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       convert [ options ... ] input_file output_file


       Convert  converts  an input file using one image format to
       an output file with a differing image format. In addition,
       various  types of image processing can be performed on the
       converted image during  the  conversion  process.  Convert
       recognizes the image formats listed in ImageMagick(1).


       To make a thumbnail of a JPEG image, use:

           convert -size 120x120 cockatoo.jpg -resize 120x120
                   +profile "*" thumbnail.jpg

       In  this example, '-size 120x120' gives a hint to the JPEG
       decoder that the  image  is  going  to  be  downscaled  to
       120x120,  allowing  it to run faster by avoiding returning
       full-resolution images to ImageMagick for  the  subsequent
       resizing  operation.  The output image.  It will be scaled
       so its largest dimension is 120 pixels.  The that might be
       present in the input and aren't needed in the thumbnail.

       To  convert  a  MIFF  image  of a cockatoo to a SUN raster
       image, use:

           convert cockatoo.miff sun:cockatoo.ras

       To convert a multi-page PostScript document to  individual
       FAX pages, use:

           convert -monochrome document.ps fax:page

       To  convert  a TIFF image to a PostScript A4 page with the
       image in the lower left-hand corner, use:

           convert -page A4+0+0 image.tiff document.ps

       To convert a raw Gray image with a 128 byte  header  to  a
       portable graymap, use:

           convert -depth 8 -size 768x512+128 gray:raw

       In  this  example, "raw" is the input file.  Its format is
       "gray" and it has the  dimensions  and  number  of  header
       bytes  specified  by the -size option and the sample depth
       specified by  the  -depth  option.   The  output  file  is
       "image.pgm".  The suffix ".pgm" specifies its format.
           convert -font helvetica -fill blue
                   -draw "text 100,100 Cockatoo"
                   bird.jpg bird.miff

       To  tile  a  640x480  image with a JPEG texture with bumps

           convert -size 640x480 tile:bumps.jpg tiled.png

       To surround an icon with an ornamental border to use  with
       Mosaic(1), use:

           convert -mattecolor "#697B8F" -frame 6x6 bird.jpg

       To  create  a  MNG animation from a DNA molecule sequence,

           convert -delay 20 dna.* dna.mng


       Options are processed in command line  order.  Any  option
       you  specify on the command line remains in effect for the
       set of images that follows, until the set is terminated by
       the  appearance of any option or -noop.  Some options only
       affect the decoding of images and others only  the  encod­
       ing.  The latter can appear after the final group of input

       For a  more  detailed  description  of  each  option,  see

              join images into a single multi-image file

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transformation matrix

              remove pixel aliasing

              append a set of images

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

              average a set of images

       -background <color>
       -box <color>
              set the color of the annotation bounding box

       -cache <threshold>
              (This  option  has  been  replaced  by  the  -limit

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

       -charcoal <factor>
              simulate a charcoal drawing

       -chop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              remove pixels from the interior of an image

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

              merge a sequence of images

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

              enhance or reduce the image contrast

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve image with the specified convolution  ker­

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

       -cycle <amount>
              displace image colormap by amount

              depth of the image

              reduce the speckles within an image

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

       -draw <string>
              annotate  an  image with one or more graphic primi­

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

              apply a digital filter to enhance a noisy image

              perform histogram equalization to the image

       -extract <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              extract an area from the image while decoding

       -fill <color>
              color to use when filling a graphic primitive

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

              flatten a sequence of images

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{@} {!}{<}{>}
              preferred size and location of the Image window.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when  annotating
              the image.

       -green-primary <x>,<y>
              green chromaticity primary point

       -help  print usage instructions

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
              use this type of rendering intent when managing the
              image color

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

       -label <name>
              assign a label to an image

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

       -level <black_point>{,<white_point>}{%}{,<gamma>}
              adjust the level of image contrast

       -limit <type> <value>
              Disk, File, Map, or Memory resource limit

       -list <type>
              the type of list

       -log <string>

       -loop <iterations>
              add Netscape loop extension to your GIF animation

       -map <filename>
              choose a particular set of colors from this image

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one

              morphs an image sequence

              create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence

              replace every pixel with its complementary color

       -noise <radius|type>
              add or reduce noise in an image

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

              transform image to span the  full  range  of  color

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize  of  the PostScript, OPTION1, or TrueType

       -preview <type>
              image preview type

       -process <command>
              process a sequence of images

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

       -red-primary <x>,<y>
              red chromaticity primary point
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

       -sample <geometry>
              scale image with pixel sampling

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling factors used by JPEG or MPEG-2 encoder and
              YUV decoder/encoder.

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

       -seed <value>
              pseudo-random number generator seed value

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

       -sharpen <radius>{x<sigma>}
              sharpen the image

       -shave <width>x<height>{%}
              shave pixels from the image edges

       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

       -solarize <factor>
              negate all pixels above the threshold level

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

       -texture <filename>
       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

       -trim  trim an image

       -type <type>
              the image type

       -units <type>
              the type of image resolution

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

              use the pixmap

              print detailed information about the image

              print ImageMagick version string

       -view <string>
              FlashPix viewing parameters

       -virtual-pixel <method>
              specify contents of "virtual pixels"

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -write <filename>
              write  an image sequence [convert, composite]

              For a more detailed description of each option, see


       Use -segment to segment an image  by  analyzing  the  his­
       tograms of the color components and identifying units that
       are homogeneous with  the  fuzzy  c-means  technique.  The
       scale-space  filter  analyzes  the histograms of the three
       color components of the image  and  identifies  a  set  of
       classes.   The  extents  of each class is used to coarsely
       segment the image with thresholding.  The color associated
       with  each  class  is  determined by the mean color of all
       pixels within the extents of a particular class.  Finally,

       The  fingerprint defines intervals on the axis of the his­
       togram. Each interval contains either a minima or a maxima
       in  the  original  signal.  If  each  color component lies
       within the  maxima  interval,  that  pixel  is  considered
       "classified" and is assigned an unique class number.

       Any pixel that fails to be classified in the above thresh­
       olding pass is classified using the  fuzzy  c-Means  tech­
       nique.  It is assigned to one of the classes discovered in
       the histogram analysis phase.

       The fuzzy c-Means technique attempts to cluster a pixel by
       finding  the  local minima of the generalized within group
       sum of  squared  error  objective  function.  A  pixel  is
       assigned  to  the closest class of which the fuzzy member­
       ship has a maximum value.

       For additional information see: <bq>Young Won Lim, Sang Uk
       Lee,  ``On The Color Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on
       the Thresholding and the Fuzzy c-Means Techniques'',  Pat­
       tern  Recognition,  Volume  23,  Number  9, pages 935-952,


              To  get  the  default  host,  display  number,  and


       display(1),  animate(1), identify(1), ImageMagick(1), mon­
       tage(1), mogrify(1), composite(1)


       Copyright (C) 2003 ImageMagick Studio

       Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any  per­
       son obtaining a copy of this software and associated docu­
       mentation files ("ImageMagick"), to  deal  in  ImageMagick
       without  restriction,  including  without  limitation  the
       rights to use, copy, modify, merge,  publish,  distribute,
       sublicense, and/or sell copies of ImageMagick, and to per­
       mit persons to whom the ImageMagick is furnished to do so,
       subject to the following conditions:

       The  above  copyright  notice  and  this permission notice
       shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of


       John Cristy, ImageMagick Studio LLC,
       Glenn Randers-Pehrson, ImageMagick Studio LLC.

ImageMagick         Date: 2003/01/01 01:00:00          convert(1)



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