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newaliases



SYNOPSIS

       sendmail [option ...] [recipient ...]

       mailq
       sendmail -bp

       newaliases
       sendmail -I


DESCRIPTION

       The  sendmail  program  implements the Postfix to Sendmail
       compatibility interface.  For the  sake  of  compatibility
       with  existing  applications,  some  Sendmail command-line
       options are recognized but silently ignored.

       By default, sendmail reads a message from  standard  input
       until  EOF  or until it reads a line with only a . charac­
       ter, and arranges for delivery.  sendmail  relies  on  the
       postdrop(1) command to create a queue file in the maildrop
       directory.

       Specific command aliases are  provided  for  other  common
       modes of operation:

       mailq  List  the  mail  queue.  Each entry shows the queue
              file ID, message size, arrival  time,  sender,  and
              the recipients that still need to be delivered.  If
              mail could not be delivered upon the last  attempt,
              the reason for failure is shown. This mode of oper­
              ation is implemented by executing the  postqueue(1)
              command.

       newaliases
              Initialize the alias database.  If no input file is
              specified (with the -oA  option,  see  below),  the
              program  processes  the  file(s) specified with the
              alias_database  configuration  parameter.   If   no
              alias  database type is specified, the program uses
              the type specified with  the  default_database_type
              configuration parameter.  This mode of operation is
              implemented by running the postalias(1) command.

              Note: it may take a minute or so  before  an  alias
              database  update  becomes  visible. Use the postfix
              reload command to eliminate this delay.

       These and other features can be selected by specifying the
       appropriate combination of command-line options. Some fea­
       tures are controlled by parameters in the main.cf configu­
       ration file.

       The following options are recognized:

       -F full_name
              Set the sender full name. This is  used  only  with
              messages that have no From: message header.

       -G (ignored)
              Gateway  (relay)  submission, as opposed to initial
              user submission.

       -I     Initialize alias database. See the newaliases  com­
              mand above.

       -L label (ignored)
              The  logging  label. Use the syslog_name configura­
              tion parameter instead.

       -N dsn (ignored)
              Delivery status  notification  control.  Currently,
              Postfix does not implement DSN.

       -R return_limit (ignored)
              Limit   the   size   of   bounced   mail.  Use  the
              bounce_size_limit configuration parameter  instead.

       -X log_file (ignored)
              Log  mailer  traffic.  Use  the debug_peer_list and
              debug_peer_level configuration parameters  instead.

       -U (ignored)
              Initial user submission.

       -V     Variable  Envelope  Return  Path. Given an envelope
              sender address of the  form  owner-listname@origin,
              each  recipient  user@domain  receives  mail with a
              personalized envelope sender address.

              By  default,  the  personalized   envelope   sender
              address  is  owner-listname+user=domain@origin. The
              default + and = characters  are  configurable  with
              the  default_verp_delimiters  configuration parame­
              ter.

       -Vxy   As -V, but uses x and y as the VERP delimiter char­
              acters,  instead  of  the characters specified with
              the default_verp_delimiters  configuration  parame­
              ter.

       -bd    Go  into  daemon  mode.  This  mode of operation is
              implemented by executing the postfix start command.

       -bi    Initialize  alias database. See the newaliases com­
              mand above.
              the smtpd(8) daemon.

       -f sender
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is  the
              address where delivery problems are sent to, unless
              the  message contains an Errors-To: message header.

       -h hop_count (ignored)
              Hop count limit. Use the hopcount_limit  configura­
              tion parameter instead.

       -i     When  reading  a message from standard input, donīt
              treat a line with only a . character as the end  of
              input.

       -m (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -n (ignored)
              Backwards compatibility.

       -oAalias_database
              Non-default  alias  database.  Specify  pathname or
              type:pathname. See postalias(1) for details.

       -o7 (ignored)

       -o8 (ignored)
              To send 8-bit or binary content, use an appropriate
              MIME  encapsulation  and specify the appropriate -B
              command-line option.

       -oi    When reading a message from standard  input,  donīt
              treat  a line with only a . character as the end of
              input.

       -om (ignored)
              The sender is  never  eliminated  from  alias  etc.
              expansions.

       -o x value (ignored)
              Set  option x to value. Use the equivalent configu­
              ration parameter in main.cf instead.

       -r sender
              Set  the  envelope  sender  address.  This  is  the
              address where delivery problems are sent to, unless
              the message contains an Errors-To: message  header.

       -q     Attempt  to deliver all queued mail. This is imple­
              mented by executing the postqueue(1) command.

              sendmail -q command instead.

       -t     Extract   recipients  from  message  headers.  This
              requires that no recipients  be  specified  on  the
              command line.

       -v     Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes. Mul­
              tiple -v options  make  the  software  increasingly
              verbose.  For  compatibility  with  mailx and other
              mail submission software, a single -v  option  pro­
              duces no output.


SECURITY

       By  design,  this  program  is not set-user (or group) id.
       However, it must  handle  data  from  untrusted  users  or
       untrusted  machines.   Thus, the usual precautions need to
       be taken against malicious inputs.


DIAGNOSTICS

       Problems are logged to  syslogd(8)  and  to  the  standard
       error stream.


ENVIRONMENT

       MAIL_CONFIG
              Directory with Postfix configuration files.

       MAIL_VERBOSE
              Enable verbose logging for debugging purposes.

       MAIL_DEBUG
              Enable debugging with an external command, as spec­
              ified  with  the   debugger_command   configuration
              parameter.


FILES

       /var/spool/postfix, mail queue
       /etc/postfix, configuration files


CONFIGURATION PARAMETERS

       See  the  Postfix  main.cf file for syntax details and for
       default values. Use the postfix  reload  command  after  a
       configuration change.

       alias_database
              Default   alias  database(s)  for  newaliases.  The
              default value for  this  parameter  is  system-spe­
              cific.

       bounce_size_limit
              The amount of original message context that is sent
              along with a non-delivery notification.

              List of domain or network patterns. When  a  remote
              host  matches  a pattern, increase the verbose log­
              ging  level  by  the  amount   specified   in   the
              debug_peer_level parameter.

       default_verp_delimiters
              The  VERP  delimiter  characters that are used when
              the -V command line  option  is  specified  without
              delimiter characters.

       fast_flush_domains
              List of domains that will receive "fast flush" ser­
              vice (default: all  domains  that  this  system  is
              willing  to relay mail to). This list specifies the
              domains that  Postfix  accepts  in  the  SMTP  ETRN
              request and in the sendmail -qR command.

       fork_attempts
              Number  of attempts to fork() a process before giv­
              ing up.

       fork_delay
              Delay  in   seconds   between   successive   fork()
              attempts.

       hopcount_limit
              Limit the number of Received: message headers.

       mail_owner
              The  owner  of  the  mail queue and of most Postfix
              processes.

       command_directory
              Directory with Postfix support commands.

       daemon_directory
              Directory with Postfix daemon programs.

       queue_directory
              Top-level directory of the Postfix queue.  This  is
              also the root directory of Postfix daemons that run
              chrooted.

       queue_run_delay
              The time between successive scans of  the  deferred
              queue.

       verp_delimiter_filter
              The  characters that Postfix accepts as VERP delim­
              iter characters.


SEE ALSO



AUTHOR(S)

       Wietse Venema
       IBM T.J. Watson Research
       P.O. Box 704
       Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA

                                                      SENDMAIL(1)
  
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