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eqn



SYNOPSIS

       eqn [ -rvCNR ] [ -dcc ] [ -Tname ] [ -Mdir ] [ -fF ]
           [ -sn ] [ -pn ] [ -mn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a  command  line
       option and its parameter.


DESCRIPTION

       This  manual  page describes the GNU version of eqn, which
       is part of the groff document formatting system.  eqn com­
       piles  descriptions  of  equations  embedded  within troff
       input files into commands that are  understood  by  troff.
       Normally,  it  should  be  invoked  using the -e option of
       groff.  The syntax is quite compatible with Unix eqn.  The
       output  of GNU eqn cannot be processed with Unix troff; it
       must be processed with GNU troff.  If no files  are  given
       on  the  command line, the standard input will be read.  A
       filename of - will cause the standard input to be read.

       eqn searches for the file eqnrc in the  directories  given
       with  the  -M  option  first, then in /usr/lib/groff/site-
       tmac, /usr/share/groff/site-tmac, and finally in the stan­
       dard  macro directory /usr/share/groff/1.17.2/tmac.  If it
       exists, eqn will process it before the other input  files.
       The -R option prevents this.

       GNU  eqn  does  not  provide the functionality of neqn: it
       does not support low-resolution,  typewriter-like  devices
       (although it may work adequately for very simple input).


OPTIONS

       -C     Recognize .EQ and .EN even when followed by a char­
              acter other than space or newline.

       -N     Don't  allow  newlines  within  delimiters.    This
              option  allows  eqn  to recover better from missing
              closing delimiters.

       -v     Print the version number.

       -r     Only one size reduction.

       -mn    The minimum point-size is n.  eqn will  not  reduce
              the size of subscripts or superscripts to a smaller
              size than n.

       -Tname The output is for device name.  The only effect  of
              this  is  to define a macro name with a value of 1.
              Typically eqnrc will use this  to  provide  defini­
              tions  appropriate  for  the  output  device.   The
              default output device is ps.

              This option is deprecated.  Normally eqn makes sets
              subscripts  and  superscripts at 70% of the size of
              the surrounding text.


USAGE

       Only the differences between GNU  eqn  and  Unix  eqn  are
       described here.

       Most  of  the  new  features  of GNU eqn are based on TeX.
       There are some references to the differences  between  TeX
       and  GNU  eqn below; these may safely be ignored if you do
       not know TeX.

   Automatic spacing
       eqn gives each  component  of  an  equation  a  type,  and
       adjusts  the  spacing  between components using that type.
       Possible types are:

       ordinary     an ordinary character such as 1 or x;

       operator     a large operator such as ¯>;

       binary       a binary operator such as +;

       relation     a relation such as =;

       opening      a opening bracket such as (;

       closing      a closing bracket such as );

       punctuation  a punctuation character such as ,;

       inner        a subformula contained within brackets;

       suppress     spacing  that  suppresses  automatic  spacing
                    adjustment.

       Components of an equation get a type in one of two ways.

       type t e
              This  yields  an equation component that contains e
              but that has type t, where t is one  of  the  types
              mentioned above.  For example, times is defined as

                     type "binary" \(mu

              The name of the type doesn't have to be quoted, but
              quoting protects from macro expansion.

       chartype t text
              Unquoted groups of characters  are  split  up  into
              individual characters, and the type of each charac­
              This is similar to over; smallover reduces the size
              of  e1  and  e2;  it  also puts less vertical space
              between e1 or e2 and the fraction  bar.   The  over
              primitive corresponds to the TeX \over primitive in
              display styles; smallover corresponds to  \over  in
              non-display styles.

       vcenter e
              This vertically centers e about the math axis.  The
              math axis is  the  vertical  position  about  which
              characters such as + and - are centered; also it is
              the vertical position used for  the  bar  of  frac­
              tions.  For example, sum is defined as

                     { type "operator" vcenter size +5 \(*S }

       e1 accent e2
              This  sets  e2 as an accent over e1.  e2 is assumed
              to be at the correct height for a lowercase letter;
              e2  will be moved down according if e1 is taller or
              shorter than a lowercase letter.  For example,  hat
              is defined as

                     accent { "^" }

              dotdot,  dot,  tilde, vec and dyad are also defined
              using the accent primitive.

       e1 uaccent e2
              This sets e2 as an accent under e1.  e2 is  assumed
              to be at the correct height for a character without
              a descender; e2 will be moved  down  if  e1  has  a
              descender.   utilde is pre-defined using uaccent as
              a tilde accent below the baseline.

       split "text"
              This has the same effect as simply

                     text

              but text is not subject to macro expansion  because
              it is quoted; text will be split up and the spacing
              between individual characters will be adjusted.

       nosplit text
              This has the same effect as

                     "text"

              but because text is not quoted it will  be  subject
              to  macro  expansion; text will not be split up and
              the spacing between individual characters will  not

       special text e
              This  constructs  a  new  object  from  e  using  a
              troff(1) macro  named  text.   When  the  macro  is
              called,  the  string 0s will contain the output for
              e, and the number registers 0w, 0h, 0d, 0skern  and
              0skew  will  contain the width, height, depth, sub­
              script kern, and skew of e.  (The subscript kern of
              an  object says how much a subscript on that object
              should be tucked in; the skew of an object says how
              far  to  the  right  of the center of the object an
              accent over the  object  should  be  placed.)   The
              macro  must  modify  0s  so that it will output the
              desired result  with  its  origin  at  the  current
              point, and increase the current horizontal position
              by the width of the object.  The  number  registers
              must  also  be  modified so that they correspond to
              the result.

              For example, suppose you wanted  a  construct  that
              `cancels'  an expression by drawing a diagonal line
              through it.

                     .EQ
                     define cancel 'special Ca'
                     .EN
                     .de Ca
                     .ds 0s \Z'\\*(0s'\v'\\n(0du'\D'l \\n(0wu -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du'\v'\\n(0hu'
                     ..

              Then you could cancel an  expression  e  with  can­
              cel { e }

              Here's  a  more  complicated construct that draws a
              box round an expression:

                     .EQ
                     define box 'special Bx'
                     .EN
                     .de Bx
                     .ds 0s \Z'\h'1n'\\*(0s'\
                     \Z'\v'\\n(0du+1n'\D'l \\n(0wu+2n 0'\D'l 0 -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du-2n'\
                     \D'l -\\n(0wu-2n 0'\D'l 0 \\n(0hu+\\n(0du+2n''\h'\\n(0wu+2n'
                     .nr 0w +2n
                     .nr 0d +1n
                     .nr 0h +1n
                     ..

   Customization
       The appearance of equations is controlled by a large  num­
       ber of parameters. These can be set using the set command.

              minimum_size            eqn  will  not set anything
                                      at  a  smaller   point-size
                                      than this.  The value is in
                                      points.

              fat_offset              The fat primitive emboldens
                                      an equation by overprinting
                                      two copies of the  equation
                                      horizontally offset by this
                                      amount.

              over_hang               A  fraction  bar  will   be
                                      longer by twice this amount
                                      than  the  maximum  of  the
                                      widths of the numerator and
                                      denominator;    in    other
                                      words, it will overhang the
                                      numerator  and  denominator
                                      by at least this amount.

              accent_width            When   bar   or   under  is
                                      applied to a single charac­
                                      ter,  the line will be this
                                      long.   Normally,  bar   or
                                      under produces a line whose
                                      length is the width of  the
                                      object to which it applies;
                                      in the  case  of  a  single
                                      character,  this  tends  to
                                      produce a line  that  looks
                                      too long.

              delimiter_factor        Extensible  delimiters pro­
                                      duced  with  the  left  and
                                      right  primitives will have
                                      a combined height and depth
                                      of at least this many thou­
                                      sandths of twice the  maxi­
                                      mum  amount  by  which  the
                                      sub-equation    that    the
                                      delimiters  enclose extends
                                      away from the axis.

              delimiter_shortfall     Extensible delimiters  pro­
                                      duced  with  the  left  and
                                      right primitives will  have
                                      a combined height and depth
                                      not less than  the  differ­
                                      ence  of  twice the maximum
                                      amount by  which  the  sub-
                                      equation  that  the  delim­
                                      iters enclose extends  away
                                      ters.

              medium_space            This  amount  of  space  is
                                      automatically  inserted  on
                                      either side of binary oper­
                                      ators.

              thick_space             This  amount  of  space  is
                                      automatically  inserted  on
                                      either side of relations.

              x_height                The  height  of   lowercase
                                      letters  without  ascenders
                                      such as x.

              axis_height             The height above the  base­
                                      line of the center of char­
                                      acters such as + and -.  It
                                      is   important   that  this
                                      value is  correct  for  the
                                      font you are using.

              default_rule_thickness  This   should  set  to  the
                                      thickness of the \(ru char­
                                      acter,  or the thickness of
                                      horizontal  lines  produced
                                      with    the    \D    escape
                                      sequence.

              num1                    The over command will shift
                                      up   the  numerator  by  at
                                      least this amount.

              num2                    The smallover command  will
                                      shift  up  the numerator by
                                      at least this amount.

              denom1                  The over command will shift
                                      down  the denominator by at
                                      least this amount.

              denom2                  The smallover command  will
                                      shift  down the denominator
                                      by at least this amount.

              sup1                    Normally superscripts  will
                                      be  shifted  up by at least
                                      this amount.

              sup2                    Superscripts within  super­
                                      scripts  or upper limits or
                                      numerators   of   smallover
                                      this amount.

              sub2                    When  there  is both a sub­
                                      script and  a  superscript,
                                      the   subscript   will   be
                                      shifted down  by  at  least
                                      this amount.

              sup_drop                The  baseline  of  a super­
                                      script will be no more than
                                      this  much amount below the
                                      top of the object on  which
                                      the superscript is set.

              sub_drop                The baseline of a subscript
                                      will be at least this  much
                                      below  the  bottom  of  the
                                      object on  which  the  sub­
                                      script is set.

              big_op_spacing1         The  baseline  of  an upper
                                      limit will be at least this
                                      much  above  the top of the
                                      object on which  the  limit
                                      is set.

              big_op_spacing2         The  baseline  of  a  lower
                                      limit will be at least this
                                      much  below  the  bottom of
                                      the  object  on  which  the
                                      limit is set.

              big_op_spacing3         The   bottom  of  an  upper
                                      limit will be at least this
                                      much  above  the top of the
                                      object on which  the  limit
                                      is set.

              big_op_spacing4         The  top  of  a lower limit
                                      will be at least this  much
                                      below  the  bottom  of  the
                                      object on which  the  limit
                                      is set.

              big_op_spacing5         This  much  vertical  space
                                      will  be  added  above  and
                                      below limits.

              baseline_sep            The  baselines  of the rows
                                      in a pile  or  matrix  will
                                      normally be this far apart.
                                      In most cases  this  should

              matrix_side_sep         This  much  space  will  be
                                      added  at  each  side  of a
                                      matrix.

              draw_lines              If this is non-zero,  lines
                                      will  be drawn using the \D
                                      escape   sequence,   rather
                                      than  with  the  \l  escape
                                      sequence and the \(ru char­
                                      acter.

              body_height             The  amount  by  which  the
                                      height  of   the   equation
                                      exceeds  this will be added
                                      as extra space  before  the
                                      line  containing  the equa­
                                      tion   (using   \x.)    The
                                      default value is 85.

              body_depth              The  amount  by  which  the
                                      depth   of   the   equation
                                      exceeds  this will be added
                                      as extra  space  after  the
                                      line  containing  the equa­
                                      tion   (using   \x.)    The
                                      default value is 35.

              nroff                   If  this  is non-zero, then
                                      ndefine  will  behave  like
                                      define  and tdefine will be
                                      ignored, otherwise  tdefine
                                      will behave like define and
                                      ndefine  will  be  ignored.
                                      The   default  value  is  0
                                      (This is typically  changed
                                      to  1 by the eqnrc file for
                                      the  ascii,  latin1,  utf8,
                                      and cp1047 devices.)

              A  more  precise description of the role of many of
              these parameters can be  found  in  Appendix  H  of
              The TeXbook.

   Macros
       Macros can take arguments.  In a macro body, $n where n is
       between 1 and 9, will be replaced by the n-th argument  if
       the  macro  is  called  with arguments; if there are fewer
       than n arguments, it will be replaced by nothing.  A  word
       containing  a  left parenthesis where the part of the word
       before the left parenthesis has  been  defined  using  the
       define  command  will  be  recognized as a macro call with
              If  name  has  been  defined by define (or has been
              automatically defined because name  is  the  output
              device)  process  anything;  otherwise  ignore any­
              thing.  X can be any  character  not  appearing  in
              anything.

   Fonts
       eqn  normally  uses at least two fonts to set an equation:
       an italic font for letters, and a roman  font  for  every­
       thing  else.   The existing gfont command changes the font
       that is used as the italic font.  By default  this  is  I.
       The  font  that  is  used as the roman font can be changed
       using the new grfont command.

       grfont f
              Set the roman font to f.

       The italic primitive uses the current italic font  set  by
       gfont; the roman primitive uses the current roman font set
       by grfont.  There is also  a  new  gbfont  command,  which
       changes  the font used by the bold primitive.  If you only
       use the roman, italic and bold primitives to changes fonts
       within  an  equation, you can change all the fonts used by
       your equations just by using gfont, grfont and gbfont com­
       mands.

       You  can  control  which characters are treated as letters
       (and therefore set in italics) by using the chartype  com­
       mand described above.  A type of letter will cause a char­
       acter to be set in italic type.   A  type  of  digit  will
       cause a character to be set in roman type.


FILES

       /usr/share/groff/1.17.2/tmac/eqnrc
              Initialization file.


BUGS

       Inline  equations  will  be  set at the point size that is
       current at the beginning of the input line.


SEE ALSO

       groff(1), troff(1), groff_font(5), The TeXbook

Groff Version 1.17.2       27 June 2001                    EQN(1)
  

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