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                        Version 1.1, March 2000

       Copyright (c) 2000  Free Software Foundation, Inc.  59
       Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

       Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim
       copies of this license document, but changing it is not


       The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook,
       or  other written document "free" in the sense of freedom:
       to assure everyone the effective freedom to copy  and  re­
       distribute  it,  with or without modifying it, either com­
       mercially or noncommercially.  Secondarily,  this  License
       preserves for the author and publisher a way to get credit
       for their work, while not being considered responsible for
       modifications made by others.

       This  License  is  a  kind of "copyleft", which means that
       derivative works of the document must themselves  be  free
       in  the same sense.  It complements the GNU General Public
       License, which is a copyleft  license  designed  for  free

       We have designed this License in order to use it for manu­
       als for free software, because free  software  needs  free
       documentation:  a  free  program  should come with manuals
       providing the same freedoms that the software  does.   But
       this License is not limited to software manuals; it can be
       used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
       whether  it  is published as a printed book.  We recommend
       this License principally for works whose  purpose  is  in­
       struction or reference.


       This License applies to any manual or other work that con­
       tains a notice placed by the copyright  holder  saying  it
       can  be  distributed under the terms of this License.  The
       "Document", below, refers to any such manual or work.  Any
       member  of  the  public is a licensee, and is addressed as

       A "Modified Version" of the Document means any  work  con­
       taining  the  Document  or  a portion of it, either copied
       verbatim, or with modifications and/or translated into an­
       other language.

       A  "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-mat­
       ter section of the Document that  deals  exclusively  with

       The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text  that
       are  listed,  as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in
       the notice that says that the Document is  released  under
       this License.

       A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-read­
       able copy, represented in a format whose specification  is
       available  to  the  general  public, whose contents can be
       viewed and  edited  directly  and  straightforwardly  with
       generic  text  editors  or (for images composed of pixels)
       generic paint  programs  or  (for  drawings)  some  widely
       available  drawing  editor, and that is suitable for input
       to text formatters or for automatic translation to a vari­
       ety  of  formats suitable for input to text formatters.  A
       copy made in an otherwise Transparent  file  format  whose
       markup  has  been  designed to thwart or discourage subse­
       quent modification by readers is not Transparent.  A  copy
       that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque."

       Examples  of  suitable  formats for Transparent copies in­
       clude plain ASCII without markup,  Texinfo  input  format,
       LaTeX input format, SGML or XML using a publicly available
       DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML designed for  hu­
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       proprietary formats that can be read and  edited  only  by
       proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD
       and/or processing tools are not generally  available,  and
       the  machine-generated  HTML produced by some word proces­
       sors for output purposes only.

       The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page
       itself,  plus  such following pages as are needed to hold,
       legibly, the material this License requires to  appear  in
       the  title  page.   For works in formats which do not have
       any title page as such, "Title Page" means the  text  near
       the most prominent appearance of the work's title, preced­
       ing the beginning of the body of the text.


       You may copy and distribute the Document  in  any  medium,
       either commercially or noncommercially, provided that this
       License, the copyright notices,  and  the  license  notice
       saying this License applies to the Document are reproduced
       in all copies, and that you add no other conditions  what­
       soever  to those of this License.  You may not use techni­
       cal measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
       copying  of  the  copies you make or distribute.  However,
       you may accept compensation in exchange  for  copies.   If
       you  distribute  a  large enough number of copies you must
       also follow the conditions in section 3.
       title  equally  prominent  and visible.  You may add other
       material on the covers in addition.  Copying with  changes
       limited  to the covers, as long as they preserve the title
       of the Document  and  satisfy  these  conditions,  can  be
       treated as verbatim copying in other respects.

       If  the required texts for either cover are too voluminous
       to fit legibly, you should put the first ones  listed  (as
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       the rest onto adjacent pages.

       If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document
       numbering  more  than  100,  you must either include a ma­
       chine-readable Transparent copy  along  with  each  Opaque
       copy,  or state in or with each Opaque copy a publicly-ac­
       cessible computer-network location containing  a  complete
       Transparent  copy of the Document, free of added material,
       which the general network-using public has access to down­
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       work protocols.  If you use the latter  option,  you  must
       take reasonably prudent steps, when you begin distribution
       of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure that  this  Trans­
       parent  copy will remain thus accessible at the stated lo­
       cation until at least one year after  the  last  time  you
       distribute an Opaque copy (directly or through your agents
       or retailers) of that edition to the public.

       It is requested, but not required, that  you  contact  the
       authors  of  the  Document  well before redistributing any
       large number of copies, to give them a chance  to  provide
       you with an updated version of the Document.


       You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Doc­
       ument under the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, pro­
       vided that you release the Modified Version under precise­
       ly this License, with the  Modified  Version  filling  the
       role of the Document, thus licensing distribution and mod­
       ification of the Modified Version to whoever  possesses  a
       copy  of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the
       Modified Version:

       A.     Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a
              title  distinct from that of the Document, and from
              those of previous versions (which should, if  there
              were  any,  be listed in the History section of the
              Document).  You may use the same title as a  previ­
              ous  version if the original publisher of that ver­
              sion gives permission.

       B.     List on the Title Page, as  authors,  one  or  more
       F.     Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a
              license notice giving the public permission to  use
              the  Modified  Version  under the terms of this Li­
              cense, in the form shown in the Addendum below.

       G.     Preserve in that license notice the full  lists  of
              Invariant  Sections  and required Cover Texts given
              in the Document's license notice.

       H.     Include an unaltered copy of this License.

       I.     Preserve the section entitled  "History",  and  its
              title,  and  add to it an item stating at least the
              title, year, new authors, and publisher of the Mod­
              ified Version as given on the Title Page.  If there
              is no section entitled "History" in  the  Document,
              create  one  stating  the title, year, authors, and
              publisher of the Document as  given  on  its  Title
              Page, then add an item describing the Modified Ver­
              sion as stated in the previous sentence.

       J.     Preserve the network location, if any, given in the
              Document for public access to a Transparent copy of
              the Document, and likewise  the  network  locations
              given  in the Document for previous versions it was
              based on.  These may be  placed  in  the  "History"
              section.   You  may  omit  a network location for a
              work that was published at least four years  before
              the  Document  itself, or if the original publisher
              of the version it refers to gives permission.

       K.     In any section entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Ded­
              ications",  preserve  the section's title, and pre­
              serve in the section all the substance and tone  of
              each  of  the  contributor  acknowledgements and/or
              dedications given therein.

       L.     Preserve all the Invariant Sections  of  the  Docu­
              ment,  unaltered in their text and in their titles.
              Section numbers or the equivalent are  not  consid­
              ered part of the section titles.

       M.     Delete any section entitled "Endorsements."  Such a
              section may not be included in  the  Modified  Ver­

       N.     Do  not  retitle  any existing section as "Endorse­
              ments" or to conflict in title with  any  Invariant

       If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections
       or appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and  con­
       Text,  and  a  passage  of  up to 25 words as a Back-Cover
       Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in  the  Modi­
       fied  Version.   Only  one passage of Front-Cover Text and
       one of Back-Cover Text may be added  by  (or  through  ar­
       rangements  made  by) any one entity.  If the Document al­
       ready includes a cover text for the same cover, previously
       added by you or by arrangement made by the same entity you
       are acting on behalf of, you may not add another; but  you
       may  replace  the old one, on explicit permission from the
       previous publisher that added the old one.

       The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do  not  by
       this  License  give permission to use their names for pub­
       licity for or to assert or imply endorsement of any  Modi­
       fied Version.


       You may combine the Document with other documents released
       under this License, under the terms defined in  section  4
       above  for modified versions, provided that you include in
       the combination all of the Invariant Sections  of  all  of
       the  original  documents, unmodified, and list them all as
       Invariant Sections of your combined work  in  its  license

       The  combined  work need only contain one copy of this Li­
       cense, and multiple identical Invariant  Sections  may  be
       replaced  with  a  single copy.  If there are multiple In­
       variant Sections with the same  name  but  different  con­
       tents,  make  the  title  of  each  such section unique by
       adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name  of  the
       original  author or publisher of that section if known, or
       else a unique number.  Make the  same  adjustment  to  the
       section  titles  in  the list of Invariant Sections in the
       license notice of the combined work.

       In the combination, you must combine any sections entitled
       "History"  in  the various original documents, forming one
       section entitled "History"; likewise combine any  sections
       entitled  "Acknowledgements",  and  any  sections entitled
       "Dedications."  You must delete all sections entitled "En­


       You  may  make a collection consisting of the Document and
       other documents released under this License,  and  replace
       the individual copies of this License in the various docu­
       ments with a single copy that is included in  the  collec­
       tion,  provided  that you follow the rules of this License
       for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other
       ed  no  compilation  copyright is claimed for the compila­
       tion.  Such a compilation is called  an  "aggregate",  and
       this  License  does  not apply to the other self-contained
       works thus compiled with the Document, on account of their
       being thus compiled, if they are not themselves derivative
       works of the Document.

       If the Cover Text requirement of section 3  is  applicable
       to  these  copies of the Document, then if the Document is
       less than one quarter of the entire aggregate,  the  Docu­
       ment's  Cover  Texts may be placed on covers that surround
       only the Document within the  aggregate.   Otherwise  they
       must appear on covers around the whole aggregate.


       Translation  is  considered a kind of modification, so you
       may distribute translations  of  the  Document  under  the
       terms  of  section  4.   Replacing Invariant Sections with
       translations requires special permission from their  copy­
       right holders, but you may include translations of some or
       all Invariant Sections in addition to  the  original  ver­
       sions  of  these  Invariant  Sections.   You may include a
       translation of this License provided that you also include
       the  original English version of this License.  In case of
       a disagreement between the translation  and  the  original
       English version of this License, the original English ver­
       sion will prevail.


       You may not copy, modify, sublicense,  or  distribute  the
       Document  except  as expressly provided for under this Li­
       cense.  Any other attempt to copy, modify,  sublicense  or
       distribute  the  Document  is void, and will automatically
       terminate your rights under this License.   However,  par­
       ties  who  have received copies, or rights, from you under
       this License will not have their  licenses  terminated  so
       long as such parties remain in full compliance.


       The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised ver­
       sions of the GNU Free Documentation License from  time  to
       time.   Such new versions will be similar in spirit to the
       present version, but may differ in detail to  address  new
       problems or concerns.  See http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.

       Each version of the License is given a distinguishing ver­
       sion number.  If the Document specifies that a  particular
       numbered  version  of  this License "or any later version"
       applies to it, you have the option of following the  terms

       Copyright (c) [year]  [your name].  Permission is granted
       to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the
       terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1
       or any later version published by the Free Software
       Foundation; with the Invariant Sections being [list their
       titles], with the Front-Cover Texts being [list], and with
       the Back-Cover Texts being [list].  A copy of the license
       is included in the section entitled "GNU Free
       Documentation License."

       If  you have no Invariant Sections, write "with no Invari­
       ant Sections" instead of saying which ones are  invariant.
       If  you  have  no Front-Cover Texts, write "no Front-Cover
       Texts" instead of "Front-Cover Texts being [list]";  like­
       wise for Back-Cover Texts.

       If  your  document contains nontrivial examples of program
       code, we recommend releasing these  examples  in  parallel
       under  your  choice  of free software license, such as the
       GNU General Public License, to permit their  use  in  free

                          2001 April 23                   GFDL(1)

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