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      [[user@]host [port]] [user@]host:[path][/] [file:///path]
      [http://[user[:password]@]host[:port]/path] [...]
      -u url file [...]


     ftp is the user interface to the Internet standard File Transfer Proto­
     col.  The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a remote
     network site.

     The last five arguments will fetch a file using the FTP or HTTP proto­
     cols, or by direct copying, into the current directory.  This is ideal
     for scripts.  Refer to AUTO-FETCHING FILES below for more information.

     Options may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter­

     -A       Force active mode ftp.  By default, ftp will try to use passive
              mode ftp and fall back to active mode if passive is not sup­
              ported by the server.  This option causes ftp to always use an
              active connection.  It is only useful for connecting to very old
              servers that do not implement passive mode properly.

     -a       Causes ftp to bypass normal login procedure, and use an anony­
              mous login instead.

     -d       Enables debugging.

     -e       Disables command line editing.  This is useful for Emacs ange-
              ftp mode.

     -f       Forces a cache reload for transfers that go through the FTP or
              HTTP proxies.

     -g       Disables file name globbing.

     -i       Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

     -n       Restrains ftp from attempting ``auto-login'' upon initial con­
              nection.  If auto-login is enabled, ftp will check the .netrc
              (see below) file in the user's home directory for an entry
              describing an account on the remote machine.  If no entry
              exists, ftp will prompt for the remote machine login name
              (default is the user identity on the local machine), and, if
              necessary, prompt for a password and an account with which to

     -o output
              When auto-fetching files, save the contents in output.  output
              is parsed according to the FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS below.  If
              output is not `-' or doesn't start with `|', then only the first
              file specified will be retrieved into output; all other files

     -t       Enables packet tracing.

     -T direction,maximum[,increment]
              Set the maximum transfer rate for direction to maximum
              bytes/second, and if specified, the increment to increment
              bytes/second.  Refer to rate for more information.

     -u url file [...]
              Upload files on the command line to url where url is one of the
              ftp URL types as supported by auto-fetch (with an optional tar­
              get filename for single file uploads), and file is one or more
              local files to be uploaded.

     -v       Enable verbose and progress.  This is the default if output is
              to a terminal (and in the case of progress, ftp is the fore­
              ground process).  Forces ftp to show all responses from the
              remote server, as well as report on data transfer statistics.

     -V       Disable verbose and progress, overriding the default of enabled
              when output is to a terminal.

     The client host with which ftp is to communicate may be specified on the
     command line.  If this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to establish
     a connection to an FTP server on that host; otherwise, ftp will enter its
     command interpreter and await instructions from the user.  When ftp is
     awaiting commands from the user the prompt `ftp>' is provided to the
     user.  The following commands are recognized by ftp:

     ! [command [args]]
                 Invoke an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there
                 are arguments, the first is taken to be a command to execute
                 directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.

     $ macro-name [args]
                 Execute the macro macro-name that was defined with the macdef
                 command.  Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.

     account [passwd]
                 Supply a supplemental password required by a remote system
                 for access to resources once a login has been successfully
                 completed.  If no argument is included, the user will be
                 prompted for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.

     append local-file [remote-file]
                 Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If
                 remote-file is left unspecified, the local file name is used
                 in naming the remote file after being altered by any ntrans
                 or nmap setting.  File transfer uses the current settings for
                 type, format, mode, and structure.

     ascii       Set the file transfer type to network ASCII.  This is the
                 default type.

     cd remote-directory
                 Change the working directory on the remote machine to

     cdup        Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of
                 the current remote machine working directory.

     chmod mode remote-file
                 Change the permission modes of the file remote-file on the
                 remote system to mode.

     close       Terminate the FTP session with the remote server, and return
                 to the command interpreter.  Any defined macros are erased.

     cr          Toggle carriage return stripping during ascii type file
                 retrieval.  Records are denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
                 sequence during ascii type file transfer.  When cr is on (the
                 default), carriage returns are stripped from this sequence to
                 conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.
                 Records on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single line­
                 feeds; when an ascii type transfer is made, these linefeeds
                 may be distinguished from a record delimiter only when cr is

     debug [debug-value]
                 Toggle debugging mode.  If an optional debug-value is speci­
                 fied it is used to set the debugging level.  When debugging
                 is on, ftp prints each command sent to the remote machine,
                 preceded by the string `-->'

     delete remote-file
                 Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.

     dir [remote-path [local-file]]
                 Print a listing of the contents of a directory on the remote
                 machine.  The listing includes any system-dependent informa­
                 tion that the server chooses to include; for example, most
                 UNIX systems will produce output from the command `ls -l'.
                 If remote-path is left unspecified, the current working
                 directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will
                 prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed
                 the target local file for receiving dir output.  If no local
                 file is specified, or if local-file is `-', the output is
                 sent to the terminal.

     disconnect  A synonym for close.

     edit        Toggle command line editing, and context sensitive command
                 and file completion.  This is automatically enabled if input
                 is from a terminal, and disabled otherwise.

                 per filename.

     form format
                 Set the file transfer form to format.  The default format is

     ftp host [port]
                 A synonym for open.

     gate [host [port]]
                 Toggle gate-ftp mode, which used to connect through the TIS
                 FWTK and Gauntlet ftp proxies.  This will not be permitted if
                 the gate-ftp server hasn't been set (either explicitly by the
                 user, or from the FTPSERVER environment variable).  If host
                 is given, then gate-ftp mode will be enabled, and the gate-
                 ftp server will be set to host.  If port is also given, that
                 will be used as the port to connect to on the gate-ftp

     get remote-file [local-file]
                 Retrieve the remote-file and store it on the local machine.
                 If the local file name is not specified, it is given the same
                 name it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by
                 the current case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current
                 settings for type, form, mode, and structure are used while
                 transferring the file.

     glob        Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget and mput.  If
                 globbing is turned off with glob, the file name arguments are
                 taken literally and not expanded.  Globbing for mput is done
                 as in csh(1).  For mdelete and mget, each remote file name is
                 expanded separately on the remote machine and the lists are
                 not merged.  Expansion of a directory name is likely to be
                 different from expansion of the name of an ordinary file: the
                 exact result depends on the foreign operating system and ftp
                 server, and can be previewed by doing `mls remote-files -'
                 Note: mget and mput are not meant to transfer entire direc­
                 tory subtrees of files.  That can be done by transferring a
                 tar(1) archive of the subtree (in binary mode).

     hash [size]
                 Toggle hash-sign (``#'') printing for each data block trans­
                 ferred.  The size of a data block defaults to 1024 bytes.
                 This can be changed by specifying size in bytes.  Enabling
                 hash disables progress.

     help [command]
                 Print an informative message about the meaning of command.
                 If no argument is given, ftp prints a list of the known com­

     idle [seconds]
                 pager option.

     lpwd        Print the working directory on the local machine.

     ls [remote-path [local-file]]
                 A synonym for dir.

     macdef macro-name
                 Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro
                 macro-name; a null line (consecutive newline characters in a
                 file or carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro
                 input mode.  There is a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total
                 characters in all defined macros.  Macros remain defined
                 until a close command is executed.  The macro processor
                 interprets `$' and `\' as special characters.  A `$' followed
                 by a number (or numbers) is replaced by the corresponding
                 argument on the macro invocation command line.  A `$' fol­
                 lowed by an `i' signals that macro processor that the execut­
                 ing macro is to be looped.  On the first pass `$i' is
                 replaced by the first argument on the macro invocation com­
                 mand line, on the second pass it is replaced by the second
                 argument, and so on.  A `\' followed by any character is
                 replaced by that character.  Use the `\' to prevent special
                 treatment of the `$'.

     mdelete [remote-files]
                 Delete the remote-files on the remote machine.

     mdir remote-files local-file
                 Like dir, except multiple remote files may be specified.  If
                 interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to ver­
                 ify that the last argument is indeed the target local file
                 for receiving mdir output.

     mget remote-files
                 Expand the remote-files on the remote machine and do a get
                 for each file name thus produced.  See glob for details on
                 the filename expansion.  Resulting file names will then be
                 processed according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.
                 Files are transferred into the local working directory, which
                 can be changed with `lcd directory'; new local directories
                 can be created with `! mkdir directory'.

     mkdir directory-name
                 Make a directory on the remote machine.

     mls remote-files local-file
                 Like ls, except multiple remote files may be specified, and
                 the local-file must be specified.  If interactive prompting
                 is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argu­
                 ment is indeed the target local file for receiving mls out­
                 Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.  The default mode is
                 ``stream'' mode.

     modtime remote-file
                 Show the last modification time of the file on the remote

     more file   A synonym for page.

     mput local-files
                 Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as argu­
                 ments and do a put for each file in the resulting list.  See
                 glob for details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names
                 will then be processed according to ntrans and nmap settings.

     msend local-files
                 A synonym for mput.

     newer remote-file [local-file]
                 Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file
                 is more recent that the file on the current system.  If the
                 file does not exist on the current system, the remote file is
                 considered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to

     nlist [remote-path [local-file]]
                 A synonym for ls.

     nmap [inpattern outpattern]
                 Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.  If no arguments
                 are specified, the filename mapping mechanism is unset.  If
                 arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during
                 mput commands and put commands issued without a specified
                 remote target filename.  If arguments are specified, local
                 filenames are mapped during mget commands and get commands
                 issued without a specified local target filename.  This com­
                 mand is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote computer
                 with different file naming conventions or practices.  The
                 mapping follows the pattern set by inpattern and outpattern.
                 [Inpattern] is a template for incoming filenames (which may
                 have already been processed according to the ntrans and case
                 settings).  Variable templating is accomplished by including
                 the sequences `$1', `$2', ..., `$9' in inpattern.  Use `\' to
                 prevent this special treatment of the `$' character.  All
                 other characters are treated literally, and are used to
                 determine the nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For example,
                 given inpattern $1.$2 and the remote file name "mydata.data",
                 $1 would have the value "mydata", and $2 would have the value
                 "data".  The outpattern determines the resulting mapped file­
                 name.  The sequences `$1', `$2', ...., `$9' are replaced by
                 any value resulting from the inpattern template.  The
                 sequence `$0' is replace by the original filename.  Addition­

     ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
                 Set or unset the filename character translation mechanism.
                 If no arguments are specified, the filename character trans­
                 lation mechanism is unset.  If arguments are specified, char­
                 acters in remote filenames are translated during mput com­
                 mands and put commands issued without a specified remote tar­
                 get filename.  If arguments are specified, characters in
                 local filenames are translated during mget commands and get
                 commands issued without a specified local target filename.
                 This command is useful when connecting to a non-UNIX remote
                 computer with different file naming conventions or practices.
                 Characters in a filename matching a character in inchars are
                 replaced with the corresponding character in outchars.  If
                 the character's position in inchars is longer than the length
                 of outchars, the character is deleted from the file name.

     open host [port]
                 Establish a connection to the specified host FTP server.  An
                 optional port number may be supplied, in which case, ftp will
                 attempt to contact an FTP server at that port.  If the
                 auto-login option is on (default), ftp will also attempt to
                 automatically log the user in to the FTP server (see below).

     page file   Retrieve file and display with the program specified by the
                 set pager option.

     passive [auto]
                 Toggle passive mode (if no arguments are given).  If auto is
                 given, act as if FTPMODE is set to `auto'.  If passive mode
                 is turned on (default), ftp will send a PASV command for all
                 data connections instead of a PORT command.  The PASV command
                 requests that the remote server open a port for the data con­
                 nection and return the address of that port.  The remote
                 server listens on that port and the client connects to it.
                 When using the more traditional PORT command, the client lis­
                 tens on a port and sends that address to the remote server,
                 who connects back to it.  Passive mode is useful when using
                 ftp through a gateway router or host that controls the direc­
                 tionality of traffic.  (Note that though FTP servers are
                 required to support the PASV command by RFC 1123, some do

     pdir [remote-path]
                 Perform dir [remote-path], and display the result with the
                 program specified by the set pager option.

     pls [remote-path]
                 Perform ls [remote-path], and display the result with the
                 program specified by the set pager option.

     pmlsd [remote-path]
                 Perform mlsd [remote-path], and display the result with the
                 and any mdelete will delete all files.

                 When prompting is on, the following commands are available at
                 a prompt:

                       a   Answer `yes' to the current file, and automatically
                           answer `yes' to any remaining files for the current

                       n   Answer `no', and do not transfer the file.

                       p   Answer `yes' to the current file, and turn off
                           prompt mode (as is ``prompt off'' had been given).

                       q   Terminate the current operation.

                       y   Answer `yes', and transfer the file.

                       ?   Display a help message.

                 Any other reponse will answer `yes' to the current file.

     proxy ftp-command
                 Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.
                 This command allows simultaneous connection to two remote FTP
                 servers for transferring files between the two servers.  The
                 first proxy command should be an open, to establish the sec­
                 ondary control connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to
                 see other FTP commands executable on the secondary connec­
                 tion.  The following commands behave differently when pref­
                 aced by proxy: open will not define new macros during the
                 auto-login process, close will not erase existing macro defi­
                 nitions, get and mget transfer files from the host on the
                 primary control connection to the host on the secondary con­
                 trol connection, and put, mput, and append transfer files
                 from the host on the secondary control connection to the host
                 on the primary control connection.  Third party file trans­
                 fers depend upon support of the FTP protocol PASV command by
                 the server on the secondary control connection.

     put local-file [remote-file]
                 Store a local file on the remote machine.  If remote-file is
                 left unspecified, the local file name is used after process­
                 ing according to any ntrans or nmap settings in naming the
                 remote file.  File transfer uses the current settings for
                 type, format, mode, and structure.

     pwd         Print the name of the current working directory on the remote

     quit        A synonym for bye.

                 (default: 1024) each time a given signal is received:

                       SIGUSR1  Increment maximum by increment bytes.

                       SIGUSR2  Decrement maximum by increment bytes.  The
                                result must be a positive number.

                 If maximum is not supplied, the current throttle rates are

                 Note: rate is not yet implemented for ascii mode transfers.

     rcvbuf size
                 Set the size of the socket receive buffer to size.

     recv remote-file [local-file]
                 A synonym for get.

     reget remote-file [local-file]
                 reget acts like get, except that if local-file exists and is
                 smaller than remote-file, local-file is presumed to be a par­
                 tially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is
                 continued from the apparent point of failure.  This command
                 is useful when transferring very large files over networks
                 that are prone to dropping connections.

     remopts command [command-options]
                 Set options on the remote FTP server for command to
                 command-options (whose absence is handled on a command-spe­
                 cific basis).  Remote FTP commands known to support options
                 include: `MLST' (used for MLSD and MLST).

     rename [from [to]]
                 Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

     reset       Clear reply queue.  This command re-synchronizes com­
                 mand/reply sequencing with the remote FTP server.  Resynchro­
                 nization may be necessary following a violation of the FTP
                 protocol by the remote server.

     restart marker
                 Restart the immediately following get or put at the indicated
                 marker.  On UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset
                 into the file.

     rhelp [command-name]
                 Request help from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name
                 is specified it is supplied to the server as well.

     rmdir directory-name
                 Delete a directory on the remote machine.

                 below).  The default value is off.

     send local-file [remote-file]
                 A synonym for put.

     sendport    Toggle the use of PORT commands.  By default, ftp will
                 attempt to use a PORT command when establishing a connection
                 for each data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent
                 delays when performing multiple file transfers.  If the PORT
                 command fails, ftp will use the default data port.  When the
                 use of PORT commands is disabled, no attempt will be made to
                 use PORT commands for each data transfer.  This is useful for
                 certain FTP implementations which do ignore PORT commands
                 but, incorrectly, indicate they've been accepted.

     set [option value]
                 Set option to value.  If option and value are not given, dis­
                 play all of the options and their values.  The currently sup­
                 ported options are:

                       anonpass    Defaults to $FTPANONPASS

                       ftp_proxy   Defaults to $ftp_proxy.

                       http_proxy  Defaults to $http_proxy.

                       no_proxy    Defaults to $no_proxy.

                       pager       Defaults to $PAGER.

                       prompt      Defaults to $FTPPROMPT.

                       rprompt     Defaults to $FTPRPROMPT.

     size remote-file
                 Return size of remote-file on remote machine.

     sndbuf size
                 Set the size of the socket send buffer to size.

     site arg1 arg2 ...
                 The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
                 server as a SITE command.

     status      Show the current status of ftp.

     struct struct-name
                 Set the file transfer structure to struct-name.  By default
                 ``stream'' structure is used.

     sunique     Toggle storing of files on remote machine under unique file
                 names.  The remote FTP server must support FTP protocol STOU
                 Set the file transfer type to type-name.  If no type is spec­
                 ified, the current type is printed.  The default type is net­
                 work ASCII.

     umask [newmask]
                 Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If
                 newmask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

     unset option
                 Unset option.  Refer to set for more information.

     usage command
                 Print the usage message for command.

     user user-name [password [account]]
                 Identify yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password
                 is not specified and the server requires it, ftp will prompt
                 the user for it (after disabling local echo).  If an account
                 field is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the
                 user will be prompted for it.  If an account field is speci­
                 fied, an account command will be relayed to the remote server
                 after the login sequence is completed if the remote server
                 did not require it for logging in.  Unless ftp is invoked
                 with ``auto-login'' disabled, this process is done automati­
                 cally on initial connection to the FTP server.

     verbose     Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all responses from the
                 FTP server are displayed to the user.  In addition, if ver­
                 bose is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics
                 regarding the efficiency of the transfer are reported.  By
                 default, verbose is on.

     xferbuf size
                 Set the size of the socket send and receive buffers to size.

     ? [command]
                 A synonym for help.

     Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted with quote `"'

     Commands which toggle settings can take an explicit on or off argument to
     force the setting appropriately.

     Commands which take a byte count as an argument (e.g., hash, rate, and
     xferbuf) support an optional suffix on the argument which changes the
     interpretation of the argument.  Supported suffixes are:
           b    Causes no modification. (Optional)
           k    Kilo; multiply the argument by 1024
           m    Mega; multiply the argument by 1048576
           g    Giga; multiply the argument by 1073741824

           If path contains a glob character and globbing is enabled, (see
           glob), then the equivalent of `mget path' is performed.

           If the directory component of path contains no globbing characters,
           it is stored locally with the name basename (see basename(1)) of
           path, in the current directory.  Otherwise, the full remote name is
           used as the local name, relative to the local root directory.

           An FTP URL, retrieved using the FTP protocol if set ftp_proxy isn't
           defined.  Otherwise, transfer the URL using HTTP via the proxy
           defined in set ftp_proxy.  If set ftp_proxy isn't defined and user
           is given, login as user.  In this case, use password if supplied,
           otherwise prompt the user for one.

           In order to be compliant with RFC 1738, ftp strips the leading `/'
           from path, resulting in a transfer relative from the default login
           directory of the user.  If the / directory is required, use a lead­
           ing path of ``%2F''.  If a user's home directory is required (and
           the remote server supports the syntax), use a leading path of
           ``%7Euser/''.  For example, to retrieve /etc/motd from `localhost'
           as the user `myname' with the password `mypass', use

           If a suffix of `;type=A' or `;type=I' is supplied, then the trans­
           fer type will take place as ascii or binary (respectively).  The
           default transfer type is binary.

           An HTTP URL, retrieved using the HTTP protocol.  If set http_proxy
           is defined, it is used as a URL to an HTTP proxy server.  If HTTP
           authorisation is required to retrieve path, and `user' (and option­
           ally `password') is in the URL, use them for the first attempt to

           A local URL, copied from /path.

     Unless noted otherwise above, and -o output is not given, the file is
     stored in the current directory as the basename(1) of path.

     If a classic format or an FTP URL format has a trailing `/' or an empty
     path component, then ftp will connect to the site and cd to the directory
     given as the path, and leave the user in interactive mode ready for fur­
     ther input.  This will not work if set ftp_proxy is being used.

     Direct HTTP transfers use HTTP 1.1.  Proxied FTP and HTTP transfers use
     HTTP 1.0.

     If -R is given, all auto-fetches that don't go via the FTP or HTTP prox­
     ies will be restarted.  For FTP, this is implemented by using reget
     will be halted by sending an FTP protocol ABOR command to the remote
     server, and discarding any further data received.  The speed at which
     this is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
     processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, the
     prompt will not appear until the remote server has completed sending the
     requested file.

     If the terminal interrupt key sequence is used whilst ftp is awaiting a
     reply from the remote server for the ABOR processing, then the connection
     will be closed.  This is different from the traditional behaviour (which
     ignores the terminal interrupt during this phase), but is considered more


     Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to
     the following rules.

     1.   If the file name `-' is specified, the stdin (for reading) or stdout
          (for writing) is used.

     2.   If the first character of the file name is `|', the remainder of the
          argument is interpreted as a shell command.  ftp then forks a shell,
          using popen(3) with the argument supplied, and reads (writes) from
          the stdout (stdin).  If the shell command includes spaces, the argu­
          ment must be quoted; e.g.  ``"| ls -lt"''.  A particularly useful
          example of this mechanism is: ``dir "" |more''.

     3.   Failing the above checks, if ``globbing'' is enabled, local file
          names are expanded according to the rules used in the csh(1); c.f.
          the glob command.  If the ftp command expects a single local file
          (e.g.  put), only the first filename generated by the "globbing"
          operation is used.

     4.   For mget commands and get commands with unspecified local file
          names, the local filename is the remote filename, which may be
          altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting filename
          may then be altered if runique is on.

     5.   For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote file
          names, the remote filename is the local filename, which may be
          altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may
          then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.


     The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file
     transfer.  The type may be one of ``ascii'', ``image'' (binary),
     ``ebcdic'', and ``local byte size'' (for PDP-10's and PDP-20's mostly).
     ftp supports the ascii and image types of file transfer, plus local byte
     size 8 for tenex mode transfers.

     ftp supports only the default values for the remaining file transfer
     parameters: mode, form, and struct.

     default   This is the same as machine name except that default matches
               any name.  There can be only one default token, and it must be
               after all machine tokens.  This is normally used as:

                     default login anonymous password user@site

               thereby giving the user an automatic anonymous FTP login to
               machines not specified in .netrc.  This can be overridden by
               using the -n flag to disable auto-login.

     login name
               Identify a user on the remote machine.  If this token is pre­
               sent, the auto-login process will initiate a login using the
               specified name.

     password string
               Supply a password.  If this token is present, the auto-login
               process will supply the specified string if the remote server
               requires a password as part of the login process.  Note that if
               this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other
               than anonymous, ftp will abort the auto-login process if the
               .netrc is readable by anyone besides the user.

     account string
               Supply an additional account password.  If this token is pre­
               sent, the auto-login process will supply the specified string
               if the remote server requires an additional account password,
               or the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT command if it
               does not.

     macdef name
               Define a macro.  This token functions like the ftp macdef com­
               mand functions.  A macro is defined with the specified name;
               its contents begin with the next .netrc line and continue until
               a blank line (consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.
               If a macro named init is defined, it is automatically executed
               as the last step in the auto-login process.


     ftp supports interactive command line editing, via the editline(3)
     library.  It is enabled with the edit command, and is enabled by default
     if input is from a tty.  Previous lines can be recalled and edited with
     the arrow keys, and other GNU Emacs-style editing keys may be used as

     The editline(3) library is configured with a .editrc file - refer to
     editrc(5) for more information.

     An extra key binding is available to ftp to provide context sensitive
     command and filename completion (including remote file completion).  To
     use this, bind a key to the editline(3) command ftp-complete.  By
                The trailing component of the current remote working direc­
                tory, or n trailing components if a digit n is given.  If n
                begins with `0', the number of skipped components precede the
                trailing component(s) in the format ``/<skipped>trailing''
                (for `%c') or ``...trailing'' (for `%.').

           %M   The remote host name.

           %m   The remote host name, up to the first `.'.

           %n   The remote user name.

           %%   A single `%'.


     ftp uses the following environment variables.

     FTPANONPASS    Password to send in an anonymous FTP transfer.  Defaults
                    to ```whoami`@''.

     FTPMODE        Overrides the default operation mode.  Support values are:

                    active   active mode FTP only

                    auto     automatic determination of passive or active
                             (this is the default)

                    gate     gate-ftp mode

                    passive  passive mode FTP only

     FTPPROMPT      Command-line prompt to use.  Defaults to ``ftp> ''.  Refer
                    to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.

     FTPRPROMPT     Command-line right side prompt to use.  Defaults to ``''.
                    Refer to COMMAND LINE PROMPT for more information.

     FTPSERVER      Host to use as gate-ftp server when gate is enabled.

     FTPSERVERPORT  Port to use when connecting to gate-ftp server when gate
                    is enabled.  Default is port returned by a getservbyname()
                    lookup of ``ftpgate/tcp''.

     HOME           For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.

     PAGER          Used by various commands to display files.  Defaults to
                    more(1) if empty or not set.

     SHELL          For default shell.

     ftp_proxy      URL of FTP proxy to use when making FTP URL requests (if
                    not defined, use the standard FTP protocol).


     getservbyname(3), editrc(5), services(5), ftpd(8)


     ftp attempts to be compliant with RFC 959, RFC 1123, RFC 1738, RFC 2068,
     RFC 2389, RFC 2428, RFC 2732, and draft-ietf-ftpext-mlst-11.


     The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.

     Various features such as command line editing, context sensitive command
     and file completion, dynamic progress bar, automatic fetching of files
     and URLs, modification time preservation, transfer rate throttling, con­
     figurable command line prompt, and other enhancements over the standard
     BSD ftp were implemented in NetBSD 1.3 and later releases by Luke Mewburn

     IPv6 support was added by the WIDE/KAME project (but may not be present
     in all non-NetBSD versions of this program, depending if the operating
     system supports IPv6 in a similar manner to KAME).


     Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by the
     remote server.

     An error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
     transfer code has been corrected.  This correction may result in incor­
     rect transfers of binary files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the ascii
     type.  Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.

     ftp assumes that all IPv4 mapped addresses (IPv6 addresses with a form
     like ::ffff: indicate IPv4 destinations which can be handled by
     AF_INET sockets.  However, in certain IPv6 network configurations, this
     assumption is not true.  In such an environment, IPv4 mapped addresses
     must be passed to AF_INET6 sockets directly.  For example, if your site
     uses a SIIT translator for IPv6-to-IPv4 translation, ftp is unable to
     support your configuration.

BSD                           September 28, 2000                           BSD
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