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       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -wn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Ppro­
             logue ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a  command  line
       option and its parameter.


       grops  translates  the  output of GNU troff to PostScript.
       Normally grops should be invoked by using the  groff  com­
       mand  with  a -Tps option.  (Actually, this is the default
       for groff.)  If no files are given, grops  will  read  the
       standard  input.  A filename of - will also cause grops to
       read the standard input.  PostScript output is written  to
       the  standard  output.  When grops is run by groff options
       can be passed to grops using the groff -P option.


       -bn    Workaround broken spoolers  and  previewers.   Nor­
              mally grops produces output that conforms the Docu­
              ment Structuring Conventions version 3.0.  Unfortu­
              nately  some  spoolers  and previewers can't handle
              such output.  The value of n  controls  what  grops
              does  to its output acceptable to such programs.  A
              value of 0 will  cause  grops  not  to  employ  any
              workarounds.   Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and
              %%EndDocumentSetup comments  should  be  generated;
              this  is  needed  for  early versions of TranScript
              that get confused by anything between the %%EndPro­
              log comment and the first %%Page comment.  Add 2 if
              lines in included files beginning with  %!   should
              be  stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview
              previewer.  Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer  and  %%End­
              Prolog  comments should be stripped out of included
              files; this  is  needed  for  spoolers  that  don't
              understand  the  %%BeginDocument  and %%EndDocument
              comments.   Add  8  if  the  first  line   of   the
              PostScript  output  should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather
              than %!PS-Adobe-3.0;  this  is  needed  when  using
              Sun's  Newsprint  with a printer that requires page
              reversal.  The default value can be specified by a

                     broken n

              command in the DESC file.   Otherwise  the  default
              value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -g     Guess  the  page length.  This generates PostScript
              code that guesses the page length.  The guess  will
              be correct only if the imageable area is vertically
              the prologue instead of the default  prologue  file
              prologue.   This  option  overrides the environment
              variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n  thou­
              sandths of an em.

       -v     Print the version number.


       There  are  styles  called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font
       positions 1 to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families  A,
       BM,  C,  H, HN, N, P and T having members in each of these

       AR     AvantGarde-Book

       AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

       AB     AvantGarde-Demi

       ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

       BMR    Bookman-Light

       BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

       BMB    Bookman-Demi

       BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

       CR     Courier

       CI     Courier-Oblique

       CB     Courier-Bold

       CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

       HR     Helvetica

       HI     Helvetica-Oblique

       HB     Helvetica-Bold

       HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

       HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

       HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

       HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

       PB     Palatino-Bold

       PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

       TR     Times-Roman

       TI     Times-Italic

       TB     Times-Bold

       TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member  of
       a family:

       ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are  also some special fonts called SS and S.  Zapf
       Dingbats is available as ZD  and  a  reversed  version  of
       ZapfDingbats (with symbols pointing in the opposite direc­
       tion) is available as ZDR; most characters in these  fonts
       are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.

       grops understands various X commands produced using the \X
       escape sequence; grops will only interpret  commands  that
       begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
              This  executes the arbitrary PostScript commands in
              code.  The PostScript currentpoint will be  set  to
              the  position  of  the  \X command before executing
              code.  The origin will be at the top left corner of
              the  page, and y coordinates will increase down the
              page.  A procedure u will be defined that  converts
              groff  units  to  the  coordinate system in effect.
              For example,

                     .nr x 1i
                     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

              will draw a horizontal line one  inch  long.   code
              may  make  changes  to  the graphics state, but any
              changes will persist only to the end of  the  page.
              A  dictionary  containing the definitions specified
              by the def and mdef will be on top of  the  dictio­
              nary  stack.  If your code adds definitions to this
              dictionary, you  should  allocate  space  for  them
              using  \X'ps mdef n'.  Any definitions will persist
              only until the end of the page.  If you use the  \Y
              escape  sequence  with  an  argument  that  names a
              macro, code can extend over  multiple  lines.   For
              This is the same as the exec  command  except  that
              the PostScript code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
              Place  a PostScript definition contained in code in
              the prologue.  There should be at most one  defini­
              tion per \X command.  Long definitions can be split
              over several \X commands; all  the  code  arguments
              are  simply  joined together separated by newlines.
              The definitions are placed in a dictionary which is
              automatically  pushed  on the dictionary stack when
              an exec command is executed.  If  you  use  the  \Y
              escape  sequence  with  an  argument  that  names a
              macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
              Like def, except that code may contain up to n def­
              initions.  grops needs to know how many definitions
              code contains so that it can  create  an  appropri­
              ately  sized PostScript dictionary to contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
              Import a PostScript graphic from file.   The  argu­
              ments  llx, lly, urx, and ury give the bounding box
              of the graphic in the default PostScript coordinate
              system;  they  should  all be integers; llx and lly
              are the x and y coordinates of the lower left  cor­
              ner  of  the  graphic;  urx and ury are the x and y
              coordinates  of  the  upper  right  corner  of  the
              graphic;  width  and  height are integers that give
              the desired width and height in groff units of  the
              graphic.  The graphic will be scaled so that it has
              this width and height and translated  so  that  the
              lower  left corner of the graphic is located at the
              position associated with \X command.  If the height
              argument  is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
              the x and y directions so that it has the specified
              width.   Note  that  the contents of the \X command
              are not interpreted by troff; so vertical space for
              the  graphic  is  not  automatically added, and the
              width and height arguments are not allowed to  have
              attached  scaling  indicators.   If  the PostScript
              file complies with the Adobe  Document  Structuring
              Conventions  and  contains a %%BoundingBox comment,
              then  the  bounding  box   can   be   automatically
              extracted  from  within  groff  by  using  the psbb

              The -mps macros  (which  are  automatically  loaded
              when  grops  is run by the groff command) include a
              PSPIC macro which allows a  picture  to  be  easily
              imported.  This has the format
              The -I option causes the graphic to be indented  by

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
              No  output  will  be generated for text and drawing
              commands that are bracketed with these \X commands.
              These  commands  are  intended  for use when output
              from troff will be previewed before being processed
              with  grops;  if the previewer is unable to display
              certain characters or other constructs, then  other
              substitute characters or constructs can be used for
              previewing by bracketing them with  these  \X  com­

              For  example,  gxditview  is  not able to display a
              proper \(em  character  because  the  standard  X11
              fonts  do not provide it; this problem can be over­
              come by executing the following request

                     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
                     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
                     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

              In this case, gxditview will be unable  to  display
              the  \(em character and will draw the line, whereas
              grops will print the \(em character and ignore  the

       The  input  to  grops  must  be  in  the  format output by
       troff(1).  This is described in groff_out(5).  In addition
       the  device and font description files for the device used
       must meet  certain  requirements.   The  device  and  font
       description  files  supplied  for ps device meet all these
       requirements.  afmtodit(1) can  be  used  to  create  font
       files  from  AFM files.  The resolution must be an integer
       multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device uses  a
       resolution  of  72000 and a sizescale of 1000.  The device
       description file should contain a command

              paperlength n

       which says that output should be generated which is  suit­
       able  for  printing  on  a  page whose length is n machine
       units.  Each font description file must contain a command

              internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.
       It may also contain a command

              encoding enc_file

       to select the character, even if the  character  does  not
       have  a groff name.  Every character in the font file must
       exist in the PostScript font, and the widths given in  the
       font  file  must  match  the widths used in the PostScript
       font.  grops will assume that a  character  with  a  groff
       name  of  space  is blank (makes no marks on the page); it
       can make use of such a character to  generate  more  effi­
       cient and compact PostScript output.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts
       necessary to print the document.  Any  downloadable  fonts
       which  should, when required, be included by grops must be
       listed              in              the               file
       /usr/share/groff/1.17.2/font/devps/download;  this  should
       consist of lines of the form

              font  filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font,  and  file­
       name  is  the  name of the file containing the font; lines
       beginning with # and blank lines are ignored;  fields  may
       be  separated by tabs or spaces; filename will be searched
       for using the same mechanism that is used for  groff  font
       metric  files.   The  download  file  itself  will also be
       searched for using this mechanism.

       If the file containing a  downloadable  font  or  imported
       document  conforms  to the Adobe Document Structuring Con­
       ventions, then grops will interpret any  comments  in  the
       files  sufficiently  to ensure that its own output is con­
       forming.  It will also supply any  needed  font  resources
       that are listed in the download file as well as any needed
       file resources.  It is also able to handle  inter-resource
       dependencies.   For example, suppose that you have a down­
       loadable font called Garamond,  and  also  a  downloadable
       font  called  Garamond-Outline  which  depends on Garamond
       (typically it would be defined  to  copy  Garamond's  font
       dictionary,  and  change the PaintType), then it is neces­
       sary for Garamond to be appear before Garamond-Outline  in
       the PostScript document.  grops will handle this automati­
       cally provided that the downloadable font file  for  Gara­
       mond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means
       of the Document Structuring Conventions,  for  example  by
       beginning with the following lines

              %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
              %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
              %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need
       to be listed in the download file.   A  downloadable  font
              logue  file prologue.  The option -P overrides this
              environment variable.


              Device description file.

              Font description file for font F.

              List of downloadable fonts.

              Encoding used for text fonts.

              Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded  by

              Definition  of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by

              Macros to disable use of characters not present  in
              older  PostScript printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

              Temporary file.


       afmtodit(1), groff(1),  troff(1),  psbb(1),  groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7)

Groff Version 1.17.2       27 June 2001                  GROPS(1)

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