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       growisofs [-dry-run] [-dvd-compat] [-overburn]  [-speed=1]
       -[Z|M] /dev/dvd <mkisofs-options>


       growisofs was originally designed as a frontend to mkisofs
       to facilitate appending of data to ISO9660 volumes  resid­
       ing  on random-access media such as DVD+RW, DVD-RAM, plain
       files, hard disk partitions. In the course of  development
       general purpose DVD recording support was implemented, and
       as of now growisofs supports not only random-access media,
       but  even  mastering  of  multi-session  DVD media such as
       DVD+R  and  DVD-R/-RW.  In  addition  growisofs   supports
       first-/single-session  recording of arbitrary pre-mastered
       image (formatted as UDF, ISO9660 or any other file system,
       if formatted at all) to all supported DVD media types.


       -Z /dev/dvd
              Burn  an  initial session to the selected device. A
              special form of this option is recognized  to  sup­
              port  burning  of pre-mastered images. See EXAMPLES
              section for further details.

       -M /dev/dvd
              Merge a new session to an existing one.

              Print version information and invoke mkisofs,  also
              with -version option.

              Provide    maximum    media    compatibility   with
              DVD-ROM/-Video. In write-once  context  (DVD+R  and
              DVD-R)   this  results  in  unappendable  recording
              (closed disk). In DVD+RW context it  instructs  the
              logical   unit   to   explicitly   burn  [otherwise
              optional] lead-out.

              At dry-run growisofs performs all the  steps  till,
              but  not  including the first write operation. Most
              notably check  for  "overburn"  condition  is  per­
              formed,  which  implies that mkisofs is invoked and
              terminated prematurely.

              Normally DVD media can accommodate up  to  approxi­
              mately  4.700.000.000  bytes  (in  marketing speech


       When using growisofs you may not use the -o option for  an
       output  file.   growisofs  dumps the image directly to the

       You don't have to specify the -C option to create a higher
       level session on a multi session disk, growisofs will con­
       struct one for you;

       Otherwise everything that applies to [multi-session]  mas­
       tering  with  mkisofs applies to growisofs as well.  grow­
       isofs needs at least mkisofs version 1.14, version 2.0  is
       required for multi-session write-once recordings.


       Actual  device  names  vary  from  one operating system to
       another. We use /dev/dvd as a collective name or  as  sym­
       bolic  link  to the actual device if you wish. Under Linux
       it will  most  likely  be  an  ide-scsi  device   such  as
       "/dev/scd0."  Under  NetBSD/OpenBSD  it has be a character
       SCSI CD-ROM device such as "/dev/rcd0c." Under Solaris  it
       also  has to be a character SCSI/ATAPI CD-ROM device, e.g.
       "/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s2" or "/vol/dev/aliases/cdrom0."

       To master and burn an ISO9660 volume with Joliet and Rock-
       Ridge extensions on a DVD:

            growisofs -Z /dev/dvd -R -J /some/files

       To append more data to same DVD:

            growisofs -M /dev/dvd -R -J /more/files

       Make  sure to use the same options for both inital burning
       and following sessions.

       To use growisofs to write a pre-mastered  ISO-image  to  a

            growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/dvd=image.iso

       where  image.iso  represents  an  arbitrary  object in the
       filesystem, such as file,  named  pipe  or  device  entry.
       Nothing  is growing here and command name is not intuitive
       in this context.


       If the  media  already  carries  isofs  and  growisofs  is
       invoked  with  -Z  option  non-interactively, e.g. through

       Playback of re-writable DVD media, both DVD+RW and DVD-RW,
       might be limited in legacy DVD-ROM/-Video units.  In  most
       cases this is due to lower reflectivity of such media.

       Even  though growisofs supports it, playback of multi-ses­
       sion write-once DVD might be limited to the first  session
       for two reasons:

       ·      not all DVD-ROM players are capable of multi-border
              DVD-R playback, even less are aware of DVD+R multi-
              sessioning, burner unit therefore might be the only
              one you can access files written at different occa­

       ·      OS  might fail to mount multi-session DVD for vari­
              ous reasons;

       The above is not applicable to DVD+RW or DVD-RW Restricted
       Overwrite, as volumes are grown within a single session.


       Most  up-to-date  information on dvd+rw-tools is available
       at http://fy.chalmers.se/~appro/linux/DVD+RW/.

       The manpage for mkisofs.


       Andy Polyakov <appro@fy.chalmers.se> stands  for  program­
       ming and on-line information.

       This  manpage  is  currently  maintained  by  Huub  Reuver


       growisofs is distributed under GNU GPL.

growisofs 5.11            3 August 2003             GROWISOFS(1m)
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