Welcome to Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial
"The place where you learn linux"

 Create an AccountHome | Submit News | Your Account  

Tutorial Menu
Linux Tutorial Home
Table of Contents

· Introduction to Operating Systems
· Linux Basics
· Working with the System
· Shells and Utilities
· Editing Files
· Basic Administration
· The Operating System
· The X Windowing System
· The Computer Itself
· Networking
· System Monitoring
· Solving Problems
· Security
· Installing and Upgrading
· Linux and Windows

Man Pages
Linux Topics
Test Your Knowledge

Site Menu
Site Map
Copyright Info
Terms of Use
Privacy Info
Masthead / Impressum
Your Account

Private Messages

News Archive
Submit News
User Articles
Web Links


The Web

Who's Online
There are currently, 68 guest(s) and 0 member(s) that are online.

You are an Anonymous user. You can register for free by clicking here




       ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
       ispell [common-flags] -l
       ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] [-a|-A]
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
       ispell [-d file] -D
       ispell -v[v]

              [-t] [-n] [-H] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P]  [-m]  [-S]
              [-d  file]  [-p  file]  [-w chars] [-W n] [-T type]
              [-kname list] [-F program]

       buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
       buildhash -s count affix-file

       munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
                 [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

       findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
                 [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

       tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix[+addition]

       icombine [-T type] [aff-file]

       ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2


       Ispell is fashioned  after  the  spell  program  from  ITS
       (called  ispell on Twenex systems.)  The most common usage
       is "ispell filename".  In this case, ispell  will  display
       each  word  which does not appear in the dictionary at the
       top of the screen and allow you to change  it.   If  there
       are "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ by
       only a single letter, a missing or extra letter, a pair of
       transposed  letters,  or  a missing space or hyphen), then
       they are also displayed on following lines.   As  well  as
       "near misses", ispell may display other guesses at ways to
       make the word from a known root, with each guess  preceded
       by  question marks.  Finally, the line containing the word
       and the previous line are printed at  the  bottom  of  the
       screen.   If  your  terminal can display in reverse video,
       the word itself is highlighted.  You have  the  option  of
       replacing the word completely, or choosing one of the sug­
       gested words.  Commands are single characters  as  follows
       (case is ignored):

              R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

              L      Look  up  words  in  system dictionary (con­
                     trolled by the WORDS compilation option).

              X      Write the rest of this file,  ignoring  mis­
                     spellings, and start next file.

              Q      Exit   immediately   and   leave   the  file

              !      Shell escape.

              ^L     Redraw screen.

              ^Z     Suspend ispell.

              ?      Give help screen.

       If the -M switch is specified, a one-line mini-menu at the
       bottom  of  the screen will summarize these options.  Con­
       versely, the -N switch may be used to suppress  the  mini-
       menu.  (The minimenu is displayed by default if ispell was
       compiled with the MINIMENU option, but these two  switches
       will always override the default).

       If  the  -L flag is given, the specified number is used as
       the number of lines of context to be shown at  the  bottom
       of  the  screen (The default is to calculate the amount of
       context as a certain percentage of the screen size).   The
       amount of context is subject to a system-imposed limit.

       If  the  -V  flag is given, characters that are not in the
       7-bit ANSI printable character set  will  always  be  dis­
       played  in  the  style  of "cat -v", even if ispell thinks
       that these characters are legal ISO Latin-1 on  your  sys­
       tem.   This  is  useful when working with older terminals.
       Without this switch, ispell will display 8-bit  characters
       "as is" if they have been defined as string characters for
       the chosen file type.

       "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and -A  options  and
       interactive  mode  (see  below) also accepts the following
       "common" flags on the command line:

              -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

              -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

              -H     The  input  file  is  in  SGML/HTML  format.
                     (This  should really be -s, but for histori­
                     cal reasons that flag was already taken.)

              -m     Make possible root/affix  combinations  that
                     aren't in the dictionary.

              -S     Sort  the  list  of guesses by probable cor­

              -d file
                     Specify an alternate dictionary  file.   For
                     example,  use  -d deutsch to choose a German
                     dictionary in a German installation.

              -p file
                     Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

              -w chars
                     Specify additional characters  that  can  be
                     part of a word.

              -W n   Specify  length  of  words  that  are always

              -T type
                     Assume a given formatter type for all files.

       The  -H,  -n, and -t options select whether ispell runs in
       HTML (-H), nroff/troff (-n), or TeX/LaTeX (-t) input mode.
       mode.   (The  default mode is controlled by the DEFTEXFLAG
       installation option, but is normally nroff/troff mode  for
       historical  reasons.)   Unless  overridden  by  one of the
       mode-selection switches, TeX/LaTeX mode  is  automatically
       selected  if  an  input file has the extension ".tex", and
       HTML mode is automatically selected if an input  file  has
       the extension ".html" or ".htm".

       In HTML mode, HTML tags delimited by <> signs are skipped,
       except that the  "ALT="  construct  is  recognized  if  it
       appears  with  no  spaces  around the equals sign, and the
       text inside is spell-checked.

       In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash  ("\")  is  found,
       ispell  will  skip  to  the  next  whitespace or TeX/LaTeX
       delimiter.   Certain  commands  contain  arguments   which
       should  not  be checked, such as labels and reference keys
       as are found in the  \cite  command,  since  they  contain
       arbitrary,  non-word  arguments.   Spell  checking is also
       suppressed when in math mode.  Thus, for example, given

              \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

       ispell will find "Ckapter" but not "SCH".  The  -t  option
       does  not recognize the TeX comment character "%", so com­
       ments are also spell-checked.   It  also  assumes  correct
       ery  purposes  even  with  the -x option.  The default for
       this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installa­
       tion option.

       The  -B  and  -C  options  control how ispell handles run-
       together words, such as "notthe" for "not the".  If -B  is
       specified,  such  words  will be considered as errors, and
       ispell will list variations  with  an  inserted  blank  or
       hyphen as possible replacements.  If -C is specified, run-
       together words will be considered to be  legal  compounds,
       so long as both components are in the dictionary, and each
       component is at least as long as a language-dependent min­
       imum  (3 characters, by default).  This is useful for lan­
       guages such as German and Norwegian, where  many  compound
       words  are  formed by concatenation.  (Note that compounds
       formed from three or more root words will still be consid­
       ered  errors).   The  default for this option is language-
       dependent; in a multi-lingual installation the default may
       vary depending on which dictionary you choose.

       The  -P  and  -m options control when ispell automatically
       generates suggested root/affix combinations  for  possible
       addition  to  your  personal  dictionary.   (These are the
       entries in the "guess" list which are preceded by question
       marks.)   If  -P  is specified, such guesses are displayed
       only if ispell  cannot  generate  any  possibilities  that
       match  the  current  dictionary.  If -m is specified, such
       guesses are always displayed.  This can be useful  if  the
       dictionary  has  a  limited word list, or a word list with
       few suffixes.  However, you should be careful  when  using
       this option, as it can generate guesses that produce ille­
       gal words.  The default for this option is  controlled  by
       the dictionary file used.

       The -S option suppresses ispell's normal behavior of sort­
       ing the list of possible replacement words.   Some  people
       may  prefer this, since it somewhat enhances the probabil­
       ity that the correct word will be low-numbered.

       The -d option is used to specify an alternate hashed  dic­
       tionary  file,  other  than  the default.  If the filename
       does not contain a "/",  the  library  directory  for  the
       default  dictionary  file is prefixed; thus, to use a dic­
       tionary in the local directory  "-d  ./xxx.hash"  must  be
       used.   This is useful to allow dictionaries for alternate
       languages.  Unlike previous versions of ispell, a  dictio­
       nary  of /dev/null is illegal, because the dictionary con­
       tains the affix table.  If you need an  effectively  empty
       dictionary,  create  a  one-entry  list  with  an unlikely
       string (e.g., "qqqqq").

       The -p option is used to  specify  an  alternate  personal
       This  feature is included primarily for backwards compati­

       If the -p option is not specified, ispell  will  look  for
       personal  dictionaries  in  both the current directory and
       the home directory.  If dictionaries exist in both places,
       they  will  be merged.  If any words are added to the per­
       sonal dictionary, they will  be  written  to  the  current
       directory  if  a dictionary already existed in that place;
       otherwise they will be written to the  dictionary  in  the
       home directory.

       The -w option may be used to specify characters other than
       alphabetics which may also appear in words.  For instance,
       -w "&" will allow "AT&T" to be picked up.  Underscores are
       useful in many technical documents.  There  is  an  admit­
       tedly  crude  provision  in this option for 8-bit interna­
       tional characters.  Non-printing characters may be  speci­
       fied in the usual way by inserting a backslash followed by
       the octal character code; e.g., "\014" for  a  form  feed.
       Alternatively, if "n" appears in the character string, the
       (up to) three characters following are a DECIMAL code 0  -
       255, for the character.  For example, to include bells and
       form feeds in your words (an admittedly silly thing to do,
       but aren't most pedagogical examples):


       Numeric digits other than the three following "n" are sim­
       ply numeric characters.  Use of "n" does not conflict with
       anything  because  actual  alphabetics  have  no meaning -
       alphabetics are already accepted.  Ispell  will  typically
       be  used  with  input from a file, meaning that preserving
       parity for possible 8 bit characters from the  input  text
       is  OK.   If  you specify the -l option, and actually type
       text from the terminal, this may create problems  if  your
       stty settings preserve parity.

       It  is not possible to use -w with certain characters.  In
       particular, the flag-marker  character  for  the  language
       (defined  in the affix file, but usually "/") can never be
       made into a word character.

       The -W option may be used to change the  length  of  words
       that  ispell  always  accepts  as legal.  Normally, ispell
       will accept all  1-character  words  as  legal,  which  is
       equivalent  to  specifying  "-W 1."  (The default for this
       switch is actually controlled by the MINWORD  installation
       option, so it may vary at your installation.)  If you want
       all words to be checked against the dictionary, regardless
       of length, you might want to specify "-W 0."  On the other
       hand, if your document specifies  a  lot  of  three-letter
       defined in the language affix file (e.g., nroff) or a file
       suffix including the dot (e.g., .tex).  If  no  -T  option
       appears  and no type can be determined from the file name,
       the default string character type declared in the language
       affix file will be used.

       The  -k  option is used to enhance the behavior of certain
       deformatters.  The name parameter  gives  the  name  of  a
       deformatter  keyword set (see below), and the list parame­
       ter gives a list of one or more keywords that  are  to  be
       treated  specially.   If list begins with a plus (+) sign,
       it  is  added  to  the  existing  keywords;  otherwise  it
       replaces   the   existing   keyword  list.   For  example,
       -ktexskip1 +bibliographystyle adds "bibliographystyle"  to
       the   TeX   skip-1  list,  while  -khtmlignore  pre,strong
       replaces the HTML ignore list  with  "pre"  and  "strong".
       The lists available are:

              TeX/LaTeX commands that take a single argument that
              should not be spell-checked,  such  as  "bibliogra­
              phystyle".    The   default   is  "end",  "vspace",
              "hspace",   "cite",   "ref",   "parbox",   "label",
              "input", "nocite", "include", "includeonly", "docu­
              mentstyle", "documentclass", "usepackage", "select­
              language",  "pagestyle",  "pagenumbering", "hyphen­
              ation", "pageref", and "psfig", plus "bibliography"
              in  some  installations.   These keywords are case-

              TeX/LaTeX commands that  take  two  arguments  that
              should  not  be spell-checked, such as "setlength".
              The  default  is  "rule",   "setcounter",   "addto­
              counter",  "setlength",  "addtolength",  and  "set­
              towidth".  These keywords are case-sensitive.

              HTML tags that delimit  text  that  should  not  be
              spell-checked   until   the  matching  end  tag  is
              reached.  The default  is  "code",  "samp",  "kbd",
              "pre",  "listing",  and  "address".  These keywords
              are  case-insensitive.   (Note  that  the   content
              inside  HTML  tags,  such as HREF=, is not normally

              Subfields that should be spell-checked even  inside
              HTML  tags.  The default is "alt", so that the ALT=
              portion of IMG tags will be  spell-checked.   These
              keywords are case-insensitive.

       checked  should  be  passed through unchanged.  Characters
       that should not be spell-checked should be converted  into
       blanks or other non-word characters.  For example, an HTML
       deformatter might turn all HTML tags into blanks, and also
       blank  out  all  text  delimited by tags such as "code" or

       The -F switch is the preferred way to deformat  files  for
       ispell, and eventually will become the only way.

       If  ispell  is  invoked  without  any  filenames  or  mode
       switches, it enters an interactive mode  designed  to  let
       the user check the spelling of individual words.  The pro­
       gram repeatedly prompts on standard  output  with  "word:"
       and  responds with either "ok" (possibly with commentary),
       "not found", or "how about" followed by a list of  sugges­

       The  -l  or  "list"  option to ispell is used to produce a
       list of misspelled words from the standard input.

       The -a option is intended to be used from  other  programs
       through  a  pipe.   In this mode, ispell prints a one-line
       version identification message, and  then  begins  reading
       lines  of  input.   For  each input line, a single line is
       written to the standard output for each word  checked  for
       spelling  on  the line.  If the word was found in the main
       dictionary, or your personal  dictionary,  then  the  line
       contains  only a '*'.  If the word was found through affix
       removal, then the line contains a '+', a  space,  and  the
       root  word.  If the word was found through compound forma­
       tion (concatenation of two words,  controlled  by  the  -C
       option), then the line contains only a '-'.

       If  the  word is not in the dictionary, but there are near
       misses, then the line contains an '&', a space,  the  mis­
       spelled word, a space, the number of near misses, the num­
       ber of characters between the beginning of  the  line  and
       the  beginning  of  the  misspelled word, a colon, another
       space, and a list of the near misses separated  by  commas
       and  spaces.   Following  the  near misses (and identified
       only by the count of near misses), if the  word  could  be
       formed  by  adding (illegal) affixes to a known root, is a
       list of suggested derivations, again separated  by  commas
       and  spaces.  If there are no near misses at all, the line
       format is the same, except that the '&' is replaced by '?'
       (and  the  near-miss count is always zero).  The suggested
       derivations following the near misses are in the form:

              [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

       (e.g.,  "re+fry-y+ies"  to  get  "refries")   where   each
       These output lines can be summarized as follows:

              OK:    *

              Root:  + <root>


              Miss:  &   <original>   <count>  <offset>:  <miss>,
                     <miss>, ..., <guess>, ...

              Guess: ? <original> 0 <offset>:  <guess>,  <guess>,

              None:  # <original> <offset>

       For  example,  a  dummy  dictionary  containing  the words
       "fray", "Frey", "fry", and  "refried"  might  produce  the
       following  response  to  the command "echo 'frqy refries |
       ispell -a -m -d ./test.hash":
              (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
              & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
              & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

       This mode is also suitable for interactive  use  when  you
       want to figure out the spelling of a single word.

       The  -A  option  works just like -a, except that if a line
       begins with the string "&Include_File&", the rest  of  the
       line  is  taken  as the name of a file to read for further
       words.  Input  returns  to  the  original  file  when  the
       include  file is exhausted.  Inclusion may be nested up to
       five deep.  The key string may be changed with  the  envi­
       ronment  variable  INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any,
       must be included).

       When in the -a mode, ispell will also accept lines of sin­
       gle  words  prefixed  with any of '*', '&', '@', '+', '-',
       '~', '#', '!', '%', '`', or '^'.  A line starting with '*'
       tells ispell to insert the word into the user's dictionary
       (similar to the I command).   A  line  starting  with  '&'
       tells  ispell  to  insert  an all-lowercase version of the
       word into the user's dictionary (similar  to  the  U  com­
       mand).   A  line starting with '@' causes ispell to accept
       this word in the future (similar to  the  A  command).   A
       line  starting  with  '+',  followed immediately by tex or
       nroff will cause ispell to parse  future  input  according
       the syntax of that formatter.  A line consisting solely of
       a '+' will place ispell in TeX/LaTeX mode (similar to  the
       -t option) and '-' returns ispell to nroff/troff mode (but
       prefixed with '`' will  turn  on  verbose-correction  mode
       (see  below); this mode can only be disabled by turning on
       terse mode with '%'.

       Any input following the prefix characters '+',  '-',  '#',
       '!', '%', or '`' is ignored, as is any input following the
       filename on a '~' line.  To allow spell-checking of  lines
       beginning  with these characters, a line starting with '^'
       has that character removed before  it  is  passed  to  the
       spell-checking  code.  It is recommended that programmatic
       interfaces prefix every data line with an uparrow to  pro­
       tect themselves against future changes in ispell.

       To summarize these:

              *      Add to personal dictionary

              @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

              #      Save current personal dictionary

              ~      Set parameters based on filename

              +      Enter TeX mode

              -      Exit TeX mode

              !      Enter terse mode

              %      Exit terse mode

              `      Enter verbose-correction mode

              ^      Spell-check rest of line

       In  terse mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with
       '*', '+', or '-', all of  which  indicate  correct  words.
       This significantly improves running speed when the driving
       program is going to ignore correct words anyway.

       In verbose-correction mode, ispell includes  the  original
       word  immediately  after the indicator character in output
       lines beginning with '*', '+', and '-',  which  simplifies
       interaction for some programs.

       The  -s option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or
       -A options, and only on BSD-derived  systems.   If  speci­
       fied,  ispell will stop itself with a SIGTSTP signal after
       each line of input.  It will not read more input until  it
       receives  a  SIGCONT signal.  This may be useful for hand­
       shaking with certain text editors.
       affixes will be written to the standard output.   Some  of
       the  root  words will be illegal and must be filtered from
       the output by other means; the munchlist script does this.
       As an example, the command:

              echo BOTHER | ispell -c


              BOTHER BOTHE/R BOTH/R

       The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags
       to produce a list of words.  For example, the command:

              echo BOTH/R | ispell -e


              BOTH BOTHER

       An optional expansion level  can  also  be  specified.   A
       level  of  1  (-e1) is the same as -e alone.  A level of 2
       causes the original root/affix combination to be prepended
       to the line:

              BOTH/R BOTH BOTHER

       A  level  of 3 causes multiple lines to be output, one for
       each generated word, with the original root/affix combina­
       tion followed by the word it creates:

              BOTH/R BOTH
              BOTH/R BOTHER

       A level of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended
       to each of the level-3 lines, giving the ratio between the
       length  of  the root and the total length of all generated
       words including the root:

              BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
              BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

       Finally, the -D flag causes the affix tables from the dic­
       tionary file to be dumped to standard output.

       Unless  your  system administrator has suppressed the fea­
       ture to save space, ispell is aware of the  correct  capi­
       talizations  of  words  in the dictionary and in your per­
       sonal dictionary.  As well as recognizing words that  must
       be  capitalized (e.g., George) and words that must be all-
       capitals (e.g., NASA),  it  can  also  handle  words  with
       "unusual"  capitalization (e.g., "ITCorp" or "TeX").  If a
       version.  You must then compare the  actual  spellings  by
       eye, and then type "I" to add the uncapitalized variant to
       your personal dictionary.  You can avoid this  problem  by
       using "U" to add the original word, rather than "I".

       The rules for capitalization are as follows:

       (1)    Any  word  may  appear in all capitals, as in head­

       (2)    Any word that is in the dictionary in all-lowercase
              form  may appear either in lowercase or capitalized
              (as at the beginning of a sentence).

       (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e.,  it
              contains both cases and there is an uppercase char­
              acter besides the first) must appear exactly as  in
              the  dictionary,  except  as permitted by rule (1).
              If the word is acceptable in all-lowercase, it must
              appear thus in a dictionary entry.

       The  buildhash  program builds hashed dictionary files for
       later use by ispell.  The raw word list (with affix flags)
       is given in dict-file, and the the affix flags are defined
       by affix-file.  The hashed output is written to hash-file.
       The  formats  of  the  two  input  files  are described in
       ispell(4).  The -s (silent) option  suppresses  the  usual
       status  messages  that  are  written to the standard error

       The munchlist shell script is used to reduce the  size  of
       dictionary files, primarily personal dictionary files.  It
       is also capable of  combining  dictionaries  from  various
       sources.   The  given files are read (standard input if no
       arguments are given), reduced to a minimal  set  of  roots
       and  affixes  that  will match the same list of words, and
       written to standard output.

       Input for munchlist contains of raw words (e.g  from  your
       personal  dictionary files) or root and affix combinations
       (probably generated in earlier munchlist runs).  Each word
       or root/affix combination must be on a separate line.

       The  -D (debug) option leaves temporary files around under
       standard names instead  of  deleting  them,  so  that  the
       script  can  be debugged.  Warning: this option can eat up
       an enormous amount of temporary file space.

       The -v (verbose) option causes  progress  messages  to  be
       reported to stderr so you won't get nervous that munchlist

       The  -T  option  allows  dictionaries to be converted to a
       canonical string-character format.  The  suffix  specified
       is  looked  up  in the affix file (-l switch) to determine
       the string-character format used for the input  file;  the
       output  always uses the canonical string-character format.
       For example, a dictionary collected from TeX source  files
       might  be  converted  to canonical format by specifying -T

       The -w option is passed on to ispell.

       The findaffix shell script is an aid  to  writers  of  new
       language descriptions in choosing affixes.  The given dic­
       tionary files (standard input if none are given) are exam­
       ined  for  possible  prefixes  (-p switch) or suffixes (-s
       switch, the default).  Each  commonly-occurring  affix  is
       presented  along  with  a  count of the number of times it
       appears and an estimate of the number of bytes that  would
       be saved in a dictionary hash file if it were added to the
       language table.  Only affixes that  generate  legal  roots
       (found in the original input) are listed.

       If  the  "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in
       the following format:


       where strip is the string that should be stripped  from  a
       root  word before adding the affix, add is the affix to be
       added, count is a count of the number of times  that  this
       strip/add combination appears, and bytes is an estimate of
       the number of bytes that might be saved in the raw dictio­
       nary  file if this combination is added to the affix file.
       The field separator in the output will be the tab  charac­
       ter  specified  by  the -t switch;  the default is a slash

       If the -c ("clean output") option is given, the appearance
       of  the  output  is  made  visually cleaner (but harder to
       post-process) by changing it to:


       where strip, add, count, and  bytes  are  as  before,  and
       <tab> represents the ASCII tab character.

       The  method  used  to  generate possible affixes will also
       generate longer  affixes  which  have  common  headers  or
       trailers.   For example, the two words "moth" and "mother"
       will generate not only the obvious substitution "+er"  but
       To  save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than
       10 times are eliminated; this limit may  be  changed  with
       the  -l  switch.   The -M switch specifies a maximum affix
       length (default 8).  Affixes longer than this will not  be
       reported.   (This  saves on temporary disk space and makes
       the script run faster.)

       Affixes which generate stems shorter than 3 characters are
       suppressed.   (A  stem  is the word after the strip string
       has been removed, and  before  the  add  string  has  been
       added.)   This  reduces both the running time and the size
       of the output file.  This limit may be changed with the -m
       switch.   The  minimum stem length should only be set to 1
       if you have a lot of free time  and  disk  space  (in  the
       range of many days and hundreds of megabytes).

       The  findaffix script requires a non-blank field-separator
       character for internal use.  Normally, this character is a
       slash  ("/"),  but  if the slash appears as a character in
       the input word list, a different character can  be  speci­
       fied with the -t switch.

       Ispell dictionaries should be expanded before being fed to
       findaffix; in addition, characters that  are  not  in  the
       English  alphabet  (if any) should be translated to lower­

       The tryaffix shell script is used to estimate  the  effec­
       tiveness  of  a  proposed prefix (-p switch) or suffix (-s
       switch, the default) with a given expanded-file.  Only one
       affix  can  be  tried  with  each  execution  of tryaffix,
       although multiple arguments can be used to describe  vary­
       ing  forms  of  the  same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for
       English can add either D or  ED  depending  on  whether  a
       trailing E is already present).  Each word in the expanded
       dictionary that ends (or begins) with  the  chosen  suffix
       (or  prefix) has that suffix (prefix) removed; the dictio­
       nary is then  searched  for  root  words  that  match  the
       stripped  word.   Normally, all matching roots are written
       to standard output, but if the -c (count) flag  is  given,
       only a statistical summary of the results is written.  The
       statistics given are a count of  words  the  affix  poten­
       tially applies to and an estimate of the number of dictio­
       nary bytes that a flag using the affix  would  save.   The
       estimate will be high if the flag generates words that are
       currently  generated  by  other  affix  flags  (e.g.,   in
       English,  bathers  can  be  generated  by either bath/X or

       The  dictionary  file,  expanded-file,  must  already   be
       expanded  (using  the -e switch of ispell) and sorted, and
       to cover both cases.

       All of the shell scripts contain documentation as  commen­
       tary  at  the  beginning; sometimes these comments contain
       useful information beyond the scope of this manual page.

       It is possible to install ispell in such a way as to  only
       support ASCII range text if desired.

       The  icombine program is a helper for munchlist.  It reads
       a list of words in dictionary format  (roots  plus  flags)
       from  the  standard  input, and produces a reduced list on
       standard output which combines common roots found on adja­
       cent  entries.  Identical roots which have differing flags
       will have their flags combined, and roots which have  dif­
       fering  capitalizations  will  be  combined in a way which
       only preserves important capitalization information.   The
       optional  aff-file specifies a language file which defines
       the character sets used and the meanings  of  the  various
       flags.  The -T switch can be used to select among alterna­
       tive string character types by giving a dummy suffix  that
       can be found in an altstringtype statement.

       The  ijoin program is a re-implementation of join(1) which
       handles long lines and 8-bit characters correctly.  The -s
       switch  specifies that the sort(1) program used to prepare
       the input to ijoin uses signed comparisons on 8-bit  char­
       acters; the -u switch specifies that sort(1) uses unsigned
       comparisons.  All other options and behaviors  of  join(1)
       are  duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual
       page, except that ijoin will not handle newline as a field
       separator.   See the join(1) manual page for more informa­


              Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is  given.

              Only  read  if DICTIONARY is set. Default formatter
              type or character encoding to use, if no -T  or  -t
              or  -n flag is given.  Usefull if formatter type is
              recognized in affix-file.

              Personal dictionary file name

              Code for file inclusion under the -A option

              List of HTML fields that should  always  be  spell-
              checked, even inside a tag.


              Hashed dictionary (may be found in some other local
              directory, depending on the system).

              Affix-definition file for munchlist

       /usr/share/dict/web2 or /usr/share/dict/words
              For the Lookup function  (depending  on  the  WORDS
              compilation option).

              User's private dictionary

              Directory-specific private dictionary


       spell(1),  egrep(1),  look(1),  join(1),  sort(1),  sq(1),
       ispell(5), english(5)


       It takes several to many seconds for ispell to read in the
       hash table, depending on size.

       When all options are enabled, ispell may take several sec­
       onds to generate all the guesses at corrections for a mis­
       spelled  word; on slower machines this time is long enough
       to be annoying.

       The hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte (or larger)
       array, so a PDP-11 or 286 version does not seem likely.

       Ispell  should understand more troff syntax, and deal more
       intelligently with contractions.

       Although small personal  dictionaries  are  sorted  before
       they  are written out, the order of capitalizations of the
       same word is somewhat random.

       When the -x flag is  specified,  ispell  will  unlink  any
       existing .bak file.

       There  are  too  many  flags,  and  many of them have non-
       mnemonic names.

       naries that already have heavy affix use, such as the  one
       distributed  with  ispell).   Munchlist is also very slow;
       munching  a  normal-sized  dictionary  (15K   roots,   45K
       expanded  words)  takes around an hour on a small worksta­
       tion.  (Most of this time is spent in sort(1), and  munch­
       list can run much faster on machines that have a more mod­
       ern sort that makes better use of the memory available  to
       it.)   Findaffix  is even worse; the smallest English dic­
       tionary cannot be processed with this  script  in  a  mere
       50Kb  of free space, and even after specifying switches to
       reduce the temporary space required, the script  will  run
       for over 24 hours on a small workstation.


       Pace  Willisson  (pace@mit-vax), 1983, based on the PDP-10
       assembly version.  That version was written by R. E. Gorin
       in  1971,  and later revised by W. E. Matson (1974) and W.
       B. Ackerman (1978).

       Collected, revised, and enhanced for the  Usenet  by  Walt
       Buehring, 1987.

       Table-driven  multi-lingual  version  by  Geoff  Kuenning,

       Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

       A complete list of contributors is too large to list here,
       but is distributed with the ispell  sources  in  the  file


       The  version  of  ispell  described by this manual page is
       International Ispell Version 3.1.20, 10/10/95.

                              local                     ISPELL(1)



Security Code
Security Code
Type Security Code

Don't have an account yet? You can create one. As a registered user you have some advantages like theme manager, comments configuration and post comments with your name.

Help if you can!

Amazon Wish List

Did You Know?
You can get all the latest Site and Linux news by checking out our news page.


Tell a Friend About Us

Bookmark and Share

Web site powered by PHP-Nuke

Is this information useful? At the very least you can help by spreading the word to your favorite newsgroups, mailing lists and forums.
All logos and trademarks in this site are property of their respective owner. The comments are property of their posters. Articles are the property of their respective owners. Unless otherwise stated in the body of the article, article content (C) 1994-2013 by James Mohr. All rights reserved. The stylized page/paper, as well as the terms "The Linux Tutorial", "The Linux Server Tutorial", "The Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial" and "The place where you learn Linux" are service marks of James Mohr. All rights reserved.
The Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial may contain links to sites on the Internet, which are owned and operated by third parties. The Linux Tutorial is not responsible for the content of any such third-party site. By viewing/utilizing this web site, you have agreed to our disclaimer, terms of use and privacy policy. Use of automated download software ("harvesters") such as wget, httrack, etc. causes the site to quickly exceed its bandwidth limitation and are therefore expressly prohibited. For more details on this, take a look here

PHP-Nuke Copyright © 2004 by Francisco Burzi. This is free software, and you may redistribute it under the GPL. PHP-Nuke comes with absolutely no warranty, for details, see the license.
Page Generation: 0.09 Seconds