Welcome to Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial
"The place where you learn linux"
Apress - Books for Professionals by Professionals

 Create an AccountHome | Submit News | Your Account  

Tutorial Menu
Linux Tutorial Home
Table of Contents

· Introduction to Operating Systems
· Linux Basics
· Working with the System
· Shells and Utilities
· Editing Files
· Basic Administration
· The Operating System
· The X Windowing System
· The Computer Itself
· Networking
· System Monitoring
· Solving Problems
· Security
· Installing and Upgrading
· Linux and Windows

Man Pages
Linux Topics
Test Your Knowledge

Site Menu
Site Map
Copyright Info
Terms of Use
Privacy Info
Masthead / Impressum
Your Account

Private Messages

News Archive
Submit News
User Articles
Web Links


The Web

Who's Online
There are currently, 60 guest(s) and 0 member(s) that are online.

You are an Anonymous user. You can register for free by clicking here




       cdda2wav [-c chans] [-s] [-m]  [-b  bits]  [-r  rate]  [-a
       divider]  [-t track[+endtrack]] [-i index] [-o offset] [-d
       duration] [-x] [-q] [-w] [-v optlist] [-V] [-Q]  [-J]  [-L
       cddbmode]  [-R]  [-P sectors] [-F] [-G] [-T] [-e] [-p per­
       centage] [-n sectors] [-l buffers]  [-N]  [-J]  [-H]  [-g]
       [-B]  [-D device] [-A auxdevice] [-I interface] [-O audio­
       type]  [-C  input-endianess]  [-E  output-endianess]   [-M
       count]  [-S  speed]  [-paranoia] [cddbp-server=servername]
       [cddbp-port=portnumber] [filename(s) or directories]


       cdda2wav can retrieve audio tracks from CDROM drives  (see
       README  for  a list of drives) that are capable of reading
       audio data digitally to the host (CDDA).


       -D device  --dev --device
              uses device as the source for  CDDA  reading.   For
              example  /dev/cdrom  for the cooked_ioctl interface
              and Bus,ID,Lun for the generic_scsi interface.  The
              device has to correspond with the interface setting
              (see below).  The setting of the environment  vari­
              able CDDA_DEVICE is overridden by this option.

       -A auxdevice  --auxdevice
              uses auxdevice as CDROM drive for ioctl usage.

       -I interface  --interface
              specifies   the   interface   for   CDROM   access:
              generic_scsi or (on  Linux,  and  FreeBSD  systems)

       -c channels  --channels
              uses  1  for  mono, or 2 for stereo recording, or s
              for stereo recording with both channels swapped.

       -s  --stereo
              sets to stereo recording.

       -m  --mono
              sets to mono recording.

       -x  --max
              sets maximum (CD) quality.

       -b bits  --bits-per-sample
              sets bits per sample per channel: 8, 12 or 16.

       -r rate  --rate
              sets rate in samples per second.   Possible  values

       -n sectors  --sectors-per-request
              reads sectors per request.

       -l buffers  --buffers-in-ring
              uses a ring buffer with buffers total.

       -t track+endtrack  --track
              selects the start  track  and  optionally  the  end

       -i index  --index
              selects the start index.

       -o offset  --offset
              starts  offset sectors behind start track (one sec­
              tor equivalents 1/75 seconds).

       -O  audiotype  --output-format
              can be wav (for wav files) or aiff  (for  apple/sgi
              aiff  files)  or aifc (for apple/sgi aifc files) or
              au or sun (for sun .au PCM files)  or  cdr  or  raw
              (for headerless files to be used for cd writers).

       -C endianess  --cdrom-endianess
              sets  endianess  of  the input samples to 'little',
              'big' or 'guess' to override defaults.

       -E endianess  --output-endianess
              sets endianess of the output samples to 'little' or
              'big' to override defaults.

       -d duration  --duration
              sets  recording  time in seconds or frames.  Frames
              (sectors) are indicated by a 'f' suffix  (like  75f
              for  75 sectors).  0 sets the time for whole track.

       -B  --bulk --alltracks
              copies each track into a seperate file.

       -w  --wait
              waits for signal, then start recording.

       -F  --find-extremes
              finds extrem amplitudes in samples.

       -G  --find-mono
              finds if input samples are in mono.

       -T  --deemphasize
              undo the effect of pre-emphasis in the  input  sam­

  |  disable | no information is given, warnings appear however               |
  |      all | all information is given                                       |
  |      toc | show table of contents                                         |
  |  summary | show a summary of the recording parameters                     |
  |  indices | determine and display index offsets                            |
  |  catalog | retrieve and display the media catalog number MCN              |
  |  trackid | retrieve and display all Intern. Standard Recording Codes ISRC |
  |  sectors | show the table of contents in start sector notation            |
  |   titles | show the table of contents with track titles (when available)  |
       -N  --no-write
              does not write to a file, it just reads (for debug­
              ging purposes).

       -J  --info-only
              does not write to a file, it just gives information
              about the disc.

       -L  cddb mode --cddb
              does a cddbp album- and track title lookup based on
              the cddb id.  The parameter cddb mode  defines  how
              multiple entries shall be handled.
    |Parameter | Description                                               |
    |        0 | interactive mode. The user selects the entry to use.      |
    |        1 | first fit mode. The first entry is taken unconditionally. |
              sets  the server to be contacted for title lookups.

              sets the port number to be used for title  lookups.

       -H  --no-infofile
              does not write an info file and a cddb file.

       -g  --gui
              formats  the  output  to  be better parsable by gui

       -M  count --md5
              enables calculation of MD-5  checksum  for  'count'
              bytes from a beginning of a track.

       -S  speed --speed
              sets  the  cdrom  device  to  one of the selectable
              speeds for reading.

       -q  --quiet
              quiet operation, no screen output.

       Defaults depend on the
              Makefile  and  environment  variable settings (cur­
              rently CDDA_DEVICE ).


       CDDA_DEVICE is used to set the  device  name.  The  device
       naming  is compatible with Jörg Schilling's cdrecord pack­

              is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

              is used for cddbp title lookups when supplied.

       RSH    If the RSH environment  variable  is  present,  the
              remote  connection  will not be created via rcmd(3)
              but by calling the program pointed to by RSH.   Use
              e.g.   RSH=/usr/bin/ssh  to  create  a secure shell

              Note that this forces cdda2wav to create a pipe  to
              the   rsh(1)  program  and  disallows  cdda2wav  to
              directly access the network socket  to  the  remote
              server.  This makes it impossible to set up perfor­
              mance parameters and slows down the connection com­
              pared to a root initiated rcmd(3) connection.

       RSCSI  If  the  RSCSI environment variable is present, the
              remote  SCSI  server  will  not  be   the   program
              /opt/schily/sbin/rscsi  but  the program pointed to
              by RSCSI.  Note that the remote SCSI server program
              name will be ignored if you log in using an account
              that has been created with  a  remote  SCSI  server
              program as login shell.


       cdda2wav uses the following exit codes to indicate various
       degress of success:

|       4 | write errors while writing one of the output files encountered.    |
|       5 | errors with soundcard handling (initialization/write).             |
|       6 | errors with stat() system call on the read device (cooked ioctl).  |
|       7 | pipe communication errors encountered (in forked mode).            |
|       8 | signal handler installation errors encountered.                    |
|       9 | allocation of shared memory failed (in forked mode).               |
|      10 | dynamic heap memory allocation failed.                             |
|      11 | errors on the audio cd medium encountered.                         |
|      12 | device open error in ioctl handling detected.                      |
|      13 | race condition in ioctl interface handling detected.               |
|      14 | error in ioctl() operation encountered.                            |
|      15 | internal error encountered. Please report back!!!                  |
|      16 | error in semaphore operation encountered (install / request).      |
|      17 | could not get the scsi transfer buffer.                            |
|      18 | could not create pipes for process communication (in forked mode). |


       cdda2wav is able to read parts of an audio CD or  multime­
       dia  CDROM  (containing  audio  parts) directly digitally.
       These parts can be written to a file,  a  pipe,  or  to  a
       sound device.

       cdda2wav  stands  for  CDDA  to WAV (where CDDA stands for
       compact disc digital audio and WAV is a sound sample  for­
       mat  introduced  by  MS  Windows).  It allows copying CDDA
       audio data from the CDROM drive into  a  file  in  WAV  or
       other formats.

       The latest versions try to get higher real-time scheduling
       priorities to  ensure  smooth  (uninterrupted)  operation.
       These  priorities  are  available  for super users and are
       higher than those of 'normal' processes. Thus  delays  are

       If  your  CDROM  is on device DEV and it is loaded with an
       audio CD, you may simply invoke cdda2wav  dev=DEV  and  it
       will  create  the sound file audio.wav recording the whole
       track beginning with track 1 in stereo at 16 bit at  44100
       Hz sample rate, if your file system has enough space free.
       Otherwise recording time will be limited. For details  see
       files README and README.INSTALL


              Most  of the options are used to control the format
              of the WAV file. In the following text all of  them
              are described.

       Select Device
              -D  device  selects  the  CDROM  drive device to be
              used.  The specifier given should correspond to the
              selected  interface  (see below).  CHANGE!  For the
              It has to match the device used for sampling.

       Select Interface
              -I interface selects the CDROM drive interface. For
              SCSI drives use generic_scsi (cooked_ioctl may  not
              yet be available for all devices): generic_scsi and
              cooked_ioctl.  The  first  uses  the  generic  SCSI
              interface,  the  latter uses the ioctl of the CDROM
              driver. The latter variant works only when the ker­
              nel driver supports CDDA reading. This entry has to
              match the selected CDROM device (see above).

       Enable echo to soundcard
              -e copies  audio  data  to  the  sound  card  while
              recording,  so  you  hear it nearly simultaneously.
              The soundcard gets the same data that is  recorded.
              This is time critical, so it works best with the -q
              option.  To use cdda2wav  as  a  pseudo  CD  player
              without  recording in a file you could use cdda2wav
              -q -e -t2 -d0 -N to play the  whole  second  track.
              This feature reduces the recording speed to at most
              onefold speed. You cannot  make  better  recordings
              than  your sound card can play (since the same data
              is used).

       Change pitch of echoed audio
              -p percentage changes the pitch of all audio echoed
              to  a sound card. Only the copy to the soundcard is
              affected, the recorded  audio  samples  in  a  file
              remain  the  same.   Normal  pitch,  which  is  the
              default, is given by 100%.  Lower percentages  cor­
              respond  to  lower  pitches, i.e.  -p 50 transposes
              the audio output one octave lower.   See  also  the
              script  pitchplay  as  an  example. This option was
              contributed by Raul Sobon.

       Select mono or stereo recording
              -m or -c 1  selects  mono  recording  (both  stereo
              channels  are  mixed),  -s  or -c 2 or -c s selects
              stereo recording. Parameter s will swap both  sound

       Select maximum quality
              -x  will set stereo, 16 bits per sample at 44.1 KHz
              (full CD quality).  Note that other format  options
              given later can change this setting.

       Select sample quality
              -b  8  specifies  8 bit (1 Byte) for each sample in
              each channel; -b 12 specifies 12 bit (2  Byte)  for
              each sample in each channel; -b 16 specifies 16 bit
              (2 Byte) for each sample in  each  channel  (Ensure
              thing between in steps of 0.5.  Option -R lists all
              available rates.

              To make the sound smoother at lower sampling rates,
              cdda2wav  sums  over n samples (where n is the spe­
              cific dividend). So for 22050 Hertz output we  have
              to sum over 2 samples, for 900 Hertz we have to sum
              over 49 samples.  This cancels higher  frequencies.
              Standard sector size of an audio CD (ignoring addi­
              tional information) is 2352 Bytes. In order to fin­
              ish  summing  for an output sample at sector bound­
              aries the rates above have to  be  choosen.   Arbi­
              trary  sampling rates in high quality would require
              some interpolation scheme, which  needs  much  more
              sophisticated programming.

       List a table of all sampling rates
              -R  shows  a  list  of  all  sample rates and their
              dividers. Dividers can range  from  1  to  50.5  in
              steps of 0.5.

       Select start track and optionally end track
              -t  n+m selects n as the start track and optionally
              m as the last track of  a  range  to  be  recorded.
              These  tracks  must  be from the table of contents.
              This sets the track where recording begins. Record­
              ing  can  advance  through  the following tracks as
              well (limited by the optional end track  or  other­
              wise depending on recording time). Whether one file
              or different files are then created depends on  the
              -B option (see below).

       Select start index
              -i  n  selects  the  index to start recording with.
              Indices other than 1 will invoke the index scanner,
              which will take some time to find the correct start
              position. An offset may be given additionally  (see

       Set recording time
              -d   n  sets  recording  time  to  n seconds or set
              recording time for whole track if  n  is  zero.  In
              order  to  specify the duration in frames (sectors)
              also, the argument can have an appended  'f'.  Then
              the  numerical  argument  is  to be taken as frames
              (sectors) rather than seconds.  Please note that if
              track ranges are being used they define the record­
              ing time as well  thus  overriding  any  -d  option
              specified times.

              Recording time is defined as the time the generated
              sample will play  (at  the  defined  sample  rate).
              track number and an extension corresponding to  the
              audio  format.  To record all audio tracks of a CD,
              use a sufficient high duration (i.e. -d99999).

       Set start sector offset
              -o sectors increments start sector of the track  by
              sectors.   By  this  option  you are able to skip a
              certain amount at the beginning of a track  so  you
              can  pick  exactly  the  part you want. Each sector
              runs for 1/75 seconds, so you have very  fine  con­
              trol.  If  your offset is so high that it would not
              fit into the current track, a  warning  message  is
              issued  and  the offset is ignored.  Recording time
              is not reduced.  (To skip introductory  quiet  pas­
              sages  automagically, use the -w option see below.)

       Wait for signal option
              -w Turning on this option will suppress all  silent
              output  at  startup,  reducing  possibly file size.
              cdda2wav will watch for any signal  in  the  output
              signal and switches on writing to file.

       Find extrem samples
              -F  Turning  on  this  option will display the most
              negative and the most positive sample  value  found
              during  recording  for  both  channels. This can be
              useful for readjusting the volume. The values shown
              are  not  reset at track boundaries, they cover the
              complete sampling process. They are taken from  the
              original  samples  and  have  the same format (i.e.
              they are independent of the  selected  output  for­

       Find if input samples are in mono
              -G  If this option is given, input samples for both
              channels will be compared. At the end of  the  pro­
              gram  the  result  is  printed.  Differences in the
              channels indicate stereo, otherwise when both chan­
              nels are equal it will indicate mono.

       Undo the pre-emphasis in the input samples
              -T  Some  older audio CDs are recorded with a modi­
              fied frequency response called  pre-emphasis.  This
              is  found  mostly in classical recordings. The cor­
              rection can be seen in the flags of  the  Table  Of
              Contents often. But there are recordings, that show
              this setting  only  in  the  subchannels.  If  this
              option is given, the index scanner will be started,
              which reads the q-subchannel of each track. If pre-
              emphasis  is  indicated  in  the  q-subchannel of a
              track, but not in the  TOC,  pre-emphasis  will  be
              assumed  to  be present, and subsequently a reverse
              files, but instead as mentioned above linear PCM is
              used. The byte order is msb,lsb to  be  compatible.
              The  default filename extension is '.au'.  The AIFF
              and the newer variant AIFC from the Apple/SGI world
              store  their samples in bigendian format (msb,lsb).
              In AIFC no compression is used.  Finally the  easi­
              est  'format',  the  cdr aka raw format. It is done
              per default in msb,lsb byte order  to  satisfy  the
              order  wanted by most cd writers. Since there is no
              header  information  in  this  format,  the  sample
              parameters  can  only  be identified by playing the
              samples on a soundcard  or  similiar.  The  default
              filename extension is '.cdr' or '.raw'.

       Select cdrom drive reading speed
              -S   speed  allows  to  switch the cdrom drive to a
              certain level of speed  in  order  to  reduce  read
              errors.  The argument is transfered verbatim to the
              drive.  Details  depend  very  much  on  the  cdrom
              drives.   An argument of 0 for example is often the
              default speed of the drive,  a  value  of  1  often
              selects single speed.

       Enable MD5 checksums
              -M   count enables calculation of MD-5 checksum for
              'count' bytes from the beginning of a  track.  This
              was introduced for quick comparisons of tracks.

       Use Monty's libparanoia for reading of sectors
              -paranoia  selects  an  alternate way of extracting
              audio sectors. Monty's library  is  used  with  the
              following default options:

              PARANOIA_MODE_FULL,  but without PARANOIA_MODE_NEV­

              for details see Monty's libparanoia  documentation.
              In this case the option -P has no effect.

       Do linear or overlapping reading of sectors
              (This applies unless option -paranoia is used.)  -P
              sectors sets the given number of sectors  for  ini­
              tial  overlap  sampling  for jitter correction. Two
              cases are to be distinguished. For nonzero  values,
              some  sectors  are  read twice to enable cdda2wav's
              jitter correction.   If  an  argument  of  zero  is
              given,  no  overlap  sampling  will  be  used.  For
              nonzero  overlap   sectors   cdda2wav   dynamically
              adjusts  the  setting during sampling (like cdpara­
              noia does).  If no match  can  be  found,  cdda2wav
              retries the read with an increased overlap.  If the
              amount of jitter is lower than  the  current  over­
              -l  buffers will allocate the specified  number  of
              ring buffer elements.

       Set endianess of input samples
              -C  endianess will override the default settings of
              the input format.  Endianess can be set  explicitly
              to  "little" or "big" or to the automatic endianess
              detection based on voting with "guess".

       Set endianess of output samples
              -E  endianess (endianess can be "little" or  "big")
              will  override  the  default settings of the output

       Verbose option
              -v  itemlist prints more information. A list allows
              selection of different information items.

              disable keeps quiet

              toc displays the table of contents

              summary displays a summary of recording parameters

              indices  invokes  the  index  scanner  and displays
              start positions of indices

              catalog retrieves and displays a media catalog num­

              trackid  retrieves and displays international stan­
              dard recording codes

              sectors displays track start positions in  absolute
              sector notation

              To  combine  several  requests just list the subop­
              tions seperated with commas.

       The table of contents
              The display will show the table  of  contents  with
              number  of  tracks  and  total  time  (displayed in
              mm:ss.hh format, mm=minutes, ss=seconds, hh=rounded
              1/100  seconds).  The following list displays track
              number and track time for each entry.  The  summary
              gives  a  line per track describing the type of the

                track preemphasis copypermitted tracktype chans

              The track column holds the track number.  preempha­
              sis shows if that track has been given a non linear
              file and a cddb file.

       Generation of simple output for gui frontends
              -g this option switches on simple line  formatting,
              which is needed to support gui frontends (like xcd-

       Verbose SCSI logging
              -V this option switches on  logging  of  SCSI  com­
              mands. This will produce a lot of output (when SCSI
              devices are being used).  This is needed for debug­
              ging purposes. The format is the same as being used
              with the cdrecord program from Jörg  Schilling.   I
              will not describe it here.

       Quiet option
              -q  suppresses  all screen output except error mes­
              sages.  That reduces cpu time resources.

       Just show information option
              -J does not write a file, it only  prints  informa­
              tion  about  the disc (depending on the -v option).
              This is just for information purposes.

CDDBP support

       Lookup album and track titles option
              -L  cddbp mode  Cdda2wav  tries  to  retrieve  per­
              former,  album-,  and  track  titles  from  a cddbp
              server.   The   default   server   right   now   is
              'freedb.freedb.org'.   It  is  planned to have more
              control over the server handling later.  The param­
              eter defines how multiple entries are handled:

       0        interactive  mode,  the  user  chooses one of the

       1        take the first entry without asking.

       Set server for title lookups
              cddbp-server  servername When using -L  or  --cddb,
              the  server  being  contacted  can be set with this

       Set portnumber for title lookups
              cddbp-port  portnumber When using -L or --cddb, the
              server  port  being  contacted can be set with this


       Don't create samples you cannot  read.  First  check  your
       sample  player software and sound card hardware. I experi­
       enced problems with very low sample rates (stereo <=  1575
       Cdda2wav  supports  pipes  now. Use a filename of - to let
       cdda2wav output its samples to standard output.

       Conversion to other sound formats can be  done  using  the
       sox  program package (although the use of sox -x to change
       the byte order of samples should be no more necessary; see
       option -E to change the output byteorder).

       If  you  want to sample more than one track into different
       files in one run, this is currently possible with  the  -B
       option.  When recording time exceeds the track limit a new
       file will be opened for the next track.


       Cdda2wav can generate a lot of files for various purposes.

       Audio files:

       There  are  audio  files  containing  samples with default
       extensions These files are not generated when option  (-N)
       is given. Multiple files may be written when the bulk copy
       option (-B) is used. Individual file names can be given as
       arguments. If the number of file names given is sufficient
       to cover all included audio tracks, the file names will be
       used  verbatim.   Otherwise,  if there are less file names
       than files needed to write the included tracks,  the  part
       of  the  file  name  before the extension is extended with
       '_dd' where dd represents the current track number.

       Cddb and Cdindex files:

       If cdda2wav  detects  cd-extra  or  cd-text  (album/track)
       title  information, then .cddb and .cdindex files are gen­
       erated unless suppressed by the option  -H.  They  contain
       suitable  formatted  entries  for  submission  to audio cd
       track title databases in the  internet.  The  CDINDEX  and
       CDDB(tm)  systems are currently supported. For more infor­
       mation    please     visit     www.musicbrainz.org     and

       Inf files:

       The inf files are describing the sample files and the part
       from the audio cd, it was taken from. They are a means  to
       transfer   information   to  a  cd  burning  program  like
       cdrecord. For example, if the original audio cd  had  pre-
       emphasis  enabled,  and  cdda2wav  -T  did remove the pre-
       emphasis, then the  inf  file  has  pre-emphasis  not  set
       (since the audio file does not have it anymore), while the
       .cddb and the .cdindex have pre-emphasis set as the origi­
       nal does.

       interpolation, which is not optimal.

       Cdda2wav should use threads.

       Cdda2wav  currently  cannot  sample  hidden  audio  tracks
       (track 1 index 0).


       Thanks goto Project MODE (http://www.mode.net/) and Fraun­
       hofer   Institut  für  integrierte  Schaltungen  (FhG-IIS)
       (http://www.iis.fhg.de/) for financial  support.   Plextor
       Europe  and  Ricoh Japan provided cdrom disk drives and cd
       burners which helped  a  lot  to  develop  this  software.
       Rammi has helped a lot with the debugging and showed a lot
       of stamina when hearing 100 times the first 16 seconds  of
       the first track of the Krupps CD.  Libparanoia contributed
       by Monty (Christopher Montgomery) xiphmont@mit.edu.


       Heiko Eissfeldt heiko@colossus.escape.de


       11 Sep 2002




Security Code
Security Code
Type Security Code

Don't have an account yet? You can create one. As a registered user you have some advantages like theme manager, comments configuration and post comments with your name.

Help if you can!

Amazon Wish List

Did You Know?
You can choose larger fonts by selecting a different themes.


Tell a Friend About Us

Bookmark and Share

Web site powered by PHP-Nuke

Is this information useful? At the very least you can help by spreading the word to your favorite newsgroups, mailing lists and forums.
All logos and trademarks in this site are property of their respective owner. The comments are property of their posters. Articles are the property of their respective owners. Unless otherwise stated in the body of the article, article content (C) 1994-2013 by James Mohr. All rights reserved. The stylized page/paper, as well as the terms "The Linux Tutorial", "The Linux Server Tutorial", "The Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial" and "The place where you learn Linux" are service marks of James Mohr. All rights reserved.
The Linux Knowledge Base and Tutorial may contain links to sites on the Internet, which are owned and operated by third parties. The Linux Tutorial is not responsible for the content of any such third-party site. By viewing/utilizing this web site, you have agreed to our disclaimer, terms of use and privacy policy. Use of automated download software ("harvesters") such as wget, httrack, etc. causes the site to quickly exceed its bandwidth limitation and are therefore expressly prohibited. For more details on this, take a look here

PHP-Nuke Copyright © 2004 by Francisco Burzi. This is free software, and you may redistribute it under the GPL. PHP-Nuke comes with absolutely no warranty, for details, see the license.
Page Generation: 0.10 Seconds