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       cpio  {-o|--create} [-0acvABLV] [-C bytes] [-H format] [-M
       message]       [-O       [[user@]host:]archive]        [-F
       [[user@]host:]archive]      [--file=[[user@]host:]archive]
       [--format=format] [--message=message]  [--null]  [--reset-
       access-time]   [--verbose]  [--dot]  [--append]  [--block-
       size=blocks] [--dereference]  [--io-size=bytes]  [--quiet]
       [--force-local]  [--rsh-command=command]  [--help] [--ver­
       sion] < name-list [> archive]

       cpio {-i|--extract} [-bcdfmnrtsuvBSV] [-C bytes] [-E file]
       [-H   format]  [-M  message]  [-R  [user][:.][group]]  [-I
       [[user@]host:]archive]     [-F      [[user@]host:]archive]
       [--file=[[user@]host:]archive]        [--make-directories]
       [--nonmatching] [--preserve-modification-time] [--numeric-
       uid-gid]  [--rename]  [-t|--list]  [--swap-bytes] [--swap]
       [--dot]    [--unconditional]     [--verbose]     [--block-
       size=blocks]  [--swap-halfwords] [--io-size=bytes] [--pat­
       tern-file=file]                          [--format=format]
       [--owner=[user][:.][group]]  [--no-preserve-owner] [--mes­
       sage=message]  [--force-local]   [--no-absolute-filenames]
       [--sparse]   [--only-verify-crc]   [--quiet]   [--rsh-com­
       mand=command]   [--help]   [--version]   [pattern...]   [<

       cpio       {-p|--pass-through}       [-0adlmuvLV]      [-R
       [user][:.][group]] [--null] [--reset-access-time] [--make-
       directories]  [--link] [--quiet] [--preserve-modification-
       time] [--unconditional]  [--verbose]  [--dot]  [--derefer­
       ence]   [--owner=[user][:.][group]]  [--no-preserve-owner]
       [--sparse] [--help]  [--version]  destination-directory  <


       This  manual page documents the GNU version of cpio.  cpio
       copies files into or out of a cpio or tar  archive,  which
       is a file that contains other files plus information about
       them, such as their  file  name,  owner,  timestamps,  and
       access  permissions.   The  archive can be another file on
       the disk, a magnetic tape, or  a  pipe.   cpio  has  three
       operating modes.

       In  copy-out  mode, cpio copies files into an archive.  It
       reads a list of filenames, one per line, on  the  standard
       input, and writes the archive onto the standard output.  A
       typical way to generate the list of filenames is with  the
       find  command;  you  should give find the -depth option to
       minimize problems with permissions on directories that are
       unwritable or not searchable.

       In  copy-in  mode,  cpio copies files out of an archive or
       lists the archive contents.  It reads the archive from the
       cpio supports the following archive formats:  binary,  old
       ASCII,  new  ASCII,  crc, HPUX binary, HPUX old ASCII, old
       tar, and POSIX.1  tar.   The  binary  format  is  obsolete
       because  it  encodes  information about the files in a way
       that is not portable between different  machine  architec­
       tures.  The old ASCII format is portable between different
       machine architectures, but should not be used on file sys­
       tems  with  more than 65536 i-nodes.  The new ASCII format
       is portable between different  machine  architectures  and
       can  be used on any size file system, but is not supported
       by all versions of cpio; currently, it is  only  supported
       by  GNU  and Unix System V R4.  The crc format is like the
       new ASCII format, but also contains a  checksum  for  each
       file  which  cpio  calculates when creating an archive and
       verifies when the file is extracted from the archive.  The
       HPUX  formats  are  provided for compatibility with HPUX's
       cpio which stores device files differently.

       The tar format is provided for compatability with the  tar
       program.   It  can not be used to archive files with names
       longer than 100 characters, and can not be used to archive
       "special" (block or character devices) files.  The POSIX.1
       tar format can not be used to  archive  files  with  names
       longer than 255 characters (less unless they have a "/" in
       just the right place).

       By default, cpio creates binary format archives, for  com­
       patibility with older cpio programs.  When extracting from
       archives, cpio  automatically  recognizes  which  kind  of
       archive  it  is  reading  and can read archives created on
       machines with a different byte-order.

       Some of the options to cpio apply only to certain  operat­
       ing  modes;  see  the SYNOPSIS section for a list of which
       options are allowed in which modes.

       -0, --null
              In copy-out and copy-pass modes,  read  a  list  of
              filenames terminated by a null character instead of
              a newline, so that files whose names  contain  new­
              lines can be archived.  GNU find is one way to pro­
              duce a list of null-terminated filenames.

       -a, --reset-access-time
              Reset the access times of files after reading them,
              so  that  it does not look like they have just been

       -A, --append
              Append to an existing archive.  Only works in copy-
              out  mode.   The archive must be a disk file speci­

       -c     Identical to "-H newc", use the new (SVR4) portable
              format.   If  you  wish  the  old  portable (ASCII)
              archive format, use "-H odc" instead.

       -C IO-SIZE, --io-size=IO-SIZE
              Set the I/O block size to IO-SIZE bytes.

       -d, --make-directories
              Create leading directories where needed.

       -E FILE, --pattern-file=FILE
              In copy-in mode, read additional patterns  specify­
              ing  filenames  to  extract or list from FILE.  The
              lines of FILE are treated as if they had been  non-
              option arguments to cpio.

       -f, --nonmatching
              Only  copy files that do not match any of the given

       -F, --file=archive
              Archive filename to use instead of  standard  input
              or  output.  To use a tape drive on another machine
              as the archive, use a  filename  that  starts  with
              `HOSTNAME:'.   The  hostname  can  be preceded by a
              username and an `@' to access the remote tape drive
              as that user, if you have permission to do so (typ­
              ically an entry in that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

              With -F, -I, or -O, take the archive file  name  to
              be  a local file even if it contains a colon, which
              would ordinarily indicate a remote host name.

       -H FORMAT, --format=FORMAT
              Use archive format FORMAT.  The valid  formats  are
              listed below; the same names are also recognized in
              all-caps.  The default in copy-in mode is to  auto­
              matically  detect  the archive format, and in copy-
              out mode is "bin".

              bin    The obsolete binary format.

              odc    The old (POSIX.1) portable format.

              newc   The new (SVR4) portable format,  which  sup­
                     ports file systems having more than 65536 i-

              crc    The new (SVR4) portable format with a check­
                     sum added.

              Run in copy-in mode.

       -I archive
              Archive filename to use instead of standard  input.
              To  use  a  tape  drive  on  another machine as the
              archive, use a filename  that  starts  with  `HOST­
              NAME:'.  The hostname can be preceded by a username
              and an `@' to access the remote tape drive as  that
              user, if you have permission to do so (typically an
              entry in that user's `~/.rhosts' file).

       -k     Ignored; for compatibility with other  versions  of

       -l, --link
              Link  files instead of copying them, when possible.

       -L, --dereference
              Dereference symbolic links  (copy  the  files  that
              they point to instead of copying the links).

       -m, --preserve-modification-time
              Retain previous file modification times when creat­
              ing files.

       -M MESSAGE, --message=MESSAGE
              Print MESSAGE when the  end  of  a  volume  of  the
              backup  media  (such as a tape or a floppy disk) is
              reached, to prompt the user to insert a new volume.
              If MESSAGE contains the string "%d", it is replaced
              by the current volume number (starting at 1).

       -n, --numeric-uid-gid
              In the verbose  table  of  contents  listing,  show
              numeric  UID  and  GID  instead of translating them
              into names.  Also extracts tar archives  using  the
              numeric  UID  and  GID  instead  of  the user/group
              names.  (cpio archives are always  extracted  using
              the numeric UID and GID.)

              In  copy-in  mode, create all files relative to the
              current directory, even if they  have  an  absolute
              file name in the archive.

              In  copy-in  mode and copy-pass mode, do not change
              the ownership of the files; leave them owned by the
              user extracting them.  This is the default for non-
              root users, so that users on System V  don't  inad­
              vertantly give away files.

              only verify the CRC's of each file in the  archive,
              don't actually extract the files.

       -p, --pass-through
              Run in copy-pass mode.

              Do not print the number of blocks copied.

       -r, --rename
              Interactively rename files.

       -R [user][:.][group], --owner [user][:.][group]
              In  copy-out and copy-pass modes, set the ownership
              of all files created to the specified  user  and/or
              group.  Either the user or the group, or both, must
              be present.  If the group is omitted but the ":" or
              "."  separator is given, use the given user's login
              group.  Only the super-user can change files'  own­

              Notifies  mt that it should use COMMAND to communi­
              cate with remote devices instead of /usr/bin/ssh or

              In  copy-in  and  copy-pass modes, write files with
              large blocks of zeros as sparse files.

       -s, --swap-bytes
              In copy-in mode, swap the bytes  of  each  halfword
              (pair of bytes) in the files.

       -S, --swap-halfwords
              In copy-in mode, swap the halfwords of each word (4
              bytes) in the files.

       -t, --list
              Print a table of contents of the input.

       -u, --unconditional
              Replace  all  files,  without  asking  whether   to
              replace existing newer files with older files.

       -v, --verbose
              List  the  files processed, or with -t, give an `ls
              -l' style table of contents listing.  In a  verbose
              table  of  contents  of  a  ustar archive, user and
              group names in the archive that do not exist on the
              local  system are replaced by the names that corre­
              spond locally to the numeric UID and GID stored  in
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