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       cdrdao          {show-toc|read-toc|read-cd|read-cddb|show-
       late|write|copy|blank}  [--device device] [--source-device
       device] [--driver driver-id]  [--source-driver  driver-id]
       [--simulate]  [--speed  writing-speed] [--blank-mode mode]
       [--datafile  file]  [--read-raw]   [--read-subchan   mode]
       [--tao-source]  [--tao-source-adjust link-blocks] [--fast-
       toc]  [--buffers  buffer-count]   [--multi]   [--overburn]
       [--eject]   [--swap]   [--session]   [--force]  [--reload]
       [--keepimage]   [--on-the-fly]   [--paranoia-mode    mode]
       [--with-cddb] [--cddb-servers server-list] [--cddb-timeout
       timeout] [--cddb-directory directory]  [--save]  [-n]  [-v
       verbose-level] toc-file


       cdrdao  creates audio and data CD-Rs in disk-at-once (DAO)
       mode driven by a description file called toc-file.  In DAO
       mode  it is possible to create non standard track pre-gaps
       that have other lengths than 2 seconds and contain nonzero
       audio  data.  This  is  for  example useful to divide live
       recordings into tracks where 2 second gaps would  be  kind
       of irritating.

       Instead  of  a  toc-file  a  cue  file  (used  by a famous
       DOS/Windows mastering tool) may be used. See the CUE FILES
       section for more details.


       The first argument must be one of the following commands:

              Print  out  a summary about what will be written to
              the CD-R.

              Analyze each track of the inserted CD and create  a
              toc-file  that  can  be used to make a more or less
              exact copy of the CD.  This command does  not  read
              out  the audio or data tracks, use read-cd for this

              You can specify a filename for the  data  file  via
              the --datafile option.

              Copies  all  tracks  of the inserted CD to an image
              file and creates  a  corresponding  toc-file.   The
              name of the image file defaults to "data.bin" if no
              --datafile option is given.

              Check if all data can be read from the audio  files
              that  are  defined in the toc-file.  This will also
              check the communication with the slave process that
              is  responsible  for  writing the audio data to the
              CD-recorder. Mainly used for testing.

              Shows information about the inserted CD-R.  If  the
              CD-R  has  an  open  session it will also print the
              start of the last and current session which is used
              by  mkisofs  to  create  an  image  for a second or
              higher session.

       msinfo Shows information required for creating multi  ses­
              sion  disks  with  mkisofs. The output is meant for
              processing by scripts.

       unlock Tries to unlock the recorder device after a  failed
              write or simulation run. If you cannot eject the CD
              after a cdrdao run try this command.

       blank  Blanks a CD-RW. The CD-RW is minimally  blanked  by
              default.  Use option --blank-mode to select another
              blanking mode.  Sometimes the blanking  speed  must
              be manually reduced for a successful blanking oper­
              ation. Use option --speed to select another  blank­
              ing speed.

              Like  write  but laser stays cold. It is a shortcut
              for write--simulate.

       write  Write the CD-R according to the  specifications  in
              the toc-file.

       copy   Performs  all  steps  to copy a CD. The device con­
              taining the source CD must be specified with option
              --source-device and the recorder device with option
              --device.  If only a single device is available the
              option  --source-device  must be omitted and cdrdao
              will prompt to insert the CD-R after  an  image  of
              the source CD was created.

              The  image file with name "cddata<pid>.bin" will be
              created in the  current  working  directory  if  no
              --datafile  option is given. The created image will
              be removed after it has been written.

              If option --on-the-fly is given no  image  file  is
              created  and  the  data will be directly piped from
              the reading device to the CD recorder.

       --driver driver-id:option-flags
              Force  usage  of  specified  driver  instead of the
              automatically determined driver.  Available  driver
              cdd2600,    plextor,   plextor-scan,   generic-mmc,
              generic-mmc-raw, ricoh-mp6200, yamaha-cdr10x, teac-
              cdr55,   sony-cdu920,   sony-cdu948,   taiyo-yuden,
              Specifying an illegal driver ID will give a list of
              available  drivers.   Option  flags  may be used to
              modify the behavior of some drivers. See README for

       --source-driver driver-id:option-flags
              Like  above  but used for the device specified with
              option --source-device.

       --speed value
              Set the writing speed to  value.   Default  is  the
              highest possible speed.

       --blank-mode mode
              Sets  the  blanking  mode. Available modes are full
              and minimal.  Please consider that the data of min­
              imally  blanked  disks may be easily recovered. Use
              the full blanking mode for completely  erasing  all
              data. The default blanking mode is minimal.

       --datafile file
              Used   for  read-toc,read-cd  and  copy.   Set  the
              default data file placed in the toc-file  by  read-
              toc.Use-toindicateSTDIN.   For commands read-cd and
              copy it specifies the name  of  the  created  image

              Only  used  for commands read-cd and read-toc.  All
              data sectors will be written as  2352  byte  blocks
              including  the  sector  header and L-EC data to the
              image file. The track mode will be set to MODE1_RAW
              or MODE2_RAW in the created toc-file.

       --read-subchan mode
              Used by commands read-cd, read-toc and copy.  Spec­
              ifies  the  type  of  sub-channel  data   that   is
              extracted  from  the  source  CD and written to the
              track image or copied to the destination CD.   Mode
              may  be  rw for reading packed R-W sub-channel data
              (de-interleaved and error corrected) and rw_raw for
              reading  raw  R-W  sub-channel  data (not de-inter­
              leaved, not error corrected, L-EC data included  in
              tracks. If you use this option with pressed CDs  or
              CDs written in DAO mode you will get wrong results.

       --tao-source-adjust link-blocks
              Specifies the number  of  link  blocks  for  tracks
              written in TAO mode. This option has only an effect
              if option --tao-source is given.

              Only used for command read-toc.  This  option  sup­
              presses  the  pre-gap length and index mark extrac­
              tion which speeds up the read-toc process. Standard
              2  second pre-gaps (but no silence!) will be placed
              into the toc-file. The resulting CD will sound like
              the  source  CD.  Only the CD player's display will
              behave slightly different in  the  transition  area
              between two tracks.

              This option might help, too, if read-toc fails with
              your drive otherwise.

       --buffers buffer-count
              Specifies the number of buffers that are  allocated
              to  avoid  buffer  under  runs.  The minimal buffer
              count is fixed to  10,  default  is  32  except  on
              FreeBSD  systems,  on  which  default  is 20.  Each
              buffer holds 1 second of audio data so that  divid­
              ing  buffer-count  by  the  writing speed gives the
              maximum time for which reading of audio data may be

              If  this  option  is  given the session will not be
              closed after the audio data is  successfully  writ­
              ten.  It  is  possible to append another session on
              such disks, e.g. to create a CD-EXTRA.

              By default cdrdao will not allow to write more data
              on  a  medium than specified by the current medium.
              This option allows to ignore this condition.

              Eject the CD-R after writing or write simulation.

       --swap Swap the byte order of all samples that are send to
              the CD-recorder.

       --session session-nr
              Used  for  read-toc and read-cd to specify the ses­
              sion which should be  processed  on  multi  session
              the drive. 1: Perform overlapped reading  to  avoid
              jitter. 2: Like 1 but with additional checks of the
              read audio data. 3:  Like  2  but  with  additional
              scratch detection and repair.

              The extraction speed reduces from 0 to 3.

              Default is the full paranoia mode (3).

              If  a  CD  is  copied with command copy this option
              will cause that the created image  is  not  removed
              after the copy process has finished.

              Perform  CD  copy  on  the  fly without creating an
              image file.

              Enables the automatic fetching of CDDB data for use
              as  CD-TEXT  data  for  commands copy, read-toc and

       --cddb-servers server-list
              Sets space or ',' separated list  of  CDDB  servers
              used  for  command  read-cddb or for commands where
              the --with-cddb option is active.  A  server  entry
              may have the following forms:

              Connect  to <server>, default cddbp port (888), use
              cddbp protocol.

              Connect to <server>, port <port>, use cddbp  proto­

              Connect  to  <server>,  default http port (80), use
              http protocol, url: <cgi-bin-path>.

              Connect to <server>, port <port>, use  http  proto­
              col, url: <cgi-bin-path>.

              Connect  to <proxy-server>, default http port (80),
              use          http          protocol,           url:

              Connect  to  <proxy-server>, port <proxy-port>, use

       --cddb-timeout timeout
              Sets the timeout in seconds used for connections to
              CDDB servers.

       --cddb-directory directory
              Specifies  the  local CDDB database directory where
              fetched CDDB records will be stored. If this option
              is  not  given  a  fetched  CDDB record will not be
              stored locally.

       --save Saves some of the current options to  the  settings
              file  "$HOME/.cdrdao".  See  section 'SETTINGS' for
              more details.

       -n     Suppresses the 10 second pause  before  writing  or

       -v verbose-level
              Sets  verbose  level.  Levels  > 2 are debug levels
              which produce a lot of output.


       The toc-file describes what data is written  to  the  CD-R
       and  allows  control  over track/index positions, pre-gaps
       and sub-channel information. It is a simple text file, use
       your favorite text editor to create it.

       A  toc-file  contains an optional header and a sequence of
       track specifications. Comments starting with '//' reaching
       until end of line can be placed anywhere.

       CATALOG "ddddddddddddd"
              Specifies  the  optional  catalog number of the CD.
              The string must contain exactly 13 digits.

       The following flags specify the type of session that  will
       be created. It is used to create the correct CD-TOC format
       and to check the consistency of the track  modes  for  the
       desired session type. If multiple flags are given the last
       one will take effect.

       CD_DA  The disc contains only audio tracks.

       CD_ROM The disc contains just mode 1 tracks or mode 1  and
              audio tracks (mixed mode CD).

              The  disc  contains  mode 2 form 1 or mode 2 form 2
              tracks. Audio tracks are allowed,  too.  This  type
              MODE1:  2048  bytes,  MODE1_RAW: 2352 bytes, MODE2:
              2336 bytes, MODE2_FORM1: 2048  bytes,  MODE2_FORM2:
              2324  bytes,  MODE2_FORM_MIX:  2336 bytes including
              the sub-header, MODE2_RAW: 2352 bytes.   The  <sub-
              channel-mode>  is  optional.  If given it specifies
              the type of sub-channel data for each  sector.  RW:
              packed  R-W  sub-channel  data (96 bytes, L-EC data
              will be generated if  required),  RW_RAW:  raw  R-W
              sub-channel data (interleaved and L-EC data already
              calculated,  96  bytes).  The   block   length   is
              increased by the sub-channel data length if a <sub-
              channel-mode> is  specified.   If  the  input  data
              length  is  not  a multiple of the block length  it
              will be padded with zeros.

       The following flags may follow the track start  statement.
       They  are used to set sub-channel information for the cur­
       rent track. Each flag is optional. If not given  the  fol­
       lowing  defaults  are  used:  copy  not  permitted, no pre
       emphasis, two channel audio, no ISRC code.

       [ NO ] COPY
              Sets or clears the copy permitted flag.

       [ NO ] PRE_EMPHASIS
              Sets or clears the  pre  emphasis  flag  (only  for
              audio tracks).

              Indicates  that  track  contains  two channel audio
              data (only for audio tracks).

              Indicates that track contains  four  channel  audio
              data (only for audio tracks).

              Sets ISRC code of track (only for audio tracks).
              C: country code (upper case letters or digits)
              O: owner code (upper case letters or digits)
              Y: year (digits)
              S: serial number (digits)

       An  optional  CD-TEXT  block that defines the CD-TEXT data
       for this track may follow. See the CD-TEXT  section  below
       for the syntax of the CD-TEXT block contents.

       CD_TEXT { ... }

       At  least  one  of the following statements must appear to
       specify the data for the current track. Lengths and  start
       positions  may  be  expressed in samples (1/44100 seconds)
              Adds zero data to data  tracks.  Must  be  used  to
              define  pre- or post-gaps between tracks of differ­
              ent mode.

       [ FILE | AUDIOFILE ] "<filename>" <start> [ <length> ]
              Adds the audio data of specified file to  the  cur­
              rent  audio  track. It is possible to select a por­
              tion of an audio file  with  <start>  and  <length>
              which  allows  non  destructive  cutting. The first
              sample of an audio file is addressed with <start> =
              0.  If  <length>  is  omitted or set to 0 all audio
              data from <start> until the end of file is used.

              Audio files may have raw or  WAVE  format  with  16
              bits  per  sample,  44.1 kHz sampling rate, stereo.
              Raw files must have  the  layout  'MSBLeft  LSBLeft
              MSBRight  LSBRight  ...'  (big  endian byte order).
              WAVE files are expected to have little endian  byte
              order. The option --swap reverses the expected byte
              order for all raw and WAVE  files.  Only  filenames
              with a ".wav" ending are treated as WAVE files, all
              other names are assumed to be raw audio files.  Use
              tools  like sox(1) to convert other file formats to
              supported formats.

              Specifying a "-" as filename causes data to be read
              from  STDIN. Currently only raw files are supported
              from STDIN.

              If you are unsure about  the  byte  order  of  your
              audio  files  try  the  command 'show-data'. If the
              byte order is correct you will see  a  sequence  of
              increasing or decreasing numbers for both channels.
              Otherwise numbers are jumping between very high and
              low values - high volume static.

       DATAFILE "<filename>" [ <length> ]
              Adds  data  from  given  file  to  the current data
              track. If  <length>  is  omitted  the  actual  file
              length will be used.

       FIFO "<fifo path>" <length>
              Adds  data  from specified FIFO path to the current
              audio or data track.   <length>  must  specify  the
              amount of data that will be read from the FIFO. The
              value is always in terms of bytes (scalar value) or
              in terms of the block length (MSF value).

       START [ MM:SS:FF ]
              Defines  the  length of the pre-gap (position where
              index switches from 0 to 1). If the  MSF  value  is
              omitted  the  current  track length is used. If the
              for audio tracks or
                ZERO MM:SS:FF
              for data tracks.

       Nothing     prevents    mixing    'DATAFILE'/'ZERO'    and
       'AUDIOFILE'/'SILENCE' statements within  the  same  track.
       The results, however, are undefined.

       The  end of a track specification may contain zero or more
       index increment statements:

              Increments  the  index  number  at  given  position
              within  the  track. The first statement will incre­
              ment from 1 to 2. The position is relative  to  the
              real track start, not counting an existing pre-gap.

   CD-TEXT Blocks
       A CD-TEXT block may be placed in  the  global  section  to
       define data valid for the whole CD and in each track spec­
       ification of a toc-file.  The global section must define a
       language  map  that  is  used  to map a language-number to
       country codes. Up to 8 different languages can be defined:

       LANGUAGE_MAP { 0 : c1  1 : c2  ...  7 : c7 }
              The  country  code  may  be an integer value in the
              range 0..255 or one of the following countries (the
              corresponding  integer  value  is  placed in braces
              behind the token): EN(9, English)
              It is just necessary to define a  mapping  for  the
              used languages.

       If  no  mapping  exists for a language-number the data for
       this language will be ignored.

       For each language a language block must exist that defines
       the actual data for a certain language.

       LANGUAGE  language-number  { cd-text-item cd-text-data cd-
       text-item cd-text-data ... }
              Defines the CD-TEXT items for given language-number
              which must be defined in the language map.

       The cd-text-data may be either a string enclosed by  "  or
       binary data like
            { 0, 10, 255, ... }
       where each integer number must be in the range 0..255.
              String data.

              String data. Message to the user.

              String  data:  Should only appear in the global CD-
              TEXT block. The format is usually: XY12345

       GENRE  Mixture of binary  data  (genre  code)  and  string
              data.  Should  only  appear  in  the global CD-TEXT
              block. Useful entries will be created by gcdmaster.

              Binary  data:  Optional table of contents 1. Should
              only appear in the global CD-TEXT block.

              Binary data: Optional table of contents  2.  Should
              only appear in the global CD-TEXT block.

              String  data:  This  item should only appear in the
              global CD-TEXT block. Was always an empty string on
              the CD-TEXT CDs I had access to.

       ISRC   String data: ISRC code of track. The format is usu­
              ally: CC-OOO-YY-SSSSS

              Binary data: Contains  summary  about  all  CD-TEXT
              data  and  should only appear in the global CD-TEXT
              block. The data will be  automatically  (re)created
              when the CD-TEXT data is written.

              If one of the CD-TEXT items TITLE, PERFORMER, SONG­
              WRITER, COMPOSER, ARRANGER, ISRC is defined for  at
              least  on track or in the global section it must be
              defined for all tracks and in the  global  section.
              If a DISC_ID item is defined in the global section,
              an ISRC entry must be defined for each track.

       Simple track without pre-gap with all audio data from WAVE
       file "data.wav":
            TRACK AUDIO
            FILE "data.wav" 0

       Standard  track with two second pre-gap, ISRC code and CD-
            TRACK AUDIO
            ISRC "DEXXX9800001"
            CD_TEXT {
              LANGUAGE 0 {
                TITLE "Track Title"
                PERFORMER "Performer"
                ISRC "DE-XXX-98-00001"
            PREGAP 0:2:0
            FILE "data.wav" 0

       Track with 10 second pre-gap containing  audio  data  from
       raw file "data.cdr":
            TRACK AUDIO
            FILE "data.cdr" 0
            START 0:10:0

       Composed  track  with  data  from different files. Pre-gap
       data and length is taken from "pregapdata.wav". The  first
       minute  of  "track.cdr" is omitted and two seconds silence
       are inserted at '2:0:0'. Index will be incremented after 2
       and 4 minutes past track start:
            TRACK AUDIO
            FILE "pregapdata.wav" 0
            FILE "track.cdr" 1:0:0 1:0:0
            SILENCE 0:2:0
            FILE "track.cdr" 2:0:0
            INDEX 2:0:0
            INDEX 4:0:0

       Mixed mode CD with a data track as first track followed by
       two audio tracks.
            TRACK MODE1
            DATAFILE "data_1"
            ZERO 00:02:00 // post-gap

            TRACK AUDIO
            SILENCE 00:02:00 // pre-gap
            FILE "data_2.wav" 0

            TRACK AUDIO
            FILE "data_3.wav" 0


       Cue files may be used wherever a toc-file is expected. The
       of cdrdao in that order:

       1. /etc/cdrdao.conf

       2. /etc/defaults/cdrdao

       3. $HOME/.cdrdao

       Command  line  options will overwrite the loaded settings.
       The settings file contains name - value pairs separated by
       a  colon.  String values should be enclosed by ". The file
       is automatically written if the command line option --save
       is  used  but  it  is also possible to modify it manually.
       Following values are defined:

              Device used for operations simulate,  write,  copy,
              blank, disk-info and unlock.  Corresponding option:

              Driver (including driver options) that is used  for
              operations  simulate, write, copy, blank, disk-info
              and unlock.  Corresponding option: --driver

              Specifies  writing  speed.  Corresponding   option:

              Specifies  fifo  buffers used for recording. Corre­
              sponding option: --buffers

              Device used for operations  read-toc,  read-cd  and
              copy.   Corresponding option: --device or --source-

              Driver (including driver options) used  for  opera­
              tions  read-toc,  read-cd  and copy.  Corresponding
              option: --driver or --source-driver

              Paranoia mode used for operations read-cd and copy.
              Corresponding option: --paranoia-mode

              CDDB  server  list  for  read-cddb.   Corresponding
              option: --cddb-servers

       process used  IPC  resources  may  not  be  released.  Use
       ipcs(8) and ipcrm(8) to delete them.


       Andreas Mueller mueller@daneb.ping.de


       gcdmaster(1),   cdrecord(1),  cdda2wav(1),  cdparanoia(1),
       sox(1), ipcs(8), ipcrm(8)

                           Oct 6, 2002                  CDRDAO(1)
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