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normalize



SYNOPSIS

       normalize [ options ]  [ -- ]  file...


DESCRIPTION

       normalize  is used to adjust the volume of wav audio files
       to a standard volume level. This is useful for things like
       creating  mp3  mixes,  where different recording levels on
       different albums can cause the volume to vary greatly from
       song to song.

       normalize  operates  in two phases. In the first phase, it
       analyzes the specified files as wav audio files, and  com­
       putes  the  volume  of  each file. In the second phase, it
       applies a volume adjustment  to  each  file  to  set  each
       file's volume to a standard level.


OPTIONS

       -a, --amplitude=AMPLITUDE
              Adjust  the  RMS  volume  to  the  target amplitude
              AMPLITUDE; must be between 0.0 and 1.0. If a number
              suffixed by "dB" or "dBFS" is specified, the ampli­
              tude is assumed to be in decibels from full  scale.
              The default is -12dBFS.

       -b, --batch
              Enable batch mode: see BATCH MODE, below.

       -c, --compression
              Deprecated.  In previous versions, this enabled the
              limiter, but now the limiter is enabled by default.

       --clipping
              Disable the limiter, and just clip any samples that
              are too large.  Same effect as -l 0dBFS.

       --fractions
              Display all values as decimal fractions instead  of
              in  decibels.  By  default,  volume adjustments are
              shown in decibels, and volume levels in dBFS, where
              0  dBFS  is  the  level of a square wave of maximum
              amplitude.

       -g, --gain=GAIN
              Skip the volume computation  phase:  don't  compute
              the  volume  adjustment from the current volumes of
              the files. Instead, just apply the given gain as  a
              volume  adjustment  to all files. As a plain number
              this is just a multiplier applied to  all  samples,
              If a number suffixed by "dB" is specified, all vol­
              umes are adjusted by that many decibels.

       --id3-compat
              LEVEL. Setting LEVEL to 1 (or 0dBFS) does no limit­
              ing  (clipping is done instead); setting LEVEL to 0
              does limiting on all samples. The default value  is
              recommended unless you know what you're doing.

       -m, --mix
              Enable  mix  mode: see MIX MODE, below.  Batch mode
              and mix mode are mutually exclusive.

       -n, --no-adjust
              Compute and output the volume adjustment that would
              set the volume to the target, but don't apply it to
              any of the files (i.e. skip the second  phase).  If
              you use this option, your files will not be altered
              in any way.

       --no-progress
              Don't print any  progress  information.  All  other
              messages  are  printed  as  normal according to the
              verbosity level.

       --peak Adjust using peak levels  instead  of  RMS  levels.
              Each file will be adjusted so that its maximum sam­
              ple is at full scale. This just gives  a  file  the
              maximum  volume  possible without clipping; no nor­
              malization is done.

       -q, --quiet
              Don't output progress information. Only error  mes­
              sages are printed.

       -t, --average-threshold=THRESHOLD
              When  averaging volume levels for batch mode or mix
              mode, throw out any  volumes  that  are  more  than
              THRESHOLD  decibels  from the average. A high value
              here (say, 50) will make sure that the  volumes  of
              all files are considered in the average.

       -T, --adjust-threshold=THRESHOLD
              If  an  adjustment  to be made to a file is smaller
              than THRESHOLD decibels, consider the file  already
              normalized  and  don't  do  the adjustment. This is
              0.125 by default, or 0 if the -g option is given.

       -v, --verbose
              Increase verbosity. This option can be repeated for
              more messages.

       -w, --output-bitwidth
              Force  output files to have samples that are W bits
              wide. This option is  ignored  when  adjusting  MP3
              files.

       mode, average level of all the files is computed, and each
       file is separately normalized to this average volume.


BATCH MODE

       When operating on a group of unrelated files, you  usually
       want  all  of  them  at  the  same  level, and this is the
       default behavior. However, a group of music files all from
       the same album is generally meant to be listened to at the
       relative volumes they were recorded at. In batch mode, all
       the  specified files are considered to be part of a single
       album and their relative volumes are  preserved.  This  is
       done  by averaging the volumes of all the files, computing
       a single adjustment  from  that,  and  applying  the  same
       adjustment to all the files. Some analysis is also done so
       that files with volumes  that  appear  to  be  statistical
       aberrations  are  not  considered  in the average. This is
       useful if you have albums (like many of the  author's)  in
       which  there is one "quiet song" that throws off the aver­
       age.


MPEG AUDIO ADJUSTMENT

       MP3 files are "adjusted"  by  setting  a  relative  volume
       adjustment  frame  in their ID3 tags. There is a frame for
       this, called "RVA2", that does exactly what we  want,  and
       is  a  native  frame  in  ID3v2.4. Unfortunately, many MP3
       players do not support v2.4 tags (including  xmms,  as  of
       this  writing), and the RVA2 tag is not native in previous
       ID3 versions. In fact, adding an RVA2 frame to a v2.3  tag
       confuses some MP3 players. Therefore, we are left with two
       choices when trying to add volume  adjustment  information
       to an ID3 tag:

       1.     Go  ahead  and  upgrade the tag to version 2.4, and
              use RVA2 tags. This is the default behavior, in the
              hope  that eventually MP3 players will support v2.4
              tags and this won't be a problem anymore.

       2.     Upgrade the tag to only  version  2.3.  Instead  of
              RVA2,  use an "XRVA" tag with the same format as an
              RVA2 tag. This isn't a native frame, but  since  it
              starts  with  an  "X", it's considered experimental
              and therefore legal, according to the ID3 spec. The
              --id3-compat option turns on this behavior.

       The  disadvantage  of  the  first  method is that your MP3
       player may no longer read the ID3 tags on your files.  Bug
       the  author of your favorite MP3 player to support ID3v2.4
       tags!

       The disadvantage of the second method  is  that  the  XRVA
       frame  is  only  recognized by the xmms-rva plugin that is
       packaged with normalize. On the other hand, I  don't  know


AUTHOR

       Chris Vaill <cvaill@cs.columbia.edu>


SEE ALSO

       sox(1)

                            2001-09-16               NORMALIZE(1)
  
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