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patch



SYNOPSIS

       patch [options] [originalfile [patchfile]]

       but usually just

       patch -pnum <patchfile


DESCRIPTION

       patch takes a patch file patchfile containing a difference
       listing produced by the diff  program  and  applies  those
       differences  to  one  or  more  original  files, producing
       patched versions.  Normally the patched versions  are  put
       in  place  of the originals.  Backups can be made; see the
       -b or --backup option.  The  names  of  the  files  to  be
       patched  are  usually  taken  from  the patch file, but if
       there's just one file to be patched it  can  specified  on
       the command line as originalfile.

       Upon  startup, patch attempts to determine the type of the
       diff listing, unless overruled by  a  -c  (--context),  -e
       (--ed),  -n (--normal), or -u (--unified) option.  Context
       diffs (old-style, new-style, and unified) and normal diffs
       are  applied  by  the patch program itself, while ed diffs
       are simply fed to the ed(1) editor via a pipe.

       patch tries to skip any leading garbage, apply  the  diff,
       and  then  skip any trailing garbage.  Thus you could feed
       an article or message containing a diff listing to  patch,
       and  it  should work.  If the entire diff is indented by a
       consistent amount, or if a  context  diff  contains  lines
       ending  in  CRLF  or  is encapsulated one or more times by
       prepending "- " to lines starting with "-" as specified by
       Internet  RFC  934,  this  is  taken  into account.  After
       removing indenting or encapsulation, lines beginning  with
       # are ignored, as they are considered to be comments.

       With  context  diffs,  and  to a lesser extent with normal
       diffs, patch can detect when the line numbers mentioned in
       the  patch are incorrect, and attempts to find the correct
       place to apply each hunk of the patch.  As a first  guess,
       it  takes  the line number mentioned for the hunk, plus or
       minus any offset used in applying the previous  hunk.   If
       that  is  not the correct place, patch scans both forwards
       and backwards for a set  of  lines  matching  the  context
       given  in  the  hunk.  First patch looks for a place where
       all lines of the context  match.   If  no  such  place  is
       found,  and it's a context diff, and the maximum fuzz fac­
       tor is set to 1 or more, then  another  scan  takes  place
       ignoring  the  first  and  last  line of context.  If that
       fails, and the maximum fuzz factor is set to  2  or  more,
       the  first  two and last two lines of context are ignored,
       and another scan is made.  (The default maximum fuzz  fac­
       As  each  hunk  is  completed,  you  are  told if the hunk
       failed, and if so which  line  (in  the  new  file)  patch
       thought  the  hunk should go on.  If the hunk is installed
       at a different line from the line number specified in  the
       diff  you  are told the offset.  A single large offset may
       indicate that a hunk was installed  in  the  wrong  place.
       You  are  also  told if a fuzz factor was used to make the
       match, in which case you should also  be  slightly  suspi­
       cious.   If  the  --verbose  option is given, you are also
       told about hunks that match exactly.

       If no original file origfile is specified on  the  command
       line,  patch  tries to figure out from the leading garbage
       what the name of the file to edit is, using the  following
       rules.

       First, patch takes an ordered list of candidate file names
       as follows:

        · If the header is that of a context  diff,  patch  takes
          the  old  and  new file names in the header.  A name is
          ignored if it does not have enough slashes  to  satisfy
          the -pnum or --strip=num option.  The name /dev/null is
          also ignored.

        · If there is an Index: line in the leading  garbage  and
          if  either  the old and new names are both absent or if
          patch is conforming to POSIX, patch takes the  name  in
          the Index: line.

        · For  the  purpose of the following rules, the candidate
          file names are considered to be in the order (old, new,
          index), regardless of the order that they appear in the
          header.

       Then patch selects a file name from the candidate list  as
       follows:

        · If  some  of  the  named files exist, patch selects the
          first name if conforming to POSIX, and  the  best  name
          otherwise.

        · If  patch is not ignoring RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, and
          SCCS (see the -g num or --get=num option), and no named
          files  exist  but  an RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, or SCCS
          master is found, patch selects  the  first  named  file
          with an RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, or SCCS master.

        · If  no  named files exist, no RCS, ClearCase, Perforce,
          or SCCS master was found, some names are  given,  patch
          is  not  conforming  to POSIX, and the patch appears to
          create a file, patch selects the  best  name  requiring

       line  (normally  a version number) and checks the original
       file to see if that word can be found.  If not, patch asks
       for confirmation before proceeding.

       The  upshot of all this is that you should be able to say,
       while in a news interface, something like the following:

          | patch -d /usr/src/local/blurfl

       and patch a file in the blurfl directory directly from the
       article containing the patch.

       If  the  patch  file  contains  more than one patch, patch
       tries to apply each of them as if they came from  separate
       patch  files.   This means, among other things, that it is
       assumed that the name of the file to patch must be  deter­
       mined  for  each diff listing, and that the garbage before
       each diff listing contains interesting things such as file
       names and revision level, as mentioned previously.


OPTIONS

       -b  or  --backup
          Make  backup  files.   That  is,  when patching a file,
          rename or copy the original  instead  of  removing  it.
          When  backing  up a file that does not exist, an empty,
          unreadable backup file is created as a  placeholder  to
          represent  the  nonexistent file.  See the -V or --ver­
          sion-control option for details about how  backup  file
          names are determined.

       --backup-if-mismatch
          Back  up  a  file  if the patch does not match the file
          exactly and if backups  are  not  otherwise  requested.
          This  is  the  default  unless  patch  is conforming to
          POSIX.

       --no-backup-if-mismatch
          Do not back up a file if the patch does not  match  the
          file   exactly   and   if  backups  are  not  otherwise
          requested.  This is the default if patch is  conforming
          to POSIX.

       -B pref  or  --prefix=pref
          Prefix  pref  to a file name when generating its simple
          backup file name.  For example, with -B /junk/ the sim­
          ple   backup   file   name   for   src/patch/util.c  is
          /junk/src/patch/util.c.

       --binary
          Read and write all files in  binary  mode,  except  for
          standard  output  and  /dev/tty.   This  option  has no
          effect on POSIX-conforming systems.   On  systems  like

       --dry-run
          Print the results of applying the patches without actu­
          ally changing any files.

       -e  or  --ed
          Interpret the patch file as an ed script.

       -E  or  --remove-empty-files
          Remove  output  files  that are empty after the patches
          have been applied.  Normally this  option  is  unneces­
          sary,  since  patch  can examine the time stamps on the
          header to determine whether a file should  exist  after
          patching.   However, if the input is not a context diff
          or if patch is conforming  to  POSIX,  patch  does  not
          remove empty patched files unless this option is given.
          When patch removes a file, it also attempts  to  remove
          any empty ancestor directories.

       -f  or  --force
          Assume  that  the  user knows exactly what he or she is
          doing, and do not  ask  any  questions.   Skip  patches
          whose  headers  do not say which file is to be patched;
          patch files even though they have the wrong version for
          the  Prereq: line in the patch; and assume that patches
          are not reversed even if they look like they are.  This
          option does not suppress commentary; use -s for that.

       -F num  or  --fuzz=num
          Set  the maximum fuzz factor.  This option only applies
          to diffs that have context, and causes patch to  ignore
          up  to that many lines in looking for places to install
          a hunk.  Note that a larger fuzz factor  increases  the
          odds  of a faulty patch.  The default fuzz factor is 2,
          and it may not be set to more than the number of  lines
          of context in the context diff, ordinarily 3.

       -g num  or  --get=num
          This  option  controls  patch's  actions when a file is
          under RCS or SCCS control, and does  not  exist  or  is
          read-only  and  matches  the default version, or when a
          file is under ClearCase or Perforce  control  and  does
          not  exist.   If num is positive, patch gets (or checks
          out) the file from  the  revision  control  system;  if
          zero,  patch ignores RCS, ClearCase, Perforce, and SCCS
          and does not get the file; and if negative, patch  asks
          the user whether to get the file.  The default value of
          this option is given by  the  value  of  the  PATCH_GET
          environment  variable if it is set; if not, the default
          value is zero if patch is conforming to POSIX, negative
          otherwise.

       --help

       -n  or  --normal
          Interpret the patch file as a normal diff.

       -N  or  --forward
          Ignore patches that seem  to  be  reversed  or  already
          applied.  See also -R.

       -o outfile  or  --output=outfile
          Send  output  to  outfile  instead of patching files in
          place.  Do not use this option if outfile is one of the
          files to be patched.

       -pnum  or  --strip=num
          Strip   the  smallest  prefix  containing  num  leading
          slashes from each file name found in the patch file.  A
          sequence  of one or more adjacent slashes is counted as
          a single slash.  This controls how file names found  in
          the patch file are treated, in case you keep your files
          in a different directory than the person who  sent  out
          the patch.  For example, supposing the file name in the
          patch file was

             /u/howard/src/blurfl/blurfl.c

          setting -p0 gives the entire file name unmodified,  -p1
          gives

             u/howard/src/blurfl/blurfl.c

          without the leading slash, -p4 gives

             blurfl/blurfl.c

          and  not  specifying -p at all just gives you blurfl.c.
          Whatever you end up with is looked for  either  in  the
          current directory, or the directory specified by the -d
          option.

       --posix
          Conform more strictly to the POSIX  standard,  as  fol­
          lows.

           · Take  the  first  existing  file from the list (old,
             new, index) when  intuiting  file  names  from  diff
             headers.

           · Do not remove files that are empty after patching.

           · Do not ask whether to get files from RCS, ClearCase,
             Perforce, or SCCS.


          shell-always
                 Quote names for the shell, even  if  they  would
                 normally not require quoting.

          c      Quote names as for a C language string.

          escape Quote as with c except omit the surrounding dou­
                 ble-quote characters.

          You can  specify  the  default  value  of  the  --quot­
          ing-style  option  with  the environment variable QUOT­
          ING_STYLE.  If that environment variable  is  not  set,
          the default value is shell.

       -r rejectfile  or  --reject-file=rejectfile
          Put rejects into rejectfile instead of the default .rej
          file.

       --global-reject-file=rejectfile
          Put all rejects into  rejectfile  instead  of  creating
          separate  reject files for all files that have rejects.
          The rejectfile will contain headers that identify which
          file each reject refers to.

       -R  or  --reverse
          Assume that this patch was created with the old and new
          files swapped.  (Yes, I'm afraid that does happen occa­
          sionally,  human  nature  being  what  it  is.)   patch
          attempts to swap each hunk around before  applying  it.
          Rejects  come out in the swapped format.  The -R option
          does not work with ed diff scripts because there is too
          little  information  to  reconstruct the reverse opera­
          tion.

          If the first hunk of a patch fails, patch reverses  the
          hunk  to see if it can be applied that way.  If it can,
          you are asked if you want to have the  -R  option  set.
          If  it  can't,  the  patch continues to be applied nor­
          mally.  (Note: this method  cannot  detect  a  reversed
          patch  if  it is a normal diff and if the first command
          is an append (i.e. it should have been a delete)  since
          appends  always  succeed,  due  to the fact that a null
          context matches anywhere.  Luckily, most patches add or
          change  lines rather than delete them, so most reversed
          normal diffs begin with a delete, which fails, trigger­
          ing the heuristic.)

       -s  or  --silent  or  --quiet
          Work silently, unless an error occurs.

       -t  or  --batch
          local clocks move backwards during daylight-saving time
          adjustments.   Instead  of  using this option, generate
          patches with UTC and use the  -Z  or  --set-utc  option
          instead.

       -u  or  --unified
          Interpret the patch file as a unified context diff.

       -v  or  --version
          Print  out patch's revision header and patch level, and
          exit.

       -V method  or  --version-control=method
          Use method to determine backup file names.  The  method
          can  also be given by the PATCH_VERSION_CONTROL (or, if
          that's not set, the VERSION_CONTROL) environment  vari­
          able,  which  is overridden by this option.  The method
          does not affect  whether  backup  files  are  made;  it
          affects  only  the  names  of any backup files that are
          made.

          The value of method is like the GNU Emacs `version-con­
          trol' variable; patch also recognizes synonyms that are
          more descriptive.  The  valid  values  for  method  are
          (unique abbreviations are accepted):

          existing  or  nil
             Make  numbered  backups  of  files that already have
             them,  otherwise  simple  backups.   This   is   the
             default.

          numbered  or  t
             Make  numbered  backups.   The  numbered backup file
             name for F is F.~N~ where N is the version number.

          simple  or  never
             Make simple backups.  The  -B  or  --prefix,  -Y  or
             --basename-prefix,  and -z or --suffix options spec­
             ify the simple backup file name.  If none  of  these
             options  are  given,  then a simple backup suffix is
             used; it is the value  of  the  SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX
             environment variable if set, and is .orig otherwise.

          With numbered or simple backups,  if  the  backup  file
          name  is too long, the backup suffix ~ is used instead;
          if even appending ~ would make the name too long,  then
          ~ replaces the last character of the file name.

       --verbose
          Output extra information about the work being done.

       -x num  or  --debug=num
          environment  variable,  which  is  overridden  by  this
          option.

       -Z  or  --set-utc
          Set the modification and access times of patched  files
          from  time stamps given in context diff headers, assum­
          ing that the context diff headers use Coordinated  Uni­
          versal Time (UTC, often known as GMT).  Also see the -T
          or --set-time option.

          The -Z or --set-utc and -T or --set-time  options  nor­
          mally  refrain from setting a file's time if the file's
          original time does not match  the  time  given  in  the
          patch header, or if its contents do not match the patch
          exactly.  However, if  the  -f  or  --force  option  is
          given, the file time is set regardless.

          Due  to  the  limitations  of diff output format, these
          options cannot update the times of files whose contents
          have  not changed.  Also, if you use these options, you
          should remove (e.g. with  make clean)  all  files  that
          depend  on the patched files, so that later invocations
          of make do not  get  confused  by  the  patched  files'
          times.


ENVIRONMENT

       PATCH_GET
          This  specifies whether patch gets missing or read-only
          files  from  RCS,  ClearCase,  Perforce,  or  SCCS   by
          default; see the -g or --get option.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
          If set, patch conforms more strictly to the POSIX stan­
          dard by default: see the --posix option.

       QUOTING_STYLE
          Default value of the --quoting-style option.

       SIMPLE_BACKUP_SUFFIX
          Extension to use for simple backup file  names  instead
          of .orig.

       TMPDIR, TMP, TEMP
          Directory  to  put  temporary  files in; patch uses the
          first environment variable in this list  that  is  set.
          If none are set, the default is system-dependent; it is
          normally /tmp on Unix hosts.

       VERSION_CONTROL or PATCH_VERSION_CONTROL
          Selects version control style; see  the  -v  or  --ver­
          sion-control option.



NOTES FOR PATCH SENDERS

       There are several things you should bear in  mind  if  you
       are going to be sending out patches.

       Create  your  patch  systematically.  A good method is the
       command diff -Naur old new where old and new identify  the
       old and new directories.  The names old and new should not
       contain any slashes.  The diff  command's  headers  should
       have  dates  and times in Universal Time using traditional
       Unix format, so that patch recipients can use  the  -Z  or
       --set-utc  option.   Here  is  an  example  command, using
       Bourne shell syntax:

          LC_ALL=C TZ=UTC0 diff -Naur gcc-2.7 gcc-2.8

       Tell your recipients how to apply  the  patch  by  telling
       them  which directory to cd to, and which patch options to
       use.  The option string -Np1 is  recommended.   Test  your
       procedure  by  pretending  to  be a recipient and applying
       your patch to a copy of the original files.

       You can save people a lot of grief  by  keeping  a  patch­
       level.h file which is patched to increment the patch level
       as the first diff in the patch file you send out.  If  you
       put  a  Prereq:  line in with the patch, it won't let them
       apply patches out of order without some warning.

       You can create a file by sending out a diff that  compares
       /dev/null  or  an  empty  file dated the Epoch (1970-01-01
       00:00:00 UTC) to the file you want to create.   This  only
       works if the file you want to create doesn't exist already
       in the target directory.  Conversely,  you  can  remove  a
       file  by sending out a context diff that compares the file
       to be deleted with an empty file  dated  the  Epoch.   The
       file  will  be removed unless patch is conforming to POSIX
       and the -E or --remove-empty-files option  is  not  given.
       An  easy  way  to  generate patches that create and remove
       files is to use GNU diff's -N or --new-file option.

       If the recipient is supposed to use the -pN option, do not
       send output that looks like this:

          diff -Naur v2.0.29/prog/README prog/README
          --- v2.0.29/prog/README   Mon Mar 10 15:13:12 1997
          +++ prog/README   Mon Mar 17 14:58:22 1997

       because  the  two  file  names  have  different numbers of
       slashes, and different versions  of  patch  interpret  the
       file  names  differently.  To avoid confusion, send output
       that looks like this instead:

       Try  not to have your patch modify derived files (e.g. the
       file configure where there is a  line  configure:  config­
       ure.in  in  your  makefile), since the recipient should be
       able to regenerate the derived files anyway.  If you  must
       send diffs of derived files, generate the diffs using UTC,
       have the  recipients  apply  the  patch  with  the  -Z  or
       --set-utc option, and have them remove any unpatched files
       that depend on patched files (e.g. with make clean).

       While you may be able to get away with  putting  582  diff
       listings  into  one file, it may be wiser to group related
       patches into separate files in case  something  goes  hay­
       wire.


DIAGNOSTICS

       Diagnostics  generally  indicate that patch couldn't parse
       your patch file.

       If the --verbose option is given, the message Hmm... indi­
       cates that there is unprocessed text in the patch file and
       that patch is attempting to  intuit  whether  there  is  a
       patch in that text and, if so, what kind of patch it is.

       patch's exit status is 0 if all hunks are applied success­
       fully, 1 if some hunks cannot be applied, and 2  if  there
       is  more  serious trouble.  When applying a set of patches
       in a loop it behooves you to check this exit status so you
       don't apply a later patch to a partially patched file.


CAVEATS

       Context  diffs  cannot  reliably represent the creation or
       deletion of empty files,  empty  directories,  or  special
       files  such  as  symbolic  links.   Nor can they represent
       changes to file metadata like ownership,  permissions,  or
       whether  one  file  is a hard link to another.  If changes
       like these are also required, separate instructions  (e.g.
       a  shell  script)  to accomplish them should accompany the
       patch.

       patch cannot tell if the line numbers are  off  in  an  ed
       script,  and  can detect bad line numbers in a normal diff
       only when it finds a change or deletion.  A  context  diff
       using  fuzz  factor  3 may have the same problem.  Until a
       suitable interactive interface is added, you should proba­
       bly do a context diff in these cases to see if the changes
       made sense.  Of course,  compiling  without  errors  is  a
       pretty  good  indication  that  the  patch worked, but not
       always.

       patch usually produces the correct results, even  when  it
       has  to  do  a  lot of guessing.  However, the results are
       guaranteed to be correct only when the patch is applied to

          Also,  traditional  patch  simply  counted slashes when
          stripping path prefixes; patch now counts pathname com­
          ponents.   That  is, a sequence of one or more adjacent
          slashes now counts as  a  single  slash.   For  maximum
          portability,  avoid  sending  patches  containing // in
          file names.

        · In traditional patch, backups were enabled by  default.
          This  behavior  is  now enabled with the -b or --backup
          option.

          Conversely, in POSIX patch,  backups  are  never  made,
          even  when  there  is  a  mismatch.  In GNU patch, this
          behavior is enabled  with  the  --no-backup-if-mismatch
          option,  or  by  conforming  to  POSIX with the --posix
          option or by setting  the  POSIXLY_CORRECT  environment
          variable.

          The -b suffix option of traditional patch is equivalent
          to the -b -z suffix options of GNU patch.

        · Traditional patch used a complicated (and  incompletely
          documented) method to intuit the name of the file to be
          patched from the patch header.   This  method  did  not
          conform  to  POSIX,  and  had a few gotchas.  Now patch
          uses a different, equally complicated (but better docu­
          mented)  method that is optionally POSIX-conforming; we
          hope it has fewer gotchas.  The two methods are compat­
          ible  if  the file names in the context diff header and
          the Index: line are all identical  after  prefix-strip­
          ping.   Your  patch  is  normally  compatible  if  each
          header's file names all  contain  the  same  number  of
          slashes.

        · When  traditional  patch  asked the user a question, it
          sent the question to standard error and looked  for  an
          answer  from  the first file in the following list that
          was  a  terminal:  standard  error,  standard   output,
          /dev/tty,  and  standard  input.  Now patch sends ques­
          tions  to  standard  output  and  gets   answers   from
          /dev/tty.   Defaults for some answers have been changed
          so that patch never goes into  an  infinite  loop  when
          using default answers.

        · Traditional  patch  exited  with  a  status  value that
          counted the number of bad hunks, or with  status  1  if
          there  was real trouble.  Now patch exits with status 1
          if some hunks failed, or with 2 if there was real trou­
          ble.

        · Limit  yourself  to  the following options when sending
             -o outfile
             -pnum
             -R
             -r rejectfile


BUGS

       Please report bugs via email to <bug-patch@gnu.org>.

       patch  could be smarter about partial matches, excessively
       deviant offsets and swapped code, but that would  take  an
       extra pass.

       If code has been duplicated (for instance with #ifdef OLD­
       CODE ... #else ... #endif), patch is incapable of patching
       both  versions, and, if it works at all, will likely patch
       the wrong one, and tell you that it succeeded to boot.

       If you apply a patch you've already applied, patch  thinks
       it  is a reversed patch, and offers to un-apply the patch.
       This could be construed as a feature.


COPYING

       Copyright (C) 1984, 1985, 1986, 1988 Larry Wall.
       Copyright (C) 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992,  1993,  1994,  1995,
       1996,  1997,  1998,  1999,  2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software
       Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted  to  make  and  distribute  verbatim
       copies  of  this  manual provided the copyright notice and
       this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified ver­
       sions  of  this  manual  under the conditions for verbatim
       copying, provided that the entire resulting  derived  work
       is  distributed  under  the  terms  of a permission notice
       identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute  translations
       of this manual into another language, under the above con­
       ditions for modified versions, except that this permission
       notice  may  be  included  in translations approved by the
       copyright holders instead of in the original English.


AUTHORS

       Larry Wall wrote the  original  version  of  patch.   Paul
       Eggert removed patch's arbitrary limits; added support for
       binary files, setting file times, and deleting files;  and
       made  it  conform  better  to  POSIX.   Other contributors
       include Wayne Davison,  who  added  unidiff  support,  and
       David  MacKenzie,  who added configuration and backup sup­
       port.

  
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