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       mplex   [-v|--vervose  num]  [-m|--mpeg 1|2]  [-b|--video-
       buffer      video_buffer_size_kB]      [-r|--muxed-bitrate
       muxed_bitrate_kbps] [-l|--mux-limit num] [-O|--sync-offset
       num] [-f|--format  format_code]  [-V|--vbr]  [-s|--sector-
       size sector_size_B] [-p|--packets-per-pack num] [-h|--sys­
       tem-headers]      [-S|--max-segment-size      output_file­
       size_limit_MB]  [-M|--split-segment] [-?|--help] -o|--out­
       put output_filename_patterninput_file...


       Mplex is a  general-purpose  audio/video  multiplexer  for
       MPEG-1/MPEG-2.   It  accepts  one  or  more MPEG-1/2 video
       stream, MPEG layer II/III  audio  streams  and  AC3  audio
       streams  and multiplexes them into a combined program/sys­
       tem stream according to the constraints  specified.   Many
       different  types  of  output structure are supported along
       with presets for standard VCD  and  SVCD  streams.   These
       latter  can  be  burned  to  CD using tools such as vcdim­
       ager(1) and played in stand-alone players.

       It is also capable of automatically splitting  the  output
       stream  into  chunks  of  a specified size either indepen­
       dently or at sequence end/start points in the input  video


       -o|-output output_filename_pattern
              This (compulsorary) option sets the pattern for the
              name(s) of output files.

              An integer format code (e.g. %d)  in  the  name  is
              replaced  by  the number of the file generated (see

       -v|--verbose num
              Set verbosity level to num:
               0 - warnings and errors only,
               1 - information as well,
               2 - really verbose.

              Display a synopsis of the command syntax.


       -f|--format format_code
              This command allows one of a number  of  convenient
              preset  output  formats  or  generic MPEG1 or MPEG2
              output to be  selected.  For  the  generic  formats
              other  function letters can be used to control many
              aspects   of   the   multiplexed    stream.     For
              VCD/SVCD/DVD  compliant  output  the  corresponding
               5 - User-rate SVCD.  SVCD format but  buffer  size
              bit rate and VBR can be set.
               6  - VCD Stills stream (mixed mode with hi-res and
              standard-res image streams         multiplexed  are
               7 - SVCD Stills stream.
               8  - DVD. Don't get too excited.  This is really a
              very minimal       mux format.   It includes  empty
              versions  of  the  peculiar GOP start       sectors
              DVD VOB's include.   This  is  enough  to  persuade
              some  hardware       players to play the stream but
              is a long way from full DVD authoring.

       -r|--mux-bitrate num
              The total (non VBR) / peak (VBR)  bit-rate  of  the
              output stream in k Bits/sec. If unspecified and not
              set by a preset it is automatically calculated from
              the input stream.

       -b|--video-buffer num
              The size of the video input buffer available in the
              target decoder.  The default  is  46KB  the  (tiny)
              size  specified  for VCD.  The size to use for SVCD
              is the (more reasonable) 230KB.  If you are  encod­
              ing  for  a  half-decent  software decoder it makes
              sense to push this up to 500K or more.

       -l|--mux-limit num
              Multiplex limit.  Multiplex only the specified num­
              ber of sectors.  Useful for tuning and debugging.

       -O|--sync-offset num
              Set  the  presentation  timestamp  offset  of video
              stream w.r.t. audio stream (video-audio)  in  mSec.
              This flag is used to produce a stream with synchro­
              nised   audio/video   when   one   stream   started
              before/after   the  other.   This  is  common  when
              transcoding as the synchronisation  information  is
              typically   lost   during   the  (seperate)  decod­
              ing/encoding of audio and video.

              Set variable bit rate multiplexing.  This is needed
              to  multiplex  variable bit-rate video streams cor­

       -s|--sector-size num
              This option specifies the sector size of the output
              stream in bytes.

       -p|--packets-per-pack num
              tures) or audio frame being split  between  chunks.
              frame  reasonable.  This  is  fine for formats like
              that used for  DVDs  where  all  stream  parameters
              appear every GOP.  However, for VCD / SVCD it won't
              work as the players expect each file to start a new
              MPEG sequence.

              For  VCD  / SVCD a different technique is used.  If
              mplex encounters a  sequence  break  (sequence  end
              followed  by  start)  in  the input video stream it
              starts a new output stream and file at the sequence
              start.    Thus   to   split  a  long  video  across
              VCD's/SVCD's you have to get the MPEG video encoder
              to  introduce  sequence  splits at the right points
              (see mpeg2enc(1) for details of how to do this).

              When splitting a long stream in files based  on  -S
              mplex  does  a  certain  amount of careful "running
              out" to prevent a GOP or audio frame  being  split.
              This  is  wasteful for continuous bit-rate streams.
              If the files are simply going  to  be  concatenated
              for  playback  this "run out" is superfluous and -M
              turns it off.

              A system header is generated in every  pack  rather
              than just in the first.


       When multiplexing using mplex you may get warning or error
       messages complaining about buffer underflow.   This  means
       that  the bit-rate you have specified is simply too low to
       permit the video and audio to be played back without skip­
       ping.   The  fix  is to either reduce the data-rate of the
       input material or increased the output stream bit-rate.


       The multiplexer should handle AC3 and MPEG(5.1) audio too.


       This man page was written by Andrew Stevens.
       If  you have questions, remarks, problems or you just want
       to contact the developers, the main mailing list  for  the
       MJPEG-tools is:

       For more info, see our website at


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