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       mogrify [ options ... ] file ...


       Mogrify transforms an image or a sequence of images. These
       transforms include image scaling,  image  rotation,  color
       reduction,  and  others.  Each  transmogrified image over­
       writes the corresponding original image, unless an  option
       such as -format causes the output filename to be different
       from the input filename.

       The graphics formats supported by mogrify  are  listed  in


       To convert all the TIFF files in a particular directory to
       JPEG, use:

           mogrify -format jpeg *.tiff

       To convert a directory full of JPEG images to  thumbnails,

           mogrify  -size  120x120 *.jpg -resize 120x120 +profile

       In this example, '-size 120x120' gives a hint to the  JPEG
       decoder  that  the  images  are  going to be downscaled to
       120x120, allowing it to run faster by  avoiding  returning
       full-resolution  images  to ImageMagick for the subsequent
       resizing operation.  The output images.  It will be scaled
       so its largest dimension is 120 pixels.  The that might be
       present in the input and aren't needed in the  thumbnails.

       To  scale  an image of a cockatoo to exactly 640 pixels in
       width and 480 pixels in height, use:

           mogrify -resize 640x480! cockatoo.miff


       Options are processed in command line  order.  Any  option
       you  specify on the command line remains in effect for the
       set of images that follows, until the set is terminated by
       the appearance of any option or -noop.

       For  a  more  detailed  description  of  each  option, see

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transformation matrix
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

       -cache <threshold>
              (This  option  has  been  replaced  by  the  -limit

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve  image with the specified convolution ker­

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate  an  image with one or more graphic primi­

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -extract <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              extract an area from the image while decoding

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

       -format <type>
              the image format type

       -frame <width>x<height>+<outer bevel  width>+<inner  bevel
              surround the image with an ornamental border
              direction primitive  gravitates to when  annotating
              the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level <black_point>{,<white_point>}{%}{,<gamma>}
              adjust the level of image contrast

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

              the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list <type>
              the type of list

       -log <string>

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

       -mattecolor <color>
              specify the color to be used with the -frame option

       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -modulate <value>
              transform  image  to  span  the full range of color

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize of the PostScript, OPTION1,  or  TrueType

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point

       -region <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              apply options to a portion of the image

              render vector operations

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image with pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling factors used by JPEG or MPEG-2 encoder and

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture <filename>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{<green>,<blue>,<opacity>}{%}
              threshold the image

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

              transform the image

       -transparent <color>
              make this color transparent within the image

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

              For a more detailed description of each option, see


       Use  -segment  to  segment  an image by analyzing the his­
       tograms of the color components and identifying units that
       are  homogeneous  with  the  fuzzy  c-means technique. The
       scale-space filter analyzes the histograms  of  the  three
       color  components  of  the  image  and identifies a set of
       classes.  The extents of each class is  used  to  coarsely
       segment the image with thresholding.  The color associated
       with each class is determined by the  mean  color  of  all
       pixels  within the extents of a particular class. Finally,
       any unclassified pixels are assigned to the closest  class
       with the fuzzy c-means technique.

       The fuzzy c-Means algorithm can be summarized as follows:

       Build  a  histogram,  one  for each color component of the

       For each histogram,  successively  apply  the  scale-space
       filter and build an interval tree of zero crossings in the
       second derivative at each scale.  Analyze this scale-space
       "fingerprint"  to  determine which peaks or valleys in the
       histogram are most predominant.

       The fingerprint defines intervals on the axis of the  his­
       togram. Each interval contains either a minima or a maxima
       in the original  signal.  If  each  color  component  lies
       within  the  maxima  interval,  that  pixel  is considered
       "classified" and is assigned an unique class number.

       Any pixel that fails to be classified in the above thresh­
       olding  pass  is  classified using the fuzzy c-Means tech­
       nique. It is assigned to one of the classes discovered  in
       the histogram analysis phase.

              To  get  the  default  host,  display  number,  and


       ImageMagick(1), display(1), animate(1), identify(1),  mon­
       tage(1), convert(1), composite(1), conjure(1)


       Copyright (C) 2003 ImageMagick Studio

       Permission  is hereby granted, free of charge, to any per­
       son obtaining a copy of this software and associated docu­
       mentation  files  ("ImageMagick"),  to deal in ImageMagick
       without  restriction,  including  without  limitation  the
       rights  to  use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute,
       sublicense, and/or sell copies of ImageMagick, and to per­
       mit persons to whom the ImageMagick is furnished to do so,
       subject to the following conditions:

       The above copyright  notice  and  this  permission  notice
       shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of

       The software is provided "as is", without warranty of  any
       kind, express or implied, including but not limited to the
       warranties of merchantability, fitness  for  a  particular
       purpose  and noninfringement.In no event shall ImageMagick
       Studio be liable for any claim, damages or  other  liabil­
       ity,  whether in an action of contract, tort or otherwise,
       arising from, out of or in connection with ImageMagick  or
       the use or other dealings in ImageMagick.

       Except  as  contained  in  this  notice,  the  name of the
       ImageMagick Studio LLC shall not be used in advertising or
       otherwise  to  promote  the sale, use or other dealings in
       ImageMagick without prior written authorization  from  the
       ImageMagick Studio.


       John Cristy, ImageMagick Studio LLC,
       Glenn Randers-Pehrson, ImageMagick Studio LLC.

ImageMagick         Date: 2003/01/01 01:00:00          mogrify(1)
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