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       cdrecord [ general options ] dev=device [ track options  ]


       Cdrecord  is used to record data or audio Compact Discs on
       an Orange Book CD-Recorder.

       The  device  refers  to  scsibus/target/lun  of  the   CD-
       Recorder.  Communication  on  SunOS  is done with the SCSI
       general driver scg.  Other operating systems are  using  a
       library  simulation  of  this driver.  Possible syntax is:
       dev= scsibus,target,lun or dev= target,lun.  In the latter
       case,  the  CD-Recorder has to be connected to the default
       SCSI bus of the machine.   Scsibus,  target  and  lun  are
       integer numbers.  Some operating systems or SCSI transport
       implementations may require to specify a filename in addi­
       tion.   In this case the correct syntax for the device is:
       dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun or dev= devicename:tar­
       get,lun.   If  the  name  of the device node that has been
       specified on such a system  refers  to  exactly  one  SCSI
       device,  a shorthand in the form dev= devicename:@ or dev=
       devicename:@,lun may  be  used  instead  of  dev=  device­

       To  access  remote  SCSI  devices, you need to prepend the
       SCSI device name by a remote device indicator. The  remote
       device   indicator   is   either   REMOTE:user@host:  or
       A valid remote SCSI device name may be:  REMOTE:user@host:
       to     allow     remote     SCSI     bus    scanning    or
       REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the SCSI device  at  host
       connected to SCSI bus # 1,target 0 lun 0.

       To access SCSI devices via alternate transport layers, you
       need to prepend the SCSI device name by a transport  layer
       indicator.  The transport layer indicator may be something
       like USCSI: or ATAPI:.  To get a list of supported  trans­
       port layers for your platform, use dev= HELP:

       To  make cdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syn­
       tax dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred as  it
       hides  OS  specific  knowledge about device names from the
       user.  A specific OS may not necessarily support a way  to
       specify a real device file name nor a way to specify scsi­

       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses the the real time
       class to get the highest scheduling priority that is  pos­
       sible (higher than all kernel processes).  On systems with
       POSIX  real  time  scheduling  cdrecord  uses  real   time
       scheduling  too,  but  may  not be able to gain a priority
       that is higher than all kernel processes.

       In Track At Once mode, each track corresponds to a  single
       file  that  contains the prepared data for that track.  If
       the argument is `-',  standard  input  is  used  for  that
       track.  Only one track may be taken from stdin.


       General  options  must  be  before  any track file name or
       track option.

              Print version information and exit.

       -v     Increment the level of general  verbosity  by  one.
              This  is  used  e.g. to display the progress of the
              writing process.

       -V     Increment the verbose level in respect of SCSI com­
              mand  transport  by one.  This helps to debug prob­
              lems during the writing process, that occur in  the
              CD-Recorder.   If  you  get  incomprehensible error
              messages you should  use  this  flag  to  get  more
              detailed output.  -VV will show data buffer content
              in addition.  Using -V or -VV slows down  the  pro­
              cess and may be the reason for a buffer underrun.

       debug=#, -d
              Set  the  misc  debug  value to # (with debug=#) or
              increment the misc debug level by one (with -d). If
              you  specify -dd, this equals to debug=2.  This may
              help to find problems while opening  a  driver  for
              libscg  as  well  as  with  sector sizes and sector
              types.  Using -debug slows down the process and may
              be the reason for a buffer underrun.

       kdebug=#, kd=#
              Tell  the  scg-driver  to  modify  the kernel debug
              value while SCSI commands are running.

       -silent, -s
              Do not print out a status report  for  failed  SCSI

       -force Force  to  continue on some errors. Be careful when
              nect.  These systems will freeze while blanking  or
              fixating  a CD/DVD or while a DVD writer is filling
              up a session to the  minimum  amount  (approx.  800
              MB).  Setting the -immed flag will request the com­
              mand to return immediately while the operation pro­
              ceeds  in background, making the bus usable for the
              other devices and avoiding the system freeze.  This
              is  an  experimental feature which may work or not,
              depending on the model of  the  CD/DVD  writer.   A
              correct  solution  would  be  to  set  up a correct
              cabling but there seem to be notebooks around  that
              have been set up the wrong way by the manufacturer.
              As it is impossible to fix this  problem  in  note­
              books, the -immed option has been added.

              A second experimental feature of the -immed flag is
              to tell cdrecord to try to wait  short  times  wile
              writing  to the media. This is expected to free the
              IDE bus if the CD/DVD writer and  the  data  source
              are  connected to the same IDE cable. In this case,
              the CD/DVD writer would otherwise usually block the
              IDE  bus for nearly all the time making it impossi­
              ble to fetch data from the source drive.  See  also
              minbuf= and -v option.

              Use  both  features  at your own risk.  If it turns
              out that it would make sense  to  have  a  separate
              option  for  the  the  wait  feature,  write to the
              author and convince him.

              The # minbuf= options allows to define the  minimum
              drive  buffer fill ratio for the experimental ATAPI
              wait mode that is intended to free the IDE  bus  to
              allow hard disk and CD/DVD writer to be on the same
              IDE cable.  As the wait mode currently  only  works
              when  the  verbose  option  -v  has been specified,
              cdrecord implies the verbose  option  in  case  the
              -immed  or  minbuf=  option  have  been  specified.
              Valid values for minbuf= are between 25 and 95  for
              25%...95% minimum drive buffer fill ratio.

       -dummy The  CD-Recorder  will  go through all steps of the
              recording process, but the laser is turned off dur­
              ing  this procedure.  It is recommended to run sev­
              eral tests before actually  writing  to  a  Compact
              Disk  or  Digital Versatile Disk, if the timing and
              load response of the system is not known.

       -dao   Set SAO (Session At Once)  mode  which  is  usually
              called  Disk  At  Once  mode.   This currently only
              works with MMC drives that support Session At  Once
              in a sector size of 2448 bytes.  This is  the  pre­
              ferred  raw  writing  mode as it gives best control
              over the CD writing process.  If you find any prob­
              lems  with the layout of a disk or with sub channel
              content (e.g. wrong times on the display when play­
              ing  the  CD)  and  your drive supports to write in
              -raw96r or -raw16 mode, you should give it  a  try.
              There are several CD writers with bad firmware that
              result in broken disks when writing in TAO  or  SAO
              mode.  Writing data disks in raw mode needs signif­
              icantly more CPU time than other  write  modes.  If
              your  CPU  is  too  slow, this may result in buffer
              underruns.  Note that cdrecord needs  to  know  the
              size  of  each  track in advance for this mode (see
              the mkisofs -print-size  option  and  the  EXAMPLES
              section for more information).

              Select  Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte sectors
              plus 96 bytes of packed P-W subchannel data result­
              ing  in  a  sector size of 2448 bytes.  This is the
              less preferred raw  writing  mode  as  only  a  few
              recorders  support  it  and some of these recorders
              have bugs in the  firmware  implementation.   Don't
              use  this mode if your recorder supports -raw96r or
              -raw16.  Writing data disks in raw mode needs  sig­
              nificantly more CPU time than other write modes. If
              your CPU is too slow, this  may  result  in  buffer
              underruns.   Note  that  cdrecord needs to know the
              size of each track in advance for  this  mode  (see
              the  mkisofs  -print-size  option  and the EXAMPLES
              section for more information).

       -raw16 Select Set RAW writing mode with 2352 byte  sectors
              plus  6 bytes of P-Q subchannel data resulting in a
              sector size of 2368 bytes.  If a recorder does  not
              support  -raw96r, this is the preferred raw writing
              mode.  It  does  not  allow  to  write  CD-Text  or
              CD+Graphics  but it is the only raw writing mode in
              cheap CD writers.  As these cheap writers  in  most
              cases  do  not  support  -dao mode.  Don't use this
              mode if your recorder  supports  -raw96r.   Writing
              data disks in raw mode needs significantly more CPU
              time than other write modes. If  your  CPU  is  too
              slow,  this  may  result in buffer underruns.  Note
              that cdrecord needs to know the size of each  track
              in  advance  for this mode (see the mkisofs -print-
              size option  and  the  EXAMPLES  section  for  more

       -multi Allow multi session CDs to be made. This flag needs
              to be present on all sessions of  a  multi  session
              disks  on  these  drives.  As long as cdrecord does
              not have a coder for  converting  data  sectors  to
              audio  sectors, you need to force CD-ROM sectors by
              including the -data option if you like to record  a
              multisession  disk  in  SAO  mode.   Not all drives
              allow multisession CDs in SAO mode.

              Retrieve multi session info in a form suitable  for
              mkisofs-1.10 or later.

              This  option  makes  only sense with a CD that con­
              tains at least one closed session and is appendable
              (not finally closed yet).  Some drives create error
              messages if you try to get the multi  session  info
              for a disk that is not suitable for this operation.

       -toc   Retrieve and print out the table of content or  PMA
              of a CD.  With this option, cdrecord will work with
              CD-R drives and with CD-ROM drives.

       -atip  Retrieve and print out the ATIP (absolute  Time  in
              Pre-groove)  info  of a CD/DVD recordable or CD/DVD
              re-writable media.  With this option, cdrecord will
              try  to retrieve the ATIP info. If the actual drive
              does not support to read the ATIP info, it  may  be
              that  only  a reduced set of information records or
              even nothing is displayed. Only a limited number of
              MMC compliant drives support to read the ATIP info.

              If cdrecord is able to retrieve the  lead-in  start
              time  for  the first session, it will try to decode
              and print the manufacturer  info  from  the  media.
              DVD  media does not have ATIP information but there
              is equivalent prerecorded information that is  read
              out and printed.

       -fix   The disk will only be fixated (i.e. a TOC for a CD-
              Reader will be written).  This may be used, if  for
              some  reason the disk has been written but not fix­
              ated. This option currently does not work with  old
              TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).

       -nofix Do  not  fixate  the disk after writing the tracks.
              This may be used to create an audio disk in  steps.
              An un-fixated disk can usually not be used on a non
              CD-writer type drive but there are audio CD players
              that will be able to play such a disk.

       -waiti Wait  for  input  to  become  available on standard
              input before trying to open the SCSI  driver.  This
              allows cdrecord to read it's input from a pipe even

       -eject Eject  disk  after  doing  the  work.  Some Devices
              (e.g. Philips) need to eject the medium before cre­
              ating  a  new disk. Doing a -dummy test and immedi­
              ately creating a real disk would not work on  these

              Set  the  speed factor of the writing process to #.
              # is an integer, representing  a  multiple  of  the
              audio  speed.   This  is about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM,
              about 172 KB/s for CD-Audio and about 1385 KB/s for
              DVD media.  If no speed option is present, cdrecord
              will try to get a drive specific speed  value  from
              the  file  /etc/default/cdrecord  and  if it cannot
              find one, it will try to get the  the  speed  value
              from  the  CDR_SPEED environment and later from the
              CDR_SPEED= entry in /etc/default/cdrecord.   If  no
              speed  value  could be found, cdrecord uses a drive
              specific default speed.  The default  for  all  new
              (MMC  compliant)  drives is to use the maximum sup­
              ported by the drive.  If you use speed=0 with a MCC
              compliant drive, cdrecord will switch to the lowest
              possible speed for drive and medium.   If  you  are
              using an old (non MMC) drive that has problems with
              speed=2 or speed=4, you should try speed=0.

              Blank a CD-RW and exit  or  blank  a  CD-RW  before
              writing. The blanking type may be one of:

              help        Display  a  list  of  possible blanking

              all         Blank the entire disk. This may take  a
                          long time.

              fast        Minimally  blank the disk. This results
                          in erasing the PMA,  the  TOC  and  the

              track       Blank a track.

              unreserve   Unreserve a reserved track.

              trtail      Blank the tail of a track.

              unclose     Unclose last session.

              session     Blank the last session.
       Not  all drives support all blanking types. It may be nec­
       essary to use blank=all if a  drive  reports  a  specified
              tects the need for formatting in this case and auto
              formats  the  medium  before it starts writing, the
              -format option  is  only  needed  if  you  like  to
              forcibly reformat a DVD+RW medium.

       fs=#   Set  the FIFO (ring buffer) size to #.  You may use
              the same method as in  dd(1),  sdd(1)  or  star(1).
              The  number representing the size is taken in bytes
              unless otherwise specified.  If a  number  is  fol­
              lowed  directly by the letter `b', `k', `m', `s' or
              `f',  the  size  is  multiplied   by   512,   1024,
              1024*1024,  2048  or 2352.  If the size consists of
              numbers separated by `x' or `*', multiplication  of
              the  two numbers is performed.  Thus fs=10x63k will
              specify a FIFO size of 630 kBytes.

              The size specified by the fs= argument includes the
              shared  memory  that  is needed for administration.
              This is at least one page of  memory.   If  no  fs=
              option  is  present,  cdrecord  will try to get the
              FIFO size value from the CDR_FIFOSIZE  environment.
              The default FIFO size is currently 4 MB.

              The FIFO is used to increase buffering for the real
              time writing process.  It allows to run a pipe from
              mkisofs  directly  into  cdrecord.   If the FIFO is
              active and a pipe from  mkisofs  into  cdrecord  is
              used  to  create a CD, cdrecord will abort prior to
              do any modifications on the disk  if  mkisofs  dies
              before  it  starts  writing.   The recommended FIFO
              size is between 4 and 32  MBytes.   As  a  rule  of
              thumb,  the  FIFO  size should be at least equal to
              the size of the internal buffer of the  CD-Recorder
              and no more than half of the physical amount of RAM
              available in the machine.  If the FIFO size is  big
              enough, the FIFO statistics will print a FIFO empty
              count of zero and the FIFO min fill  is  not  below
              20%.   It is not wise to use too much space for the
              FIFO. If you need more than 8 MB to write a  CD  on
              an  idle  machine, your machine is either underpow­
              ered, has hardware problems or  is  mis-configured.
              The  sun4c architecture (e.g. a Sparcstation-2) has
              only MMU page table entries for 16 MBytes per  pro­
              cess.  Using  more  than 14 MBytes for the FIFO may
              cause the operating system in this  case  to  spend
              much  time  to  constantly  reload  the MMU tables.
              Newer machines from Sun do not have this MMU  hard­
              ware  problem. I have no information on PC-hardware
              reflecting this problem.

              If you have buffer underruns  or  similar  problems
              and observe a zero fifo empty count, you have hard­
              time to find a better value by  experimenting  with
              the ts= option.

              Sets the SCSI target for the CD-Recorder, see notes
              above.  A typical device specification is dev=6,0 .
              If  a  filename  must be provided together with the
              numerical target  specification,  the  filename  is
              implementation  specific.   The correct filename in
              this case can be found in the system specific manu­
              als  of  the target operating system.  On a FreeBSD
              system without CAM support, you  need  to  use  the
              control  device  (e.g.   /dev/rcd0.ctl).  A correct
              device  specification   in   this   case   may   be
              dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@ .

              On  Linux,  drives  connected  to  a  parallel port
              adapter are mapped to a virtual SCSI bus. Different
              adapters  are  mapped  to different targets on this
              virtual SCSI bus.

              If no dev option is present, cdrecord will  try  to
              get the device from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

              If the argument to the dev= option does not contain
              the characters ',', '/', '@' or ':', it  is  inter­
              preted  as  an  label name that may be found in the
              file /etc/default/cdrecord (see FILES section).

              Set the grace time before starting to  write  to  #
              seconds.  Values below 2 seconds are not allowed.

              Set  the  default  SCSI  command timeout value to #
              seconds.  The default SCSI command timeout  is  the
              minimum timeout used for sending SCSI commands.  If
              a SCSI command fails due to a timeout, you may  try
              to raise the default SCSI command timeout above the
              timeout value of the failed command.  If  the  com­
              mand  runs correctly with a raised command timeout,
              please report the better timeout value and the cor­
              responding  command  to  the author of the program.
              If no timeout option is present, a default  timeout
              of 40 seconds is used.

              Allows  to  use a user supplied driver name for the
              device.  To get a  list  of  possible  drivers  use
              driver=help.   The reason for the existence of this
              option is to  allow  users  to  use  cdrecord  with
              drives that are similar to supported drives but not
              underrun  condition.   If the -dummy option is pre­
              sent, the simulation is not aborted in  case  of  a
              buffer underrun.

       driveropts=option list
              Set driver specific options. The options are speci­
              fied a comma separated list.   To  get  a  list  of
              valid options use driveropts=help together with the
              -checkdrive option.  Currently  implemented  driver
              options are:

                     Turn  the  support  for Buffer Underrun Free
                     writing on.  This only works for drives that
                     support  Buffer  Underrun  Free  technology.
                     This may be called: Sanyo BURN-Proof,  Ricoh
                     Just-Link,  Yamaha Lossless-Link or similar.

                     The  default  is  to  turn  BURN-Free   off,
                     regardless of the defaults of the drive.

                     Turn  the  support  for Buffer Underrun Free
                     writing off.

                     Turn on the Plextor  VariRec  writing  mode.
                     The  mandatory  parameter value is the laser
                     power offset and currently may  be  selected
                     from -2, -1, 0, 1, 2.  In addition, you need
                     to set the write speed  to  4  in  order  to
                     allow VariRec to work.

                     Turn  on the Yamaha Audio Master Q. R.  fea­
                     ture which usually  should  result  in  high
                     quality  CDs that have less reading problems
                     in Hi-Fi players.  As this is implemented as
                     a variant of the Session at Once write mode,
                     it will only work if you  select  SAO  write
                     mode  and  there  is no need to turn it off.
                     The Audio Master mode will work with a  lim­
                     ited  speed  but  may also be used with data
                     CDs. in Audio Master mode, the pits  on  the
                     CD  will be written larger then usual so the
                     capacity of the medium is reduced when turn­
                     ing  this  feature  on.  A 74 minute CD will
                     only have a capacity of 63 minutes if  Audio
                     Master  is  active  and the capacity of a 80
                     minute CD will be reduced to 68 minutes.

                     Use this option with extreme care  and  note
                     that  the  drive  should  know  better which
                     medium will work at full speed.  The default
                     is to turn forcespeed off, regardless of the
                     defaults of the drive.

                     Turn off the force speed feature.

                     Some ultra high speed drives such as 48x and
                     faster  drives  from  Plextor limit the read
                     speed for unknown media to e.g. 40x in order
                     to  avoid  damaged  disks and drives.  Using
                     this option tells  the  drive  to  read  any
                     media  as fast as possible.  Be very careful
                     as this may cause the media to break in  the
                     drive  while reading, resulting in a damaged
                     media and drive!

                     Turn off unlimited read speed.

                     Turn the drive into a  single  session  only
                     drive.   This  allows  to  read defective or
                     non-compliant (illegal) media with extremely
                     non-standard additional (broken/illegal) TOC
                     entries in the TOC from the second or higher
                     session.  Some  of these disks become usable
                     if only the information from the first  ses­
                     sion  is  used.   You  need to enable Single
                     Session mode before you insert the defective

                     Turn off single session mode. The drive will
                     again behave as usual.

                     Hide the fact  that  a  medium  might  be  a
                     recordable  medium.  This allows to make CD-
                     Rs  look  like  CD-ROMs   and   applications
                     believe that the media in the drive is not a

                     Turn off hiding CD-R media.

                     Use this option together with -checkdrive to
                     retrieve  the image size information for the
                     previous  call  to tattoofile=name .  If the
                     size of the image equals the maximum  possi­
                     ble  size  (3744 x 320 pixel), cdrecord will
                     use the first part of the file.  This  first
                     part  then  will  be written to the leftover
                     space on the CD.

                     Note that the image must be mirrored  to  be
                     readable from the pick up side of the CD.

              Set  the  driveropts specified by driveropts=option
              list, the speed of the drive and the dummy flag and
              exit.   This  allows cdrecord to set drive specific
              parameters that are not directly used  by  cdrecord
              like  e.g.  single session mode, hide cdr and simi­

              Checks if a driver for the current drive is present
              and  exit.  If the drive is a known drive, cdrecord
              uses exit code 0.

       -prcap Print the drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compli­
              ant  drives as obtained from mode page 0x2A. Values
              marked with kB use 1000 bytes as kilo-byte,  values
              marked with KB use 1024 bytes as Kilo-byte.

       -inq   Do an inquiry for the drive, print the inquiry info
              and exit.

              Scan all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and  print
              the  inquiry  strings.  This  option may be used to
              find SCSI address of the CD-Recorder on  a  system.
              The  numbers printed out as labels are computed by:
              bus * 100 + target

       -reset Try to reset the SCSI bus where the CD recorder  is
              located. This works not on all operating systems.

       -abort Try to send an abort sequence to the drive.  If you
              use cdrecord only, this should never be needed; but
              other  software  may  leave  a drive in an unusable
              condition.  Calling cdrecord -reset may  be  needed
              if  a  previous  write has been interrupted and the
              software did not tell the drive that  it  will  not
              continue to write.

              Allow cdrecord to write more than the official size
              of a medium. This feature is usually  called  over­
              starting  to burn.  There is no guarantee that your
              drive supports overburning at all.  Make a test  to
              check if your drive implements the feature.

              Ignore  the  known size of the medium. This options
              should be used with extreme care,  it  exists  only
              for  debugging purposes don't use it for other rea­
              sons.  It is not needed to write  disks  with  more
              than  the  nominal  capacity.   This option implies

              Use *.inf files to  overwrite  audio  options.   If
              this option is used, the pregap size information is
              read from the *.inf file that  is  associated  with
              the  file that contains the audio data for a track.

              If used together with the -audio  option,  cdrecord
              may  be  used  to  write audio CDs from a pipe from
              cdda2wav if you call cdrecord with the *.inf  files
              as  track  parameter  list  instead  of using audio
              files.  The audio data is read from stdin  in  this
              case.   See EXAMPLES section below.  Cdrecord first
              verifies that stdin is not connected to a  terminal
              and  runs  some heuristic consistency checks on the
              *.inf files and then sets the  track  lengths  from
              the information in the *.inf files.

              If  you  like  to  write from stdin, make sure that
              cdrecord is called with a large enough  FIFO  size,
              reduce  the  write  speed to a value below the read
              speed of the source drive and switch the  burn-free
              option for the recording drive on.

              Set  the default pre-gap size for all tracks except
              track number 1.  This option currently  only  makes
              sense  with  the TEAC drive when creating track-at-
              once disks without the 2 second silence before each
              This option may go away in future.

              Set  Packet  writing mode.  This is an experimental

              Set the packet size to #, forces fixed packet mode.
              This is an experimental interface.

              sheet file contains  both  (binary  CDTEXTFILE  and
              text  based  SONGWRITER) entries, then the informa­
              tion based on the CDTEXTFILE entry will win.

              You need to use the -useinfo option in addition  in
              order  to  tell cdrecord to read the *.inf files or
              cuefile=filename in order to tell cdrecord to  read
              a CUE sheet file in addition.  If you like to write
              your own CD-Text information, edit the *.inf  files
              or the CUE sheet file with a text editor and change
              the fields that are relevant for CD-Text.

              Write CD-Text based on  information  found  in  the
              binary  file  filename.   This  file  must  contain
              information in a data format defined in the  SCSI-3
              MMC-2  standard  and in the Red Book. The four byte
              size header that is defined in the SCSI standard is
              optional and allows to make the recognition of cor­
              rect data less ambiguous.  This is the best  option
              to  be  used to copy CD-Text data from existing CDs
              that already carry CD-Text information. To get data
              in  a  format suitable for this option use cdrecord
              -vv -toc to extract the information from disk.   If
              both,  textfile=filename  and  CD-Text  information
              from   *.inf   or   *.cue   files   are    present,
              textfile=filename will overwrite the other informa­

              Take all recording related information from a  CDR­
              WIN  compliant  CUE sheet file.  No track files are
              allowed when this option is present and the  option
              -dao is currently needed in addition.


       Track options may be mixed with track file names.

              Set the International Standard Recording Number for
              the next track to ISRC_number.

              Sets an index list for the next  track.   In  index
              list  is a comma separated list of numbers that are
              counting from index 1. The first entry in this list
              must  contain a 0, the following numbers must be an
              ascending list of numbers (counting  in  1/75  sec­
              onds)  that  represent the start of the indices. An
              index list in the form: 0,7500,15000 sets  index  1
              to the start of the track, index 2 100 seconds from

              If  a filename ends in .au or .wav the file is con­
              sidered  to  be  a  structured  audio  data   file.
              Cdrecord  assumes  that  the file in this case is a
              Sun  audio  file  or  a  Microsoft  .WAV  file  and
              extracts  the audio data from the files by skipping
              over the  non-audio  header  information.   In  all
              other  cases,  cdrecord will only work correctly if
              the audio data stream does  not  have  any  header.
              Because  many structured audio files do not have an
              integral  number  of  blocks  (1/75th  second)   in
              length,  it  is often necessary to specify the -pad
              option as well.   cdrecord  recognizes  that  audio
              data  in  a  .WAV  file is stored in Intel (little-
              endian) byte order, and  will  automatically  byte-
              swap  the  data  if  the  CD recorder requires big-
              endian data.  Cdrecord will reject any  audio  file
              that  does  not  match the Red Book requirements of
              16-bit stereo samples in PCM coding at  44100  sam­

              Using  other structured audio data formats as input
              to cdrecord will usually work if the  structure  of
              the  data is the structure described above (raw pcm
              data in big-endian byte order).   However,  if  the
              data  format  includes  a  header,  you will hear a
              click at the start of a track.

              If neither -data nor -audio  have  been  specified,
              cdrecord  defaults to -audio for all filenames that
              end in .au or .wav  and  to  -data  for  all  other

       -swab  If  this  flag is present, audio data is assumed to
              be in  byte-swapped  (little-endian)  order.   Some
              types  of  CD-Writers e.g. Yamaha, Sony and the new
              SCSI-3/mmc drives require audio  data  to  be  pre­
              sented  in little-endian order, while other writers
              require audio data to  be  presented  in  the  big-
              endian  (network)  byte  order normally used by the
              SCSI protocol.  Cdrecord  knows  if  a  CD-Recorder
              needs  audio  data  in big- or little-endian order,
              and corrects the byte order of the data  stream  to
              match the needs of the recorder.  You only need the
              -swab flag if your data stream is in Intel (little-
              endian) byte order.

              Note  that the verbose output of cdrecord will show
              you if swapping is necessary to make the byte order
              of  the  input  data fit the required byte order of
              the recorder.  Cdrecord will not show  you  if  the
              -swab flag was actually present for a track.

              If  neither  -data  nor -audio have been specified,
              cdrecord defaults to -audio for all filenames  that
              end  in  .au  or  .wav  and  to -data for all other

       -mode2 If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are
              written in CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data size is a
              multiple of 2336 bytes.

       -xa    If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are
              written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 format. The data
              size is a multiple of 2048 bytes.   The  XA  sector
              sub  headers  will  be  created by the drive.  With
              this option, the write mode is the same as with the
              -multi option.

       -xa1   If  this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are
              written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 1 format. The data
              size  is  a  multiple of 2056 bytes.  The XA sector
              sub headers are part of the user data and  have  to
              be  supplied  by  the application that prepares the
              data to be written.

       -xa2   If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks  are
              written in CD-ROM XA mode 2 form 2 format. The data
              is a multiple of 2324 bytes.   The  XA  sector  sub
              headers will be created by the drive.

       -xamix If  this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are
              written in a way that allows a  mix  of  CD-ROM  XA
              mode 2 form 1/2 format. The data size is a multiple
              of 2332 bytes.  The XA sector sub headers are  part
              of  the  user  data  and have to be supplied by the
              application that prepares the data to  be  written.
              The  CRC  and  the  P/Q  parity ECC/EDC information
              (depending on the sector type) have to be  supplied
              by  the  application  that  prepares the data to be

       -cdi   If this flag is present, the TOC type for the  disk
              is  set  to  CDI.   This  only  makes sense with XA

              Use the ISO-9660 file system size as  the  size  of
              the  next track.  This option is needed if you want
              cdrecord to directly read the image of a track from
              a  raw  disk  partition or from a TAO master CD. In
              the first case the option  -isosize  is  needed  to
              limit  the  size  of  the CD to the size of the ISO
              filesystem.  In the second case the option -isosize
              -pad option has been used but the amount of padding
              may be less than the padding  written  by  mkisofs.
              Note  that if you use -isosize on a track that con­
              tains Sparc boot information, the boot  information
              will be lost.

              Note also that this option cannot be used to deter­
              mine the size of a file system if the multi session
              option is present.

       -pad   If  the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed
              data will be added to the end of this and each sub­
              sequent  data track.  In this case, the -pad option
              is superseded  by  the  padsize=  option.  It  will
              remain  however as a shorthand for padsize=15s.  If
              the -pad option refers to an audio track,  cdrecord
              will  pad  the  audio data to be a multiple of 2352
              bytes.  The audio data padding is done with  binary
              zeroes which is equal to absolute silence.

              -pad remains valid until disabled by -nopad.

              Set the amount of data to be appended as padding to
              the next track to #.  Opposed to  the  behavior  of
              the -pad option, the value for padsize= is reset to
              zero for each new track.  Cdrecord assumes a sector
              size  of  2048 bytes for the padsize= option, inde­
              pendent from the real sector size  and  independent
              from  the  write  mode.  The megabytes mentioned in
              the verbose mode output however  are  counting  the
              output  sector  size  which is e.g. 2448 bytes when
              writing in RAW/RAW96 mode.  See fs= option for pos­
              sible  arguments.  To pad the equivalent of 20 min­
              utes on a CD, you may write padsize=20x60x75s.  Use
              this  option  if  your CD-drive is not able to read
              the last sectors of a track or if you  want  to  be
              able  to  read  the  CD  on a Linux system with the
              ISO-9660 filesystem read ahead bug.   If  an  empty
              file  is  used  for  track data, this option may be
              used to create a disk  that  is  entirely  made  of
              padding.   This  may  e.g.  be used to find out how
              much overburning is possible with a specific media.

       -nopad Do not pad the following tracks - the default.

              Allow  all  subsequent  tracks  to violate the Read
              Book track length standard which requires a minimum
              track  length  of  4  seconds.  This option is only
              useful when used in  SAO  or  RAW  mode.   Not  all
              drivees support this feature. The drive must accept
              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse­
              quent  audio  tracks  will  indicate that the audio
              data has been sampled with 50/15 µsec pre-emphasis.
              The  data,  however is not modified during the pro­
              cess of  transferring  from  file  to  disk.   This
              option has no effect on data tracks.

              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse­
              quent audio tracks will  indicate  that  the  audio
              data  has  been mastered with linear data - this is
              the default.

       -copy  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse­
              quent  audio  tracks of the resulting CD will indi­
              cate that the  audio  data  has  permission  to  be
              copied without limit.  This option has no effect on
              data tracks.

              If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse­
              quent  audio  tracks of the resulting CD will indi­
              cate that the  audio  data  has  permission  to  be
              copied  only  once  for  personal use - this is the

       -scms  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse­
              quent  audio  tracks of the resulting CD will indi­
              cate that the audio data has no  permission  to  be
              copied anymore.

              If  the  master  image  for the next track has been
              stored on a raw disk, use this  option  to  specify
              the valid amount of data on this disk. If the image
              of the next track is stored in a regular file,  the
              size  of that file is taken to determine the length
              of this track.  If the track contains an  ISO  9660
              filesystem  image use the -isosize option to deter­
              mine the length of that filesystem image.
              In Disk at Once mode and with some drives that  use
              the  TEAC  programming  interface, even in Track at
              Once mode, cdrecord needs to know the size of  each
              track  before starting to write the disk.  Cdrecord
              now checks  this  and  aborts  before  starting  to
              write.   If  this  happens  you  will  need  to run
              mkisofs -print-size before and use the output (with
              `s'  appended)  as an argument to the tsize= option
              of cdrecord (e.g. tsize=250000s).
              See fs= option for possible arguments.

       To check the  resulting  file  before  writing  to  CD  on

           mount  -r  -F  fbk  -o type=hsfs /dev/fbk0:cdimage.raw

       On Linux:

           mount cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt

       Go on with:
           ls -lR /mnt
           umount /mnt

       If the overall speed of the system is sufficient  and  the
       structure  of  the filesystem is not too complex, cdrecord
       will run  without  creating  an  image  of  the  ISO  9660
       filesystem. Simply run the pipeline:

           mkisofs  -R  /master/tree  | cdrecord -v fs=6m speed=2
       dev=2,0 -

       The  recommended  minimum  FIFO  size  for  running   this
       pipeline  is  4 MBytes.  As the default FIFO size is 4 MB,
       the fs= option needs only be present if you want to use  a
       different FIFO size.  If your system is loaded, you should
       run mkisofs in the real time class too.  To raise the pri­
       ority of mkisofs replace the command

           mkisofs -R /master/tree
           priocntl -e -c RT -p 59 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on Solaris and by

           nice --18 mkisofs -R /master/tree

       on  systems  that  don't have UNIX International compliant
       real-time scheduling.

       Cdrecord runs at priority 59 on Solaris,  you  should  run
       mkisofs at no more than priority 58. On other systems, you
       should run mkisofs at no less than nice --18.

       Creating a CD-ROM without file system image  on  disk  has
       been  tested on a Sparcstation-2 with a Yamaha CDR-400. It
       did work up to quad speed when the machine was not loaded.
       A  faster machine may be able to handle quad speed also in
       the loaded case.

       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed, with  each
       dio, etc:

           cdrecord   -v   -dummy   dev=2,0   cdimage.raw  -audio

       To handle drives that need to know the  size  of  a  track
       before starting to write, first run

           mkisofs -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and then run

           mkisofs  -R  /master/tree  |  cdrecord speed=2 dev=2,0
       tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate way, first run

           cdda2wav dev=2,0 -vall cddb=0 -B -Owav

       and then run

           cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -useinfo -text  *.wav

       This  will  try  copy  track  indices  and to read CD-Text
       information from disk.  If there is  no  CD-Text  informa­
       tion,  cdda2wav  will  try  to  get  the  information from
       freedb.org instead.

       To copy an audio CD  from  a  pipe  (without  intermediate
       files), first run

           cdda2wav dev=1,0 -vall cddb=0 -info-only

       and then run

           cdda2wav dev=1,0 -no-infofile -B -Oraw - | \
           cdrecord dev=2,0 -v -dao -audio -useinfo -text *.inf

       This  will get all information (including track size info)
       from the *.inf files and then read  the  audio  data  from

       If  you  like to write from stdin, make sure that cdrecord
       is called with a large enough FIFO size  (e.g.   fs=128m),
       reduce  the write speed to a value below the read speed of
       the source drive (e.g.  speed=12), and  switch  the  burn-
       free   option   for  the  recording  drive  on  by  adding


              If  this environment variable is set, cdrecord will
              allow you to write at the full RAW encoding speed a
              single  CPU supports.  This will create high poten­
              tial of buffer underruns. Use with care.

       RSH    If the RSH environment is present, the remote  con­
              nection  will  not  be  created  via rcmd(3) but by
              calling the program pointed to by  RSH.   Use  e.g.
              RSH=/usr/bin/ssh  to  create a secure shell connec­

              Note that this forces cdrecord to create a pipe  to
              the   rsh(1)  program  and  disallows  cdrecord  to
              directly access the network socket  to  the  remote
              server.  This makes it impossible to set up perfor­
              mance parameters and slows down the connection com­
              pared to a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If  the  RSCSI  environment  is present, the remote
              SCSI   server   will    not    be    the    program
              /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the program pointed to
              by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server program
              name will be ignored if you log in using an account
              that has been created with  a  remote  SCSI  server
              program as login shell.


              Default values can be set for the following options
              in /etc/default/cdrecord.  For example:  CDR_FIFOS­
              IZE=8m or CDR_SPEED=2

                     This  may  either  hold  a device identifier
                     that is suitable to the  open  call  of  the
                     SCSI  transport  library  or  a label in the
                     file /etc/default/cdrecord  that  allows  to
                     identify a specific drive on the system.

                     Sets  the  default  speed  value for writing
                     (see also -speed option).

                     Sets the default size of the FIFO (see  also
                     fs=# option).

              Any other label
                     teac1= 0,5,0   4    8m

                     yamaha= 1,6,0  -1   -1

                     This tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1
                     is  at scsibus 0, target 5, lun 0 and should
                     be used with speed 4 and a FIFO  size  of  8
                     MB.   A second drive may be found at scsibus
                     1, target 6, lun  0  and  uses  the  default
                     speed and the default FIFO size.


       cdda2wav(1),   readcd(1),   scg(7),   fbk(7),  mkisofs(8),
       rcmd(3), ssh(1).


       On Solaris you need to stop the volume management  if  you
       like  to  use the USCSI fallback SCSI transport code. Even
       things like cdrecord -scanbus will not work if the  volume
       management is running.

       Disks  made  in  Track  At Once mode are not suitable as a
       master for direct mass  production  by  CD  manufacturers.
       You  will  need  the  disk  at  once option to record such
       disks.  Nevertheless the disks made in Track At Once  will
       normally  be  read  in  all  CD players. Some old audio CD
       players however may produce a two second click between two
       audio tracks.

       The  minimal  size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors.
       If you write smaller  tracks,  the  CD-Recorder  will  add
       dummy  blocks. This is not an error, even though the SCSI-
       error message looks this way.

       Cdrecord has been tested on an  upgraded  Philips  CDD-521
       recorder  at  single  and  double  speed on a SparcStation
       20/502 with no problems, slower  computer  systems  should
       work also.  The newer Philips/HP/Plasmon/Grundig drives as
       well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102 work also. The  Plasmon
       RF-4100  work,  but  has  not  tested in multi session.  A
       Philips CDD-521 that has not been upgraded will not  work.
       The Sony CDU-924 has been tested, but does not support XA-
       mode2 in hardware.  The Sony therefore cannot create  con­
       forming  multi  session  disks.  The Ricoh RO-1420C works,
       but some people seem to have problems  to  use  them  with
       speed=2, try speed=0 in this case.

       The  Yamaha  CDR-400  and  all  new  SCSI-3/mmc conforming
       drives are supported in single and multi-session.

           cdrecord -dummy dev=2,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is  entirely  made  of  dummy  data.
       Cdrecord  needs  to  run  as  root  to  get  access to the
       /dev/scg?  device nodes and to be able to lock itself into

       If  you  don't  want to allow users to become root on your
       system, cdrecord may safely be installed suid  root.  This
       allows  all  users or a group of users with no root privi­
       leges to use cdrecord.  Cdrecord in this case  checks,  if
       the  real  user would have been able to read the specified
       files.  To give all user access to use cdrecord, enter:

            chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
            chmod 4711 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       To give a restricted group of  users  access  to  cdrecord

            chown root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
            chgrp cdburners /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
            chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never  give  write  permissions  for non root users to the
       /dev/scg?  devices  unless  you  would  allow  anybody  to
       read/write/format all your disks.

       You should not connect old drives that do not support dis­
       connect/reconnect to either the SCSI bus that is connected
       to the CD-Recorder or the source disk.

       A Compact Disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When  creating a disc with both audio and data tracks, the
       data should be on track 1 otherwise you  should  create  a
       CDplus  disk  which is a multi session disk with the first
       session containing the audio tracks and the following ses­
       sion containing the data track.

       Many  operating  systems  are not able to read more than a
       single data track, or need special software to do so.

       More information on the SCSI  command  set  of  a  HP  CD-
       Recorder can be found at:


       If  you  have more information or SCSI command manuals for
       currently  unsupported  CD-Recorders  please  contact  the

       ·      It cannot get the SCSI status byte.   Cdrecord  for
              that  reason cannot report failing SCSI commands in
              some situations.

       ·      It cannot get real DMA count of transfer.  Cdrecord
              cannot  tell you if there is an DMA residual count.

       ·      It cannot get number of bytes valid in  auto  sense
              data.  Cdrecord cannot tell you if device transfers
              no sense data at all.

       ·      It fetches  to  few  data  in  auto  request  sense
              (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3 needs >= 18).

       The  FIFO percent output is computed just after a block of
       data has been written to the CD-Recorder. For this reason,
       there  will  never be 100% FIFO fill, while the FIFO is in
       streaming mode.


       You have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord after  you
       see the message:

       Starting  to  write  CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s ses­

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks like:

              cdrecord: I/O error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  00 20 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: 70 00 05 00 00 00 00 0A 00 00 00 00 25 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical unit not supported) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk 0 (not valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       The first line gives information about  the  transport  of
       the  command.   The  text  after the first colon gives the
       error text for the system call from the view of  the  ker­
       nel.  It  usually is: I/O error unless other problems hap­
       pen. The next words contain a short  description  for  the
       SCSI command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if
       there were any problems for the transport of  the  command
       over the SCSI bus.  fatal error means that it was not pos­
       sible to transport the command (i.e. no device present  at
       the requested SCSI address).

       The  second  line prints the SCSI command descriptor block
       for the failed command.
       The sixth line is the error text for the  sense  code  and
       the  sense  qualifier  if  available.   If the type of the
       device is known, the sense data is decoded from tables  in
       scsierrs.c  .  The text is followed by the error value for
       a field replaceable unit.

       The seventh line prints the block number that  is  related
       to  the  failed  command and text for several error flags.
       The block number may not be valid.

       The eight line reports the timeout set up for this command
       and the time that the command really needed to complete.

       The following message is not an error:
              Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 2048/2048 (1 sectors).
              cdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi sendcmd: no error
              CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
              status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION)
              Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5 00 00 00 00 00
              Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment 0
              Sense Code: 0xB5 Qual 0x00 (dummy data blocks added) Fru 0x0
              Sense flags: Blk -2147483609 (valid)
              cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It  simply notifies, that a track that is smaller than the
       minimum size has been expanded to 300 sectors.


       Cdrecord has even more options than ls.

       There should be a recover option  to  make  disks  usable,
       that have been written during a power failure.


       Bill Swartz    (Bill_Swartz@twolf.com)
                      For helping me with the TEAC driver support

       Aaron Newsome  (aaron.d.newsome@wdc.com)
                      For letting me develop Sony support on  his

       Eric Youngdale (eric@andante.jic.com)
                      For supplying mkisofs

       Gadi Oxman     (gadio@netvision.net.il)
                      For tips on the ATAPI standard

       Finn Arne Gangstad  (finnag@guardian.no)
                      For the first FIFO implementation.

       Dave Platt     (dplatt@feghoot.ml.org)
       Kenneth D. Merry (ken@kdm.org)
                      for  providing  the  CAM  port  for FreeBSD
                      together      with      Michael       Smith

       Heiko Eißfeldt (heiko@hexco.de)
                      for  making libedc_ecc available (needed to
                      write RAW data sectors).


       If you want to actively take part on  the  development  of
       cdrecord, you may join the developer mailing list via this


       The mail address of the list is: cdwrite@other.debian.org


       Joerg Schilling
       Seestr. 110
       D-13353 Berlin

       Additional information can be found on:

       If you have support questions, send them to:

       or cdwrite@other.debian.org

       If you have definitely found a bug, send a mail to:

       or schilling@fokus.fhg.de

       To subscribe, use:

       or  http://lists.berlios.de/mailman/listinfo/cdrecord-sup­

       The old cdwrite mailing list may be joined by sending mail


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