, and provide a nice way to reuse implementations
       with variations.  This is at the core of what objects pro­
       vide, but objects also provide instance data, which we
       haven't even begun to cover.

       A horse is a horse, of course of course -- or is it?

       Let's start with the code for the "Animal" class and the
       "Horse" class:

           @ISA = qw(Animal);
           sub sound { "neigh" }

       This lets us invoke "Horse->speak" to ripple upward to
       "Animal::speak", calling back to "Horse::sound" to get the
       specific sound, and the output of:

         a Horse goes neigh!

       But all of our Horse objects would have to be absolutely
       identical.  If I add a subroutine, all horses automati­
       cally share it.  That's great for making horses the same,
       but how do we capture the distinctions about an individual
       horse?  For example, suppose I want to give my first horse
       a name.  There's got to be a way to keep its name separate
       from the other horses.

       We can do that by drawing a new distinction, called an
       "instance".  An "instance" is generally created by a
       class.  In Perl, any reference can be an instance, so
       let's start with the simplest reference that can hold a
       horse's name: a scalar reference.

         my $name = "Mr. Ed";
         my $talking = \$name;

       So now $talking is a reference to what will be the
       instance-specific data (the name).  The final step in
       turning this into a real instance is with a special opera­
       tor called "bless":

         bless $talking, Horse;

       This operator stores information about the package named
       "Horse" into the thing pointed at by the reference.  At
       this point, we say $talking is an instance of "Horse".
       That is, it's a specific horse.  The reference is other­
       wise unchanged, and can still be used with traditional
       dereferencing operators.

       Invoking an instance method

       The method arrow can be used on instances, as well as
       names of packages (classes).  So, let's get the sound that
       $talking makes:

         my $noise = $talking->sound;

       To invoke "sound", Perl first notes that $talking is a
       blessed reference (and thus an instance).  It then con­
       structs an argument list, in this case from just "($talk­
       the return value, and that'll end up as the $noise vari­
       able above.

       If Horse::sound had not been found, we'd be wandering up
       the @Horse::ISA list to try to find the method in one of
       the superclasses, just as for a class method.  The only
       difference between a class method and an instance method
       is whether the first parameter is an instance (a blessed
       reference) or a class name (a string).

       Accessing the instance data

       Because we get the instance as the first parameter, we can
       now access the instance-specific data.  In this case,
       let's add a way to get at the name:

         { package Horse;
           @ISA = qw(Animal);
           sub sound { "neigh" }
           sub name {
             my $self = shift;

       Now we call for the name:

         print $talking->name, " says ", $talking->sound, "\n";

       Inside "Horse::name", the @_ array contains just $talking,
       which the "shift" stores into $self.  (It's traditional to
       shift the first parameter off into a variable named $self
       for instance methods, so stay with that unless you have
       strong reasons otherwise.)  Then, $self gets de-referenced
       as a scalar ref, yielding "Mr. Ed", and we're done with
       that.  The result is:

         Mr. Ed says neigh.

       How to build a horse

       Of course, if we constructed all of our horses by hand,
       we'd most likely make mistakes from time to time.  We're
       also violating one of the properties of object-oriented
       programming, in that the "inside guts" of a Horse are vis­
       ible.  That's good if you're a veterinarian, but not if
       you just like to own horses.  So, let's let the Horse
       class build a new horse:

           sub named {
             my $class = shift;
             my $name = shift;
             bless \$name, $class;

       Now with the new "named" method, we can build a horse:

         my $talking = Horse->named("Mr. Ed");

       Notice we're back to a class method, so the two arguments
       to "Horse::named" are "Horse" and "Mr. Ed".  The "bless"
       operator not only blesses $name, it also returns the ref­
       erence to $name, so that's fine as a return value.  And
       that's how to build a horse.

       We've called the constructor "named" here, so that it
       quickly denotes the constructor's argument as the name for
       this particular "Horse".  You can use different construc­
       tors with different names for different ways of "giving
       birth" to the object (like maybe recording its pedigree or
       date of birth).  However, you'll find that most people
       coming to Perl from more limited languages use a single
       constructor named "new", with various ways of interpreting
       the arguments to "new".  Either style is fine, as long as
       you document your particular way of giving birth to an
       object.  (And you were going to do that, right?)

       Inheriting the constructor

       But was there anything specific to "Horse" in that method?
       No.  Therefore, it's also the same recipe for building
       anything else that inherited from "Animal", so let's put
       it there:

         { package Animal;
           sub speak {
             my $class = shift;
             print "a $class goes ", $class->sound, "!\n"
           sub name {
             my $self = shift;
           sub named {
             my $class = shift;
             my $name = shift;
             bless \$name, $class;
         { package Horse;

       Why?  Because the "Animal::speak" routine is expecting a
       classname as its first parameter, not an instance.  When
       the instance is passed in, we'll end up using a blessed
       scalar reference as a string, and that shows up as we saw
       it just now.

       Making a method work with either classes or instances

       All we need is for a method to detect if it is being
       called on a class or called on an instance.  The most
       straightforward way is with the "ref" operator.  This
       returns a string (the classname) when used on a blessed
       reference, and "undef" when used on a string (like a
       classname).  Let's modify the "name" method first to
       notice the change:

         sub name {
           my $either = shift;
           ref $either
             ? $$either # it's an instance, return name
             : "an unnamed $either"; # it's a class, return generic

       Here, the "?:" operator comes in handy to select either
       the dereference or a derived string.  Now we can use this
       with either an instance or a class.  Note that I've
       changed the first parameter holder to $either to show that
       this is intended:

         my $talking = Horse->named("Mr. Ed");
         print Horse->name, "\n"; # prints "an unnamed Horse\n"
         print $talking->name, "\n"; # prints "Mr Ed.\n"

       and now we'll fix "speak" to use this:

         sub speak {
           my $either = shift;
           print $either->name, " goes ", $either->sound, "\n";

       And since "sound" already worked with either a class or an
       instance, we're done!

       Adding parameters to a method

       Let's train our animals to eat:

             my $either = shift;
             ref $either
               ? $$either # it's an instance, return name
               : "an unnamed $either"; # it's a class, return generic
           sub speak {
             my $either = shift;
             print $either->name, " goes ", $either->sound, "\n";
           sub eat {
             my $either = shift;
             my $food = shift;
             print $either->name, " eats $food.\n";
         { package Horse;
           @ISA = qw(Animal);
           sub sound { "neigh" }
         { package Sheep;
           @ISA = qw(Animal);
           sub sound { "baaaah" }

       And now try it out:

         my $talking = Horse->named("Mr. Ed");

       which prints:

         Mr. Ed eats hay.
         an unnamed Sheep eats grass.

       An instance method with parameters gets invoked with the
       instance, and then the list of parameters.  So that first
       invocation is like:

         Animal::eat($talking, "hay");

       More interesting instances

       What if an instance needs more data?  Most interesting
       instances are made of many items, each of which can in
       turn be a reference or even another object.  The easiest
       way to store these is often in a hash.  The keys of the
       hash serve as the names of parts of the object (often
       called "instance variables" or "member variables"), and
       the corresponding values are, well, the values.

       But how do we turn the horse into a hash?  Recall that an

         ## in Animal
         sub name {
           my $either = shift;
           ref $either ?
             $either->{Name} :
             "an unnamed $either";

       And of course "named" still builds a scalar sheep, so
       let's fix that as well:

         ## in Animal
         sub named {
           my $class = shift;
           my $name = shift;
           my $self = { Name => $name, Color => $class->default_color };
           bless $self, $class;

       What's this "default_color"?  Well, if "named" has only
       the name, we still need to set a color, so we'll have a
       class-specific initial color.  For a sheep, we might
       define it as white:

         ## in Sheep
         sub default_color { "white" }

       And then to keep from having to define one for each addi­
       tional class, we'll define a "backstop" method that serves
       as the "default default", directly in "Animal":

         ## in Animal
         sub default_color { "brown" }

       Now, because "name" and "named" were the only methods that
       referenced the "structure" of the object, the rest of the
       methods can remain the same, so "speak" still works as

       A horse of a different color

       But having all our horses be brown would be boring.  So
       let's add a method or two to get and set the color.

         ## in Animal
         sub color {
         sub set_color {
           $_[0]->{Color} = $_[1];


       So, now we have class methods, constructors, instance
       methods, instance data, and even accessors.  But that's
       still just the beginning of what Perl has to offer.  We
       haven't even begun to talk about accessors that double as
       getters and setters, destructors, indirect object nota­
       tion, subclasses that add instance data, per-class data,
       overloading, "isa" and "can" tests, "UNIVERSAL" class, and
       so on.  That's for the rest of the Perl documentation to
       cover.  Hopefully, this gets you started, though.


       For more information, see perlobj (for all the gritty
       details about Perl objects, now that you've seen the
       basics), perltoot (the tutorial for those who already know
       objects), perltooc (dealing with class data), perlbot (for
       some more tricks), and books such as Damian Conway's
       excellent Object Oriented Perl.

       Some modules which might prove interesting are
       Class::Accessor, Class::Class, Class::Contract,
       Class::Data::Inheritable, Class::MethodMaker and


       Copyright (c) 1999, 2000 by Randal L. Schwartz and Stone­
       henge Consulting Services, Inc.  Permission is hereby
       granted to distribute this document intact with the Perl
       distribution, and in accordance with the licenses of the
       Perl distribution; derived documents must include this
       copyright notice intact.

       Portions of this text have been derived from Perl Training
       materials originally appearing in the Packages, Refer­
       ences, Objects, and Modules course taught by instructors
       for Stonehenge Consulting Services, Inc. and used with

       Portions of this text have been derived from materials
       originally appearing in Linux Magazine and used with per­

perl v5.8.1                 2003-09-02                PERLBOOT(1)

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