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       nail [-BFintv~] [-s subject] [-a attachment ] [-c cc-addr]
              [-b bcc-addr] [-r from-addr] [-h hops] to-addr
              . . .

       nail [-BeHiInNv~] [-T name] -f [name]

       nail [-BeinNv~] [-u user]


       Nail is an intelligent mail processing system, which has a
       command syntax reminiscent of ed(1) with lines replaced by
       messages.   It  is based on Berkeley Mail 8.1, is intended
       to provide the functionality of the POSIX.2 mailx command,
       and offers extensions for MIME messages, POP3 and SMTP.

       The following options are accepted:

       -a file
              Attach the given file to the message.

       -B     Make  standard  input  and  standard  output  line-

       -b address
              Send blind carbon copies to list.  List should be a
              comma-separated list of names.

       -c address
              Send carbon copies to list of users.

       -e     Just  check  if mail is present in the system mail­
              box.  If yes, return an exit status of zero,  else,
              a non-zero value.

       -f [file]
              Read in the contents of your mbox (or the specified
              file) for processing; when you  quit,  nail  writes
              undeleted messages back to this file.

       -F     Save  the message to send in a file named after the
              local part of the first recipient's address.

       -H     Print header summaries for all messages and exit.

       -h hops
              Invoke sendmail with the specified hop count.  This
              option  has no effect when SMTP is used for sending

       -i     Ignore tty interrupt signals.  This is particularly
              useful when using nail on noisy phone lines.

       -r address
              Sets  the From address. Overrides any from variable
              specified in environment or startup  files.   Tilde
              escapes  are  disabled.  The -r address options are
              passed to the mail transfer agent  unless  SMTP  is

       -s subject
              Specify  subject  on  command  line (only the first
              argument after the -s flag is used as a subject; be
              careful to quote subjects containing spaces).

       -R address
              Specify  reply-to  adress on command line. Only the
              first argument after the -R flag  is  used  as  the

       -T name
              Writes  the  `Message-Id'  and  `Article-Id' header
              fields of each  message  read  in  the  file  name.
              Implies -I.

       -t     The  message  to  be  sent is expected to contain a
              message header with `To:', `Cc:', or `Bcc:'  fields
              giving its recipients.  Recipients specified on the
              command line are ignored.

       -u user
              Reads the mailbox of the given user name.

       -v     Verbose mode.  The details  of  delivery  are  dis­
              played on the user's terminal.

       -V     Print nail's version and exit.

       -~     Enable  tilde  escapes  even  if not in interactive

   Sending mail
       To send a message to one  or  more  people,  nail  can  be
       invoked  with  arguments  which are the names of people to
       whom the mail will be sent.  You are then expected to type
       in  your message, followed by an `control-D' at the begin­
       ning of a line.  The section below Replying to  or  origi­
       nating  mail, describes some features of nail available to
       help you compose your letter.

   Reading mail
       In normal usage nail is given no arguments and checks your
       mail  out  of  the post office, then prints out a one line
       header of each message found.  The current message is ini­
       tially  the  first message (numbered 1) and can be printed

   Specifying messages
       Commands  such  as print and delete can be given a list of
       message numbers as arguments to apply to a number of  mes­
       sages  at  once.  Thus 'delete 1 2' deletes messages 1 and
       2, while 'delete 1-5' deletes messages 1 through  5.   The
       following special message names exist:

       :n     All new messages.

       :o     All old messages.

       :u     All unread messages.

       :d     All deleted messages.

       :r     All read messages.

              All  messages  that  contain  string in the subject
              field (case ignored).

              All messages from address.

       .      The current message.

       ;      The message that was previously  the  current  mes­

       ,      The  parent message of the current message, that is
              the message with the Message-ID given in  the  `In-
              Reply-To:'  field  or the last entry of the `Refer­
              ences:' field of the current message.

       -      The previous message.

       +      The next message.

       ^      The first message.

       $      The last message.

       *      All messages.

   Replying to or originating mail
       You can use the reply command to set up a  response  to  a
       message,  sending  it  back to the person who it was from.
       Text you then type in, up to an end-of-file,  defines  the
       contents  of  the message.  While you are composing a mes­
       sage, nail treats lines beginning with the  character  '~'
       specially.   For  instance,  typing '~m' (alone on a line)
       will place a copy of the current message into the response

   Personal and systemwide distribution lists
       It is also possible  to  create  a  personal  distribution
       lists  so  that,  for  instance,  you  can  send  mail  to
       'cohorts' and have it go to a group of people.  Such lists
       can be defined by placing a line like

               alias cohorts bill ozalp jkf mark kridle@ucbcory

       in  the  file .mailrc in your home directory.  The current
       list of such aliases can be displayed with the alias  com­
       mand  in nail.  System wide distribution lists can be cre­
       ated by editing /etc/aliases,  see  aliases(5)  and  send­
       mail(8);  these  are  kept in a different syntax.  In mail
       you send, personal aliases will be expanded in  mail  sent
       to others so that they will be able to reply to the recip­
       ients.  System wide aliases are not expanded when the mail
       is  sent,  but any reply returned to the machine will have
       the system wide alias expanded as all  mail  goes  through

   Network mail (Internet / ARPA, UUCP, Berknet)
       See  mailaddr(7)  for  a description of network addresses.
       Nail has a number of options  which  can  be  set  in  the
       .mailrc  file  to  alter  its  behavior;  thus 'set askcc'
       enables the askcc feature.  (These options are  summarized

   MIME types
       For  any  outgoing attachment, nail tries to determine the
       content type.  It does this by  reading  MIME  type  files
       whose lines have the following syntax:

               type/subtype      extension [extension . . .]

       where  type/subtype  are  strings describing the file con­
       tents, and extension is the part of  a  filename  starting
       after  the  last  dot.  Any line not immediately beginning
       with an ASCII alphabetical character is ignored  by  nail.
       If  there  is  a  match  with the extension of the file to
       attach, the given type/subtype pair is  used.   Otherwise,
       or  if  the  filename  has no extension, the content types
       text/plain or application/octet-stream are used, the first
       for  text  or international text files, the second for any
       file that contains formatting characters other  than  new­
       lines and horizontal tabulators.

   MIME conformance
       Nail  is intended to be a MIME-conformant mail user agent,
       with the following exception: No special handling of `mul­
       tipart/alternative' messages is performed.  All parts with
       content types of `text' or `message' are shown.   This  is
       done  because  the  user should see as much information as
       for its declaration.  An outgoing  message  is  then  con­
       verted,  resulting  in  errors when this process cannot be
       done for the entire text;  if  the  message  contains  NUL
       characters,  it  is  not converted.  Attachments are never
       converted.  Any message that is displayed on a terminal is
       tried to convert, too, with characters not in the terminal
       character set replaced by question marks.

       Each command is typed on a line by itself,  and  may  take
       arguments  following  the  command word.  The command need
       not be typed in its entirety -  the  first  command  which
       matches the typed prefix is used.  For commands which take
       message lists as arguments, if no message list  is  given,
       then  the  next  message  forward which satisfies the com­
       mand's requirements is used.  If  there  are  no  messages
       forward  of the current message, the search proceeds back­
       wards, and if there are no  good  messages  at  all,  nail
       types  'applicable  messages'  and aborts the command.  If
       the command begins with a # sign, the line is ignored.

       -      Print  out  the  preceding  message.   If  given  a
              numeric  argument n, goes to the n'th previous mes­
              sage and prints it.

       ?      Prints a brief summary of commands.

       !      Executes the shell (see sh(1) and  csh(1))  command
              which follows.

       |      A synonym for the pipe command.

       alias  (a)  With  no  arguments, prints out all currently-
              defined aliases.  With  one  argument,  prints  out
              that alias.  With more than one argument, creates a
              new alias or changes an old one.

              (alt) The alternates command is useful if you  have
              accounts  on  several  machines.  It can be used to
              inform nail that the listed  addresses  are  really
              you.   When  you  reply  to messages, nail will not
              send a copy of the message to any of the  addresses
              listed  on  the alternates list.  If the alternates
              command is given with no argument, the current  set
              of alternate names is displayed.

       cd     Same as chdir.

       chdir  (ch)  Changes  the user's working directory to that
              specified, if given.  If  no  directory  is  given,
              then changes to the user's login directory.

              Same as ignore.

       dp or dt
              Deletes the current message  and  prints  the  next
              message.   If  there  is no next message, nail says
              'at EOF'.

       echo   Echoes its arguments, resolving  special  names  as
              documented for the folder command.

       edit   (e)  Takes  a  list of messages and points the text
              editor at each one in turn.   On  return  from  the
              editor, the message is read back in.

       else   Marks  the  end of the then-part of an if statement
              and the beginning of the part to take effect if the
              condition of the if statement is false.

       endif  Marks the end of an if statement.

       exit   (ex  or x) Effects an immediate return to the Shell
              without modifying the user's  system  mailbox,  his
              mbox file, or his edit file in -f.

       file   (fi) The same as folder.

              List the names of the folders in your folder direc­

       folder (fold) The folder command switches to  a  new  mail
              file  or  folder.   With no arguments, it tells you
              which file you are currently reading.  If you  give
              it  an argument, it will write out changes (such as
              deletions) you have made in the  current  file  and
              read in the new file.  Some special conventions are
              recognized for the  name.   #  means  the  previous
              file,  %  means  your  system  mailbox, %user means
              user's system mailbox, & means your mbox file,  and
              +file  means  a  file  in  your  folder  directory.
              %:filespec expands to the same value  as  filespec,
              but  the  file is handled as a system mailbox e. g.
              by the mbox and save commands.  If the name matches
              one  of  the strings defined with the shortcut com­
              mand, it is replaced by its long form and expanded.
              A name of the form


              is taken as an internet mailbox specification.  The
              supported protocols are currently pop3  (POP3)  and
              regardless of the flipr and Replyall variables.

              Similar to Followup, but  responds  to  the  sender
              only  regardless  of  the  flipr and Replyall vari­

              (For) Like forward, but does  not  add  any  header
              lines.   This  is  not  a  way to hide the sender's
              identity, but useful for sending a message again to
              the same recipients.

              (for)  Takes a list of messages and a user name and
              sends each message to the named user.

       from   (f) Takes a list of messages and prints their  mes­
              sage headers, piped through the pager if the output
              does not fit on the screen.

              (h) Lists the current range of headers, which is an
              18-message group.  If a '+' argument is given, then
              the next 18-message group is printed, and if a  '-'
              argument is given, the previous 18-message group is

       help   A synonym for ?.

       hold   (ho, also preserve) Takes a message list and  marks
              each message therein to be saved in the user's sys­
              tem mailbox instead of in mbox.  Does not  override
              the delete command.

       if     Commands  in  nail's  startup files can be executed
              conditionally depending on whether you are  sending
              or  receiving  mail with the if command.  For exam­
              ple, you can do:

                      if receive
                              commands . . .

              An else form is also available:

                      if receive
                              commands . . .
                              commands . . .

       inc    Same as newmail.

       list   Prints the names of all available commands.

       Mail   (M) Similar to mail, but saves  the  message  in  a
              file named after the local part of the first recip­
              ient's address.

       mail   (m) Takes as argument login names and  distribution
              group names and sends mail to those people.

       mbox   Indicate that a list of messages be sent to mbox in
              your home directory when you  quit.   This  is  the
              default  action for messages if you do not have the
              hold option set.

              Checks for new mail in the current  folder  without
              commiting  any changes before.  If new mail is pre­
              sent, a message is printed.  If the header variable
              is  set,  the  headers of each new message are also

       next   (n) like + or CR)  Goes  to  the  next  message  in
              sequence  and  types  it.   With  an argument list,
              types the next matching message.

       New    Same as unread.

       new    Same as unread.

              (pre) A synonym for hold.

       Pipe   (Pi)  Like  pipe  but  also  pipes  ignored  header

       pipe   (pi)  Takes  a message list and a shell command and
              pipes the messages through the command.  Without an
              argument,  the current message is piped through the
              command given by the cmd variable.   If  the   page
              variable  is  set,  every  message is followed by a
              formfeed character.

       Print  (P) Like print but also prints out  ignored  header
              fields.  See also print, ignore and retain.

       print  (p) Takes a message list and types out each message
              on the user's terminal.  If the message is  a  MIME
              multipart message, all parts with a content type of
              `text' or `message' are shown, the other are hidden
              except for their headers.

       Reply  (R) Reply to originator.  Does not reply  to  other
              recipients of the original message.

       reply  (r)  Takes  a  message  list  and sends mail to the
              sender and all recipients of the specified message.
              The default message must not be deleted.

              Similar  to  reply,  but responds to all recipients
              regardless of the flipr and Replyall variables.

              Similar to Reply, but responds to the  sender  only
              regardless of the flipr and Replyall variables.

              Same as Reply.

              Same as reply.

              Same as replyall.

              Same as replysender.

       retain Add the list of header fields named to the retained
              list.  Only the header fields in  the  retain  list
              are  shown  on  your terminal when you print a mes­
              sage.  All other header fields are suppressed.  The
              Type and Print commands can be used to print a mes­
              sage in its entirety.  If retain is  executed  with
              no  arguments, it lists the current set of retained

       Save   (S) Similar to save, but saves the  messages  in  a
              file  named  after  the local part of the sender of
              the first message  instead  of  taking  a  filename

       save   (s) Takes a message list and a filename and appends
              each message in turn to the end of the file.  If no
              filename  is  given,  the  mbox  file is used.  The
              filename in quotes, followed by the line count  and
              character  count  is echoed on the user's terminal.
              If editing  a  system  mailbox,  the  messages  are
              marked for deletion.

       set    (se) With no arguments, prints all variable values,
              piped through the pager if the output does not  fit
              on  the screen.  Otherwise, sets option.  Arguments
              type.  Header fields thus marked are  filtered  out
              when saving a message by save or when automatically
              saving  to  mbox.   This  command  should  only  be
              applied  to  header fields that do not contain con­
              tent information.

              Saveretain is to save what retain is to  print  and
              type.   Header fields thus marked are the only ones
              saved with a message when saving by  save  or  when
              automatically saving to mbox.  Saveretain overrides
              saveignore.  The use of this  command  is  strongly
              discouraged  since  it may strip header fields that
              are needed to decode the message correctly.

       shell  (sh) Invokes an interactive version of the shell.

              Defines a shortcut name and its string  for  expan­
              sion, as described for the folder command.  With no
              arguments, a list of defined shortcuts is  printed.

       size   Takes  a  message  list  and prints out the size in
              characters of each message.

       source The source command reads commands from a file.

       top    Takes a message list and prints the top  few  lines
              of each.  The number of lines printed is controlled
              by the variable toplines and defaults to five.

       touch  Takes a message list and  marks  the  messages  for
              saving in the mbox file.

       Type   (T) Identical to the Print command.

       type   (t) A synonym for print.

              Takes a list of names defined by alias commands and
              discards the remembered groups of users.  The group
              names no longer have any significance.

              (u)  Takes a message list and marks each message as
              not being deleted.

              Removes the header field names  from  the  list  of
              ignored fields.

       Unread Same as unread.
              retained fields for saving.

       unset  Takes  a  list  of  option names and discards their
              remembered values; the inverse of set.

              Deletes the shortcut names given as arguments.

       visual (v) Takes a message list and  invokes  the  display
              editor on each message.

       write  (w) For conventional messages, the body without all
              headers is written.  The output is converted to its
              native  format,  if  necessary.  If a message is in
              MIME multipart format, its first part is written to
              the  specified  file,  and  the user is asked for a
              filename to save each other part.  In  non-interac­
              tive  mode, only the parts of the multipart message
              that have a filename given in the part  header  are
              written,  the  other  are  discarded.  The original
              message is never marked for deletion in the  origi­
              nating  mail  folder.  The contents of the destina­
              tion file are overwritten if  the  file  previously

       xit    (x) A synonym for exit.

       z      Nail  presents  message  headers  in  windowfuls as
              described under the headers command.  The z command
              scrolls  to  the  next  window  of messages.  If an
              argument is given, it specifies the window to  use.
              A  number prefixed by '+' or '-' indicates that the
              window is calculated in  relation  to  the  current
              position.   A  number without a prefix specifies an
              absolute window number, and a '$' lets nail  scroll
              to the last window of messages.

   Tilde escapes
       Here  is  a  summary  of the tilde escapes, which are used
       when composing  messages  to  perform  special  functions.
       Tilde  escapes  are  only  recognized  at the beginning of
       lines.  The name 'tilde escape' is somewhat of a  misnomer
       since the actual escape character can be set by the option

              Execute the indicated shell command, then return to
              the message.

       ~.     Same effect as typing the end-of-file character.

              fied,  all  of  them are appended to the end of the
              attachment list.

       ~A     Inserts the string contained in the  Sign  variable
              (same as `~i Sign').

       ~a     Inserts  the  string contained in the sign variable
              (same as `~i sign').

       ~bname . . .
              Add the given names to  the  list  of  carbon  copy
              recipients but do not make the names visible in the
              Cc: line (`blind' carbon copy).

       ~cname . . .
              Add the given names to  the  list  of  carbon  copy

       ~d     Read  the  file 'dead.letter' from your home direc­
              tory into the message.

       ~e     Invoke the text editor on the message collected  so
              far.   After  the  editing session is finished, you
              may continue appending text to the message.

              Read the named  messages  into  the  message  being
              sent.   If  no  messages are specified, read in the
              current message.  Message headers  currently  being
              ignored  (by  the ignore or retain command) are not

              Identical to ~f, except  all  message  headers  are

       ~h     Edit  the  message header fields by typing each one
              in turn and allowing the user to append text to the
              end or modify the field by using the current termi­
              nal erase and kill characters.

              Insert the  value  of  the  variable  specified  by
              string  into the message adding a newline character
              at the end.  If the variable is unset or empty, the
              message remains unaltered.

              Read  the  named  messages  into  the message being
              sent, indented by a tab or by the value of  indent­
              prefix.   If  no  messages  are specified, read the
              current message.  Message headers  currently  being
              to `dead.letter' in your home directory if save  is

              Use string as the Reply-To field.

              Read the named file into the message.

              Cause  the  named string to become the current sub­
              ject field.

       ~tname . . .
              Add the given names to the direct recipient list.

       ~v     Invoke an alternate editor (defined by  the  VISUAL
              option)  on the message collected so far.  Usually,
              the alternate  editor  will  be  a  screen  editor.
              After you quit the editor, you may resume appending
              text to the end of your message.

              Write the message onto the named file.

       ~x     Same as ~q, except that the message is not saved to
              the dead.letter file.

              Pipe  the  message through the command as a filter.
              If the command gives no output or terminates abnor­
              mally,  retain  the  original  text of the message.
              The command fmt(1) is  often  used  as  command  to
              rejustify the message.

              Execute  the given nail command.  Not all commands,
              however, are allowed.

              Identical to ~:.

              Insert the string of text in the  message  prefaced
              by  a  single  ~.   If  you have changed the escape
              character, the you should double that character  in
              order to send it.

   Variable options
       Options  are  controlled  via  set and unset commands, see
       their entries for a syntax description.  An option is also
       set  if  it  is passed to nail as part of the environment,

       ask or asksub
              Causes nail to prompt you for the subject  of  each
              message  you  send.   If  you respond with simply a
              newline, no subject field will be sent.

              Causes the prompts for `Cc:' and  `Bcc:'  lists  to
              appear after the message has been edited.

              If set, nail asks for files to attach at the end of
              each message.  Responding with a newline  indicates
              not to include an attachment.

       askcc  Causes  you  to  be  prompted for additional carbon
              copy recipients (at the  end  of  each  message  if
              askatend  or  bsdcompat is set).  Responding with a
              newline indicates your satisfaction with  the  cur­
              rent list.

       askbcc Causes you to be prompted for additional blind car­
              bon copy recipients (at the end of each message  if
              askatend  or  bsdcompat is set).  Responding with a
              newline indicates your satisfaction with  the  cur­
              rent list.

              Same as newmail.

              Causes the delete command to behave like dp - thus,
              after deleting a message,  the  next  one  will  be
              typed automatically.

       bang   Enables the substitution of `!'  by the contents of
              the last command line in shell escapes.

              Causes automatic display of a header summary  after
              executing a folder command.

              Sets  some  cosmetical  features to traditional BSD
              style; has the same affect  as  setting  `askatend'
              and  all  other variables prefixed with `bsd', set­
              ting prompt to `& ', and changing the default pager
              to more.

              Changes  the letters printed in the first column of
              a header summary to traditional BSD style.

       bsdset Changes the output format of  the  set  command  to
              traditional BSD style.

              The  date  in a header summary is normally the date
              of the mailbox `From ' line  of  the  message.   If
              this  variable  is  set,  the  date as given in the
              `Date:' header field is used,  converted  to  local

       debug  Prints  debugging  messages and disables the actual
              delivery of messages.

       dot    The binary option dot causes nail  to  interpret  a
              period  alone on a line as the terminator of a mes­
              sage you are sending.

              When a message is edited while being composed,  its
              header  is  included  in the editable text.  `To:',
              `Cc:', `Bcc:', and `Subject:' fields  are  accepted
              within the header, other fields are ignored.

              If set, an empty mailbox file is not removed.  This
              may improve the interoperability  with  other  MUAs
              when using a common folder directory.

              If  the  mailbox is empty, nail normally prints 'No
              mail for user'  and  exits  immediately.   If  this
              option is set, nail starts even with an empty mail­

       flipr  Exchanges the Respond with the respond commands and

       header Causes the header summary to be written at startup;
              enabled by default.

       hold   This option is used to hold messages in the  system
              mailbox by default.

       ignore Causes  interrupt  signals from your terminal to be
              ignored and echoed as @'s.

              An option related to dot is ignoreeof  which  makes
              nail  refuse  to accept a control-d as the end of a
              message.  Ignoreeof also applies  to  nail  command

              included in the group.

              Checks for new mail in the current folder each time
              the prompt is printed.

              Setting  the  option noheader is the same as giving
              the -N flag on the command line.

              Causes the filename given in the record variable to
              be  interpreted  relative to the directory given in
              the folder variable  rather  than  to  the  current
              directory unless it is an absolute pathname.

       page   If set, each message the pipe command prints out is
              followed by a formfeed character.

              Send messages to the pipe command without  perform­
              ing MIME and character set conversions.

       quiet  Suppresses  the  printing of the version when first

              Reverses the sense of reply and Reply commands.

       save   When you abort a message with two RUBOUT (interrupt
              characters)  nail  copies the partial letter to the
              file 'dead.letter' in your  home  directory.   This
              option is set by default.

              If  this  option is set, then a message-list speci­
              fier in the form '/x:y' will expand to all messages
              containing  the  substring  'y' in the header field
              'x'.  The string search is case insensitive.

              When sending a message, wait until the mail  trans­
              fer  agent exits before accepting further commands.

              Setting this option causes nail  to  start  at  the
              last  message instead of the first one when opening
              a mail folder.

              Causes nail to use the sender's real  name  instead
              of  the  plain  address in the header field summary

              Inhibits  the  generation  of the `Message-Id:' and
              `User-Agent:' header fields  that  include  obvious
              references to nail.  There are two pitfalls associ­
              ated with this: First, the message id  of  outgoing
              messages  is  not known anymore.  Second, an expert
              may still use  the  remaining  information  in  the
              header  to  track  down  the  originating mail user

              Setting the option verbose is the same as using the
              -v  flag  on  the  command line.  When nail runs in
              verbose mode, the actual delivery  of  messages  is
              displayed on the user's terminal.

   String Options
       The string options include the following:

              Specifies  a  list  of  recipients to which a blind
              carbon copy of each outgoing message will  be  sent

       autocc Specifies  a  list  of recipients to which a carbon
              copy of each outgoing message will be sent automat­

              The  name  of  the  character set used by nail.  If
              unset, the encoding used by the current  locale  is
              used  if  not  ASCII.  If  the  encoding  is ASCII,
              iso-8859-1 is the default.  The  character  set  of
              all  outgoing messages that contain non-ASCII char­
              acters is declared using its value.

       cmd    The default value for the pipe command.

       crt    The valued option crt is used  as  a  threshold  to
              determine  how  long a message must be before PAGER
              is used to read it.  If crt is set without a value,
              then  the  height  of the terminal screen stored in
              the system is used to compute  the  threshold  (see

       DEAD   The name of the file to use for saving aborted mes­
              sages.   This  defaults  to  'dead.letter'  in  the
              user's home directory.

       EDITOR Pathname of the text editor to use in the edit com­
              mand and ~e escape.  If not defined, then a default
              editor is used.
              denote escapes.

       folder The  name of the directory to use for storing fold­
              ers of messages.  If this name begins with  a  '/',
              nail  considers it to be an absolute pathname; oth­
              erwise, the folder directory is found  relative  to
              your home directory.

       from   The  address  to  put into the `From:' field of the
              message header.  If replying  to  a  message,  this
              address  is handled as if it were in the alternates
              list.  If this variable is set, a  `Sender:'  field
              containing  the  user's  name  is  also  generated,
              unless the variable smtp is set and its value  dif­
              fers  from localhost.  If the machine's hostname is
              not valid at the Internet (for example at a  dialup
              machine), you have to set this variable to get cor­
              rect Message-ID header fields.

              String used by the '~m' and '~M' tilde escapes  and
              by  the  quote  option  for  indenting messages, in
              place of the normal tab character (^I).  Be sure to
              quote the value if it contains spaces or tabs.

       LISTER Pathname  of  the  directory  lister  to use in the
              folders command.  Default is /bin/ls.

       MAIL   Is used as the user's mailbox, if set.   Otherwise,
              a  system-dependent default is used.  Can be a pro­
              tocol:// string (see the folder  command  for  more

              A  string  to put at the beginning of each new mes­

              A string to put at the end of each new message.

       MBOX   The name of the mbox file.  It can be the name of a
              folder.   The  default is 'mbox' in the user's home

              The name of an optional startup  file  to  be  read
              after ~/.mailrc.  This variable is ignored if it is
              imported from the environment;  it  has  an  effect
              only  if  it is set in /etc/mail.rc or ~/.mailrc to
              allow  bypassing  the  configuration  with  e.   g.
              `MAILRC=/dev/null'.   Use  this  file for nail com­
              mands that are not understood by other mailx imple­
              will  be  asked  for  a password on standard input.
              Specifying passwords in a startup file is generally
              a security risk, the file should be readable by the
              invoking user only.

              When a MIME message part of content/subcontent type
              is  displayed or it is replied to, its text is fil­
              tered through the value  of  this  variable  inter­
              preted  as  a  shell command.  Special care must be
              taken when using such commands as mail viruses  may
              be  distributed by this method; if messages of type
              application/x-sh were filtered through  the  shell,
              for  example, a message sender could easily execute
              arbitrary code on the system nail is running on.

              Many POP3 servers will close the connection after a
              period  of  inactivity.  Setting this variable to a
              numeric value greater than 0 causes a NOOP  command
              to be sent each value seconds if no other operation
              is performed.

       prompt The string printed  when  a  command  is  accepted.
              Defaults to `? ', or to `& ' if the bsdcompat vari­
              able is set.

       quote  If set, nail starts a  replying  message  with  the
              original message prefixed by the value of the vari­
              able indentprefix.  Normally, a heading  consisting
              of  `Fromheaderfield  wrote:' is printed before the
              quotation.  If the string noheading is assigned  to
              the  quote  variable,  this heading is omitted.  If
              the  string  headers  is  assigned,   the   headers
              selected  by the ignore/retain commands are printed
              above the message body, thus  quote  acts  like  an
              automatic  ~m command then.  If the string allhead­
              ers is assigned, all headers are printed above  the
              message  body, thus quote acts like an automatic ~M
              command then.

       screen When nail initially prints the message headers,  it
              determines  the  number  to print by looking at the
              speed of your terminal.  The faster your  terminal,
              the  more  it  prints.   This option overrides this
              calculation and specifies how many message  headers
              you  want  printed.   This  number is also used for
              scrolling with the z command.

              To use an alternate mail delivery system, set  this
              option  to the full pathname of the program to use.
              the  value of this variable is used instead.
              If the SMTP server does not use the standard
              port,  a  value of server:port can be given,
              with port as a name or as a number.

              Specifies a directory with  CA  certificates
              for   verification.   See  SSL_CTX_load_ver­
              ify_locations(3) for more information.

              Specifies a file with  CA  certificates  for
              verification.  See SSL_CTX_load_verify_loca­
              tions(3) for more information.

              Sets the file name for a SSL/TLS client cer­
              tificate required by some servers.

              Sets  an  account-specific  file  name for a
              SSL/TLS client certificate required by  some
              servers.   Overrides ssl-cert for the speci­
              fied account.

              Specifies a list of ciphers for SSL/TLS con­
              nections.   See ciphers(1) for more informa­

              Sets the file name for the private key of  a
              SSL/TLS  client  certificate.  If unset, the
              name of the certificate file is  used.   The
              file is expected to be in PEM format.

              Sets  an  account-specific file name for the
              private key of a SSL/TLS client certificate.
              Overrides ssl-key for the specified account.

              Selects a SSL/TLS  protocol  version;  valid
              values  are  `ssl2', `ssl3', and `tls1'.  If
              unset, the method is selected automatically,
              if possible.

              Gives  the  pathname  to  an  entropy daemon
              socket, see RAND_egd(3).

              default is `ask'.

       record If  defined,  gives the pathname of the file
              used to record all outgoing  mail.   If  not
              defined, then outgoing mail is not so saved.

              The address  to  put  into  the  `Reply-To:'
              field of the message header.  If replying to
              a message, this address is handled as if  it
              were in the alternates list.

              Must  correspond  to  the name of a readable
              file if set.  The  file's  content  is  then
              appended  to  each singlepart message and to
              the first part of  each  multipart  message.
              Be  warned  that  there is no possibility to
              edit the signature for  an  individual  mes­

              If  defined,  gives the number of lines of a
              message to be printed out with the top  com­
              mand;  normally,  the  first  five lines are

              The character set of the terminal nail oper­
              ates  on.   There is normally no need to set
              this variable since nail can determine  this
              automatically  by  looking  at  the LC_CTYPE
              locale setting; if this succeeds, the  value
              is assigned at startup and will be displayed
              by the set command.  Note that this  is  not
              necessarily a character set name that can be
              used in Internet messages.   If  unset,  its
              default  is  the  value of the charset vari­

       VISUAL Pathname of the text editor to  use  in  the
              visual command and ~v escape.


       Besides  the  variables  described above, nail uses
       the following environment strings:

       HOME   The user's home directory.

              See locale(7).

              System wide initialization file.

              Personal MIME types.

              System wide MIME types.


   POP3 client setup
       First,  you  need the following data from your ISP:
       the host name of its POP3  server,  user  name  and
       password  for this server, and a notice whether the
       server uses SSL/TLS encryption.  Assuming the  host
       name  is  `server.myisp.example' and your user name
       for that server is `myname', you can refer to  this
       account using the folder command or -f command line
       option with


       (replace `pop3://' with `pop3s://'  if  the  server
       supports  SSL/TLS).   The string is not necessarily
       the same as your internet  mail  address.   As  you
       probably  want  messages  to  be  deleted from this
       account after saving them,  prefix  it  with  `%:'.
       The  shortcut  command  can be used to avoid typing
       that many characters every time you  want  to  con­

           shortcut myisp %:pop3://myname@server.myisp.example

       You probably want to put this string into a startup
       file.  As the shortcut command is nail-specific and
       will confuse other mailx implementations, it should
       not be used in ~/.mailrc, instead, put

           set NAIL_EXTRA_RC=~/.nailrc

       in ~/.mailrc and create a file ~/.nailrc containing
       the  shortcut command above.  Nail will ask you for
       a password string each time  you  connect  to  this
       account.   If you can reasonably trust the security
       of the machine you are working  on,  you  can  give
       this password in the startup file as

           set password-myname@server.myisp.example="SECRET"

       You  should  change the permissions of this file to
       0600, see chmod(1).  Many POP3 servers  will  close
       the  connection after a short period of inactivity.

       (see s_client(1)) and put it into the  file  speci­
       fied with ssl-ca-file.

   Reading HTML mail
       You  need  the  w3m utility or another command-line
       web browser that can write plain text  to  standard

           set pipe-text/html="w3m -dump -T text/html"

       will  then  cause  HTML text to be converted into a
       more friendly form, the command string  depends  on
       the browser you are using.


       fmt(1),  newaliases(1),  openssl(1),  pg(1),  proc­
       mail(1), more(1), vacation(1), ssl(3),  aliases(5),
       locale(7), mailaddr(7), sendmail(8)


       Variables  in the environment passed to nail cannot
       be unset.

       The character set conversion relies heavily on  the
       iconv(3)   function.    Its  functionality  differs
       widely between the various system environments nail
       runs on.

       Nail  expects input text to be in Unix format, with
       lines separated  by  newline  (^J,  \n)  characters
       only.  Non-Unix text files that use carriage return
       (^M, \r) characters in addition will be treated  as
       binary  data;  to  send  such  files as text, strip
       these characters e. g. by

              tr -d '\015' <input | nail . . .

       or fix the tools that generate them.

       POP3 mailboxes are limited in some ways: It is  not
       possible  to edit messages, they can only be copied
       and deleted.  The line count for the header display
       is  only appropriate if the entire message has been
       downloaded from the server.  The status field of  a
       message is maintained by the server between connec­
       tions; some servers do not update it  at  all,  and
       with  a  server  that does, the `exit' command will
       not cause the message  status  to  be  reset.   The
       `newmail'  command  and the `newmail' variable have
       no effect.  An unencrypted  POP3  message  download
       can  be interrupted from the terminal, but the part

nail 10.5                    3/30/03                      NAIL(1)

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