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       montage [ options ...] file [ [  options  ...]  file  ...]


       montage  creates  a  composite  image by combining several
       separate images. The images are  tiled  on  the  composite
       image with the name of the image optionally appearing just
       below the individual tile.

       The composite image is constructed in the  following  man­
       ner.  First,  each  image  specified  on the command line,
       except for the last, is scaled to  fit  the  maximum  tile
       size. The maximum tile size by default is 120x120.  It can
       be modified with the -geometry command line argument or  X
       resource. See Options for more information on command line
       arguments. See X(1) for more information on  X  resources.
       Note that the maximum tile size need not be a square.

       Next  the  composite  image  is initialized with the color
       specified by the -background command line  argument  or  X
       resource.  The  width and height of the composite image is
       determined by the title specified, the maximum tile  size,
       the  number  of  tiles  per row, the tile border width and
       height, the image border width, and the label height.  The
       number  of  tiles per row specifies how many images are to
       appear in each row of the composite image. The default  is
       to  have 5 tiles in each row and 4 tiles in each column of
       the composite.  A specific value is specified with  -tile.
       The  tile  border  width  and height, and the image border
       width defaults to the value of  the  X  resource  -border­
       width.  It can be changed with the -borderwidth or -geome­
       try command line argument or X resource. The label  height
       is  determined by the font you specify with the -font com­
       mand line argument or X resource. If you do not specify  a
       font,  a  font is chosen that allows the name of the image
       to fit the maximum width of a tiled area.  The label  col­
       ors  is  determined  by  the -background and -fill command
       line argument or X resource. Note, that if the  background
       and pen colors are the same, labels will not appear.

       Initially,  the composite image title is placed at the top
       if one is specified (refer to -fill). Next, each image  is
       set  onto  the  composite  image, surrounded by its border
       color, with its name centered just below it. The  individ­
       ual  images  are  left-justified  within  the width of the
       tiled area.  The order of the images is the same  as  they
       appear  on the command line unless the images have a scene
       keyword. If a scene number is  specified  in  each  image,
       sequence of tiles, use the "NULL:" image format.

       Note, a composite MIFF image displayed to an X server with
       display  behaves  differently  than  other images. You can
       think of the composite as a visual image directory. Choose
       a  particular  tile of the composite and press a button to
       display it. See display(1) and miff(5)


       To create a montage of a cockatoo, a parrot,  and  a  hum­
       mingbird and write it to a file called birds, use:

           montage cockatoo.miff parrot.miff hummingbird.miff

       To  tile  several bird images so that they are at most 256
       pixels in width and 192 pixels in height, surrounded by  a
       red  border,  and  separated  by  10  pixels of background
       color, use:

           montage -geometry 256x192+10+10 -bordercolor red
                   birds.* montage.miff

       To create an unlabeled parrot image, 640  by  480  pixels,
       and surrounded by a border of black, use:

           montage -geometry 640x480 -bordercolor black
                   -label "" parrot.miff bird.miff

       To create an image of an eagle with a textured background,

           montage -texture bumps.jpg eagle.jpg eagle.png

       To join several GIF images together without any extraneous
       graphics  (e.g.   no  label,  no shadowing, no surrounding
       tile frame), use:

           montage +frame +shadow +label -tile 5x1
                   -geometry 50x50+0+0 *.png joined.png


       Any option you specify on  the  command  line  remains  in
       effect  for  the  group  of images following it, until the
       group is terminated by the appearance  of  any  option  or
       -noop.   For  example,  to make a montage of three images,
       the first with 32 colors, the  second  with  an  unlimited
       number of colors, and the third with only 16 colors, use:

            montage -colors 32 cockatoo.1 -noop cockatoo.2
                    -colors 16 cockatoo.3 cockatoos.miff

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -cache <threshold>
              (This  option  has  been  replaced  by  the  -limit

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

       -density <width>x<height>
              vertical and horizontal resolution in pixels of the

       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

       -extract <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              extract an area from the image while decoding

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -frame  <width>x<height>+<outer  bevel width>+<inner bevel
              surround the image with an ornamental border

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction  primitive  gravitates to when annotating
              the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -log <string>

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -mode <value>
              mode of operation

              transform the image to black and white
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

              render vector operations

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling factors used by JPEG or MPEG-2 encoder and
              YUV decoder/encoder.

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

       -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>}
              shadow the montage

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -tile <geometry>
              layout of images [montage]

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate,  display,

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

              For a more detailed description of each option, see


       Montage options can appear on the command line or in  your
       X  resource  file.  Options  on the command line supersede
       values specified in your X resource  file.  See  X(1)  for
       more information on X resources.

       All  montage  options  have a corresponding X resource. In
       addition, montage uses the following X resources:

       background (class Background)
              background color

              Specifies the preferred color to use for  the  com­
              posite image background.  The default is #ccc.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
              border color

              Specifies  the  preferred color to use for the com­
              posite image border. The default is #ccc.

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
              border width

              Specifies the width  in  pixels  of  the  composite
              image border. The default is 2.

       font (class Font)
              font to use

              Specifies  the  name  of  the preferred font to use
              when displaying text within  the  composite  image.
              The  default  is  9x15, fixed, or 5x8 determined by
              the composite image size.

       matteColor (class MatteColor)
              color of the frame

              Specify the color of an image frame. A 3D effect is
              achieved  by  using  highlight  and  shadow  colors
              derived from  this  color.  The  default  value  is

       pen (class Pen)
              text color

              Specifies  the  preferred  color  to  use  for text
              within the composite image.  The default is  black.

       The MIT X Consortium for making network transparent graph­
       ics a reality.

       Michael Halle, Spatial Imaging Group at MIT, for the  ini­
       tial  implementation  of Alan Paeth's image rotation algo­

       David Pensak, ImageMagick Studio, for providing a  comput­
       ing environment that made this program possible.


       display(1), animate(1), import(1), mogrify(1), convert(1),
       composite(1), ImageMagick(1)


       Copyright (C) 2003 ImageMagick Studio

       Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any  per­
       son obtaining a copy of this software and associated docu­
       mentation files ("ImageMagick"), to  deal  in  ImageMagick
       without  restriction,  including  without  limitation  the
       rights to use, copy, modify, merge,  publish,  distribute,
       sublicense, and/or sell copies of ImageMagick, and to per­
       mit persons to whom the ImageMagick is furnished to do so,
       subject to the following conditions:

       The  above  copyright  notice  and  this permission notice
       shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of

       The  software is provided "as is", without warranty of any
       kind, express or implied, including but not limited to the
       warranties  of  merchantability,  fitness for a particular
       purpose and noninfringement.In no event shall  ImageMagick
       Studio  be  liable for any claim, damages or other liabil­
       ity, whether in an action of contract, tort or  otherwise,
       arising  from, out of or in connection with ImageMagick or
       the use or other dealings in ImageMagick.

       Except as contained  in  this  notice,  the  name  of  the
       ImageMagick Studio LLC shall not be used in advertising or
       otherwise to promote the sale, use or  other  dealings  in
       ImageMagick  without  prior written authorization from the
       ImageMagick Studio.


       John Cristy, ImageMagick Studio LLC,
       Glenn Randers-Pehrson, ImageMagick Studio LLC.
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