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       fuser [-a|-s] [-4|-6] [-n space] [-signal] [-kimuv] name
       fuser -l
       fuser -V


       fuser displays the PIDs of processes using  the  specified
       files  or file systems.  In the default display mode, each
       file name is followed by a letter  denoting  the  type  of

              c      current directory.

              e      executable being run.

              f      open  file.  f is omitted in default display

              r      root directory.

              m      mmap'ed file or shared library.

       fuser returns a non-zero return code if none of the speci­
       fied  files is accessed or in case of a fatal error. If at
       least one access has been found, fuser returns zero.

       In order to look up processes using TCP and  UDP  sockets,
       the  corresponding  name space has to be selected with the
       -n option.  By default fuser will look in  both  IPv6  and
       IPv4 sockets.  To change the default, behavour, use the -4
       and -6 options. The socket(s)  can  be  specified  by  the
       local  and remote port, and the remote address. All fields
       are optional, but commas in front of missing  fields  must
       be present:


       Either  symbolic  or  numeric  values  can  be used for IP
       addresses and port numbers.


       -a     Show all files specified on the  command  line.  By
              default,  only  files that are accessed by at least
              one process are shown.

       -k     Kill processes accessing the file.  Unless  changed
              with  -signal,  SIGKILL  is  sent. An fuser process
              never kills itself, but may kill other  fuser  pro­
              cesses.  The  effective user ID of the process exe­
              cuting fuser is set to  its  real  user  ID  before
              attempting to kill.

       -n space
              Select a different name space. The name spaces file
              (file  names,  the default), udp (local UDP ports),
              and tcp  (local  TCP  ports)  are  supported.   For
              ports,  either the port number or the symbolic name
              can be specified. If there  is  no  ambiguity,  the
              shortcut  notation name/space (e.g. name/proto) can
              be used.

       -s     Silent operation. -u and -v  are  ignored  in  this
              mode.  -a must not be used with -s.

              Use  the  specified  signal instead of SIGKILL when
              killing processes. Signals can be specified  either
              by name (e.g. -HUP) or by number (e.g. -1).

       -u     Append  the  user name of the process owner to each

       -v     Verbose mode. Processes  are  shown  in  a  ps-like
              style. The fields PID, USER and COMMAND are similar
              to ps. ACCESS shows how the  process  accesses  the
              file.  If  the access is by the kernel (e.g. in the
              case of a mount point, a swap file,  etc.),  kernel
              is shown instead of the PID.

       -V     Display version information.

       -4     Search only for IPv4 sockets.  This option must not
              be used with the -6 option and only has  an  effect
              with the tcp and udp namespaces.

       -6     Search only for IPv6 sockets.  This option must not
              be used with the -4 option and only has  an  effect
              with the tcp and udp namespaces.

       -      Reset  all  options  and  set  the  signal  back to


       /proc     location of the proc file system


       fuser -km /home kills all  processes  accessing  the  file
       system /home in any way.

       if fuser -s /dev/ttyS1; then :; else something; fi invokes
       something if no other process is using /dev/ttyS1.

       fuser telnet/tcp shows all processes at the (local) TELNET
       with partial information, but may be undesirable for secu­
       rity and privacy reasons.

       udp and tcp name spaces, and UNIX domain sockets can't  be
       searched with kernels older than 1.3.78.

       udp  and  tcp  currently  work with IPv6 and IPv4, but the
       address fields can only be IPv4 addresses.

       Accesses by the kernel are only shown with the -v  option.

       The  -k option only works on processes. If the user is the
       kernel, fuser will print an advice,  but  take  no  action
       beyond that.


       Werner Almesberger <Werner.Almesberger@epfl.ch>


       kill(1), killall(1), lsof(8), ps(1), kill(2)

Linux                    October 25, 1999                FUSER(1)
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