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       ash  [  -efIijnsxz ] [ +efIijnsxz ] [ -c command ] [ arg ]


       Copyright 1989 by Kenneth Almquist.


       Ash is a version of sh with features similar to  those  of
       the  System  V shell.  This manual page lists all the fea­
       tures of ash but concentrates on the  ones  not  in  other


       If  the  -c  options is given, then the shell executes the
       specified shell command.  The -s flag cause the  shell  to
       read commands from the standard input (after executing any
       command specified with the -c option.  If neither  the  -s
       or  -c options are set, then the first arg is taken as the
       name of a file to read commands from.  If this is impossi­
       ble  because there are no arguments following the options,
       then ash will set the -s flag and will read commands  from
       the standard input.

       The shell sets the initial value of the positional parame­
       ters from the args remaining after any  arg  used  as  the
       name of a file of commands is deleted.

       The  flags  (other than -c) are set by preceding them with
       ``-'' and cleared by preceding them with  ``+'';  see  the
       set  builtin  command for a list of flags.  If no value is
       specified for the -i flag, the -s flag  is  set,  and  the
       standard  input  and  output of the shell are connected to
       terminals, then the -i flag will be set.  If no  value  is
       specified for the -j flag, then the -j flag will be set if
       the -i flag is set.

       When the shell is invoked with the -c option, it  is  good
       practice to include the -i flag if the command was entered
       interactively by a user.  For compatibility with the  Sys­
       tem  V  shell,  the  -i  option  should  come after the -c

       If the first character of argument zero to  the  shell  is
       ``-'',  the  shell is assumed to be a login shell, and the
       files /etc/profile and .profile are read  if  they  exist.
       If  the environment variable SHINIT is set on entry to the
       shell, the commands in SHINIT are normally parsed and exe­
       cuted.   SHINIT  is  not  examined if the shell is a login
       shell, or if it the shell is running  a  shell  procedure.
       (A  shell is considered to be running a shell procedure if

       ``&&''  and  ``||'' are binary operators.  ``&&'' executes
       the first command, and then executes  the  second  command
       iff  the exit status of the first command is zero.  ``||''
       is similar, but executes the second command iff  the  exit
       status of the first command is nonzero.  ``&&'' and ``||''
       both have the same priority.

       The ``|'' operator is a binary operator  which  feeds  the
       standard  output  of  the  first command into the standard
       input of the second command.  The exit status of the ``|''
       operator  is the exit status of the second command.  ``|''
       has a higher priority than ``||'' or ``&&''.

       An if command looks like

           if list
           then list
         [ elif list
             then    list ] ...
         [ else    list ]

       A while command looks like

           while list
           do   list

       The two lists are executed repeatedly while the exit  sta­
       tus of the first list is zero.  The until command is simi­
       lar, but has the word until in place of while
        repeats until the exit status of the first list is  zero.

       The for command looks like

           for variable in word...
           do   list

       The  words  are  expanded,  and  then the list is executed
       repeatedly with the variable set to each word in turn.  do
       and done may be replaced with ``{'' and ``}''.

       The break and continue commands look like

           break [ num ]
           continue [ num ]

       Break  terminates  the  num  innermost for or while loops.
       Continue continues with the next iteration of  the  num'th



           { list; }

       The first of these executes the commands in a subshell.

       A function definition looks like

           name ( ) command

       A  function  definition  is  an executable statement; when
       executed it installs a function named name and returns  an
       exit  status  of  zero.   The  command  is normally a list
       enclosed between ``{'' and ``}''.

       Variables may be declared to be local  to  a  function  by
       using  a  local  command.  This should appear as the first
       staement of a function, and looks like

           local [ variable | - ] ...

       Local is implemented as a builtin command.

       When a variable is made local,  it  inherits  the  initial
       value  and  exported  and readonly flags from the variable
       with the same name in the surrounding scope, if  there  is
       one.   Otherwise,  the  variable  is initially unset.  Ash
       uses dynamic scoping, so that if you make the  variable  x
       local  to  function f, which then calls function g, refer­
       ences to the variable x made inside g will  refer  to  the
       variable  x  declared inside f, not to the global variable
       named x.

       The only special parameter  than  can  be  made  local  is
       ``-''.   Making  ``-''  local  any  shell options that are
       changed via the set command  inside  the  function  to  be
       restored  to  their  original  values  when  the  function

       The return command looks like

           return [ exitstatus ]

       It terminates the currently executing function.  Return is
       implemented as a builtin command.

    Simple Commands

       A simple command is a sequence of words.  The execution of
       tional parameters (except $0, which remains unchanged) are
       set  to  the  parameters to the shell function.  The vari­
       ables which are explicitly placed in  the  environment  of
       the  command  (by  placing  assignments to them before the
       function name) are made local to the function and are  set
       to  values  given.  Then the command given in the function
       definition is executed.   The  positional  parameters  are
       restored  to  their  original values when the command com­

       Shell builtins are executed internally to the shell, with­
       out spawning a new process.

       When a normal program is executed, the shell runs the pro­
       gram, passing the parameters and the  environment  to  the
       program.   If  the program is a shell procedure, the shell
       will interpret the program in a subshell.  The shell  will
       reinitialize  itself in this case, so that the effect will
       be as if a new shell had been invoked to handle the  shell
       procedure, except that the location of commands located in
       the parent shell will be remembered by the child.  If  the
       program  is a file beginning with ``#!'', the remainder of
       the first line specifies an interpreter for  the  program.
       The  shell  (or the operating system, under Berkeley UNIX)
       will run the interpreter in this case.  The  arguments  to
       the interpreter will consist of any arguments given on the
       first line of the program, followed by  the  name  of  the
       program,  followed by the arguments passed to the program.


       Input/output redirections can be intermixed with the words
       in a simple command and can be placed following any of the
       other commands.  When redirection occurs, the shell  saves
       the  old  values of the file descriptors and restores them
       when the command completes.  The ``<'', ``>'', and  ``>>''
       redirections open a file for input, output, and appending,
       respectively.  The ``<&digit'' and ``>&digit''  makes  the
       input  or  output  a duplicate of the file descriptor num­
       bered by the digit.  If a minus sign is used in place of a
       digit, the standard input or standard output are closed.

       The  ``<< word'' redirection takes input from a here docu­
       ment.  As the shell  encounters  ``<<''  redirections,  it
       collects  them.   The next time it encounters an unescaped
       newline, it reads the documents in turn.  The word follow­
       ing  the  ``<<''  specifies  the contents of the line that
       terminates the document.  If none of the  quoting  methods
       ('',  "", or \) are used to enter the word, then the docu­
       ment is treated like a word inside double  quotes:   ``$''
       and  backquote  are  expanded and backslash can be used to
       escape these and to continue long lines.  The word  cannot
       When  locating  a command, the shell first looks to see if
       it has a shell function by that name.  Then, if PATH  does
       not  contain  an  entry  for  "%builtin",  it  looks for a
       builtin command by that name.  Finally, it  searches  each
       entry in PATH in turn for the command.

       The  value  of  the  PATH  variable  should be a series of
       entries separated by colons.  Each  entry  consists  of  a
       directory  name,  or  a  directory name followed by a flag
       beginning with a  percent  sign.   The  current  directory
       should be indicated by an empty directory name.

       If  no  percent sign is present, then the entry causes the
       shell to search for the command in  the  specified  direc­
       tory.   If the flag is ``%builtin'' then the list of shell
       builtin commands is searched.  If the  flag  is  ``%func''
       then the directory is searched for a file which is read as
       input to the shell.  This file should  define  a  function
       whose  name is the name of the command being searched for.

       Command names containing a slash are simply executed with­
       out performing any of the above searches.

    The Environment

       The environment of a command is a set of name/value pairs.
       When the shell is invoked, it reads these names  and  val­
       ues, sets the shell variables with these names to the cor­
       responding values, and marks the  variables  as  exported.
       The  export  command  can be used to mark additional vari­
       ables as exported.

       The environment of a command is constructed by  construct­
       ing  name/value  pairs  from  all the exported shell vari­
       ables, and then modifying  this  set  by  the  assignments
       which precede the command, if any.


       The  process of evaluating words when a shell procedure is
       executed is called expansion.  Expansion consists of  four
       steps:   variable substitution, command substitution, word
       splitting, and file name generation.  If  a  word  is  the
       expression  following  the  word case in a case statement,
       the file name which follows a redirection  symbol,  or  an
       assignment  to the environment of a command, then the word
       cannot be split into multiple words.  In these cases,  the
       last two steps of the expansion process are omitted.

    Variable Substitution

       To be written.
        writes to the standard output will  be  captured  by  the
        shell.   The final newline (if any) of the output will be
        deleted; the rest of the output will be  substituted  for
        the command in the word.

     Word Splitting

       When the value of a variable or the output of a command is
       substituted, the resulting text is subject to word  split­
       ting,  unless  the dollar sign introducing the variable or
       backquotes containing the text  were  enclosed  in  double
       quotes.   In addition, ``$@'' is subject to a special type
       of splitting, even in the presence of double quotes.

       Ash uses two different splitting algorithms.   The  normal
       approach,  which  is intended for splitting text separated
       by which space, is used if  the  first  character  of  the
       shell  variable  IFS is a space.  Otherwise an alternative
       experimental algorithm,  which  is  useful  for  splitting
       (possibly  empty)  fields separated by a separator charac­
       ter, is used.

       When performing splitting, the shell scans the replacement
       text looking for a character (when IFS does not begin with
       a space) or a sequence of characters (when IFS does  begin
       with  a space), deletes the character or sequence of char­
       acters, and spits the word into two strings at that point.
       When  IFS begins with a space, the shell deletes either of
       the strings if they are null.  As a special case,  if  the
       word  containing  the replacement text is the null string,
       the word is deleted.

       The variable ``$@'' is special in two ways.  First, split­
       ting  takes  place between the positional parameters, even
       if the text is enclosed in double quotes.  Second, if  the
       word  containing  the  replacement text is the null string
       and there are no positional parameters, then the  word  is
       deleted.  The result of these rules is that "$@" is equiv­
       alent to "$1" "$2" ... "$n", where  n  is  the  number  of
       positional  parameters.   (Note that this differs from the
       System V shell.  The System V  documentation  claims  that
       "$@"  behaves this way; in fact on the System V shell "$@"
       is  equivalent  to  ""  when  there  are   no   positional

    File Name Generation

       Unless  the  -f  flag is set, file name generation is per­
       formed after word splitting is  complete.   Each  word  is
       viewed as a series of patterns, separated by slashes.  The
       process of expansion replaces the word with the  names  of
       all  existing files whose names can be formed by replacing


       A pattern consists of normal characters, which match them­
       selves,  and  meta-characters.   The  meta-characters  are
       ``!'',  ``*'',  ``?'',  and  ``[''.  These characters lose
       there special meanings if they are quoted.   When  command
       or  variable substitution is performed and the dollar sign
       or back quotes are not double quoted,  the  value  of  the
       variable or the output of the command is scanned for these
       characters and they are turned into meta-characters.

       Two exclamation points at the beginning of a pattern func­
       tion  as  a ``not'' operator, causing the pattern to match
       any string that the remainder  of  the  pattern  does  not
       match.   Other  occurances of exclamation points in a pat­
       tern match exclamation points.  Two exclamation points are
       required  rather  than one to decrease the incompatibility
       with the System V shell (which does not treat  exclamation
       points specially).

       An  asterisk  (``*'') matches any string of characters.  A
       question  mark  matches  any  single  character.   A  left
       bracket  (``['') introduces a character class.  The end of
       the character class is indicated by a ``]''; if the  ``]''
       is  missing  then  the  ``[''  matches a ``['' rather than
       introducing a character class.  A character class  matches
       any  of  the  characters  between  the square brackets.  A
       range of characters may be specified using a  minus  sign.
       The  character  class  may  be  complemented  by making an
       exclamation point the first  character  of  the  character

       To include a ``]'' in a character class, make it the first
       character listed (after the ``!'', if any).  To include  a
       minus sign, make it the first or last character listed.

    The /u Directory

       By  convention,  the  name  ``/u/user'' refers to the home
       directory of the specified user.  There are  good  reasons
       why  this  feature  should be supported by the file system
       (using a feature such as symbolic links)  rather  than  by
       the  shell,  but ash is capable of performing this mapping
       if the file system doesn't.  If the  mapping  is  done  by
       ash, setting the -f flag will turn it off.

    Character Set

       Ash silently discards nul characters.  Any other character
       will be handled correctly  by  ash,  including  characters
       with the high order bit set.
        job, then the null prefix will identify the job,  so  you
        can  refer  to  the job by writing ``%''.  The third form
        refers to the current job.  The current job is  the  last
        job  to  be stopped while it was in the foreground.  (See
        the next paragraph.)  The last form identifies a  job  by
        giving the process id of the last process in the job.

       If  the  operating  system that ash is running on supports
       job control, ash will allow you to use it.  In this  case,
       typing  the suspend character (typically ^Z) while running
       a command will return you to ash and will  make  the  sus­
       pended command the current job.  You can then continue the
       job in the background by typing bg, or you can continue it
       in the foreground by typing fg.


       If  the shell variable ATTY is set, and the shell variable
       TERM is not set to ``emacs'', then ash generates appropri­
       ate escape sequences to talk to atty(1).

    Exit Statuses

       By  tradition, an exit status of zero means that a command
       has succeeded and a nonzero exit status indicates that the
       command failed.  This is better than no convention at all,
       but in practice it is extremely useful to  allow  commands
       that  succeed to use the exit status to return information
       to the caller.  A variety of better conventions have  been
       proposed,   but  none  of  them  has  met  with  universal
       approval.  The convention used by ash and all the programs
       included in the ash distribution is as follows:
                 0         Success.
                 1         Alternate success.
                 2         Failure.
                 129-...   Command terminated by a signal.
       The  alternate success return is used by commands to indi­
       cate various conditions which are  not  errors  but  which
       can,  with  a  little imagination, be conceived of as less
       successful than plain success.  For example, test  returns
       1 when the tested condition is false and getopts returns 1
       when there are no more options.  Because  this  convention
       is  not  used universally, the -e option of ash causes the
       shell to exit when a command returns 1  even  though  that
       contradicts the convention described here.

       When  a  command  is  terminated by a signal, the uses 128
       plus the signal number as the exit code for the command.

    Builtin Commands

       This concluding section lists the builtin  commands  which
       bltin command arg...
            Execute the specified builtin command.  (This is use­
            ful when you have a shell function with the same name
            as a builtin command.)

       cd [ directory ]
            Switch  to  the  specified directory (default $HOME).
            If the an entry for CDPATH appears in the environment
            of the cd command or the shell variable CDPATH is set
            and the directory name does not begin with  a  slash,
            then   the  directories  listed  in  CDPATH  will  be
            searched for the specified directory.  The format  of
            CDPATH  is  the same as that of PATH.  In an interac­
            tive shell, the cd command will print out the name of
            the directory that it actually switched to if this is
            different from the name that the  user  gave.   These
            may  be different either because the CDPATH mechanism
            was used or because a symbolic link was crossed.

       . file
            The commands in the specified file are read and  exe­
            cuted  by  the  shell.   A path search is not done to
            find the file because the directories in PATH  gener­
            ally  contain files that are intended to be executed,
            not read.

       eval string...
            The strings are parsed as  shell  commands  and  exe­
            cuted.   (This differs from the System V shell, which
            concatenates the arguments (separated by spaces)  and
            parses the result as a single command.)

       exec [ command arg...  ]
            Unless  command  is  omitted,  the  shell  process is
            replaced with the specified program (which must be  a
            real  program, not a shell builtin or function).  Any
            redirections on the exec command are marked as perma­
            nent,  so that they are not undone when the exec com­
            mand finishes.  If the command is not found, the exec
            command causes the shell to exit.

       exit [ exitstatus ]
            Terminate  the shell process.  If exitstatus is given
            it is used as the exit status of the shell; otherwise
            the exit status of the preceding command is used.

       export name...
            The  specified  names  are exported so that they will
            appear in the  environment  of  subsequent  commands.
            The  only way to un-export a variable is to unset it.
            Ash allows the value of a variable to be set  at  the
            same time it is exported by writing

       hash -rv command...
            The shell maintains a hash table which remembers  the
            locations of commands.  With no arguments whatsoever,
            the hash command prints  out  the  contents  of  this
            table.   Entries  which have not been looked at since
            the last cd command are marked with an  asterisk;  it
            is possible for these entries to be invalid.

            With  arguments,  the hash command removes the speci­
            fied commands from the hash table  (unless  they  are
            functions)  and  then  locates  them.   With  the  -v
            option, hash prints the locations of the commands  as
            it finds them.  The -r option causes the hash command
            to delete all the entries in the  hash  table  except
            for functions.

       jobid [ job ]
            Print  the  process id's of the processes in the job.
            If the job argument is omitted, use the current  job.

            This  command  lists out all the background processes
            which are children of the current shell process.

       lc [ function-name ]
            The function name is defined to execute the last com­
            mand  entered.   If the function name is omitted, the
            last command executed is executed again.   This  com­
            mand only works if the -i flag is set.

            Print the current directory.  The builtin command may
            differ from the program of the same name because  the
            builtin  command remembers what the current directory
            is rather than recomputing it each time.  This  makes
            it  faster.   However,  if  the  current directory is
            renamed, the builtin version of pwd will continue  to
            print the old name for the directory.

       read [ -p prompt ] [ -e ] variable...
            The  prompt  is printed if the -p option is specified
            and the standard input is a terminal.  Then a line is
            read  from  the standard input.  The trailing newline
            is deleted from the line and the  line  is  split  as
            described in the section on word splitting above, and
            the pieces are assigned to the  variables  in  order.
            If  there are more pieces than variables, the remain­
            ing pieces (along with the  characters  in  IFS  that
            separated  them)  are  assigned to the last variable.
            If there are more variables than pieces, the  remain­
            ing variables are assigned the null string.

                readonly name=value

            With no arguments  the  readonly  command  lists  the
            names of all read only variables.

       set [ { -options | +options | -- } ] arg...
            The set command performs three different functions.

            With  no  arguments, it lists the values of all shell

            If options are given, it sets  the  specified  option
            flags,  or clears them if the option flags are intro­
            duced with a + rather than a -.  Only the first argu­
            ment  to  set  can  contain  options.   The  possible
            options are:

            -e  Causes the shell to exit when  a  command  termi­
                nates with a nonzero exit status, except when the
                exit status of the command is explicitly  tested.
                The  exit status of a command is considered to be
                explicitly tested if the command is used to  con­
                trol an if, elif, while, or until; or if the com­
                mand is the left hand operand  of  an  ``&&''  or
                ``||'' operator.

            -f  Turn off file name generation.

            -I  Cause the shell to ignore end of file conditions.
                (This doesn't  apply  when  the  shell  a  script
                sourced  using  the  ``.''   command.)  The shell
                will in fact exit if it gets 50 eof's in a row.

            -i  Make the  shell  interactive.   This  causes  the
                shell to prompt for input, to trap interrupts, to
                ignore quit and terminate signals, and to  return
                to  the  main command loop rather than exiting on

            -j  Turns on Berkeley job control,  on  systems  that
                support  it.  When the shell starts up, the -j is
                set by default if the -i flag is set.

            -n  Causes the shell to read commands but not execute
                them.   (This  is  marginally useful for checking
                the syntax of scripts.)

            -s  If this flag is set when the shell starts up, the
                shell  reads  commands  from  its standard input.
                The shell doesn't examine the value of this  flag
                any other time.

            will  leave  the  value  of the positional parameters
            unchanged, so to set the positional parameters to set
            of values that may be empty, execute the command

                shift $#

            first  to  clear out the old values of the positional

       setvar variable value
            Assigns value to variable.  (In general it is  better
            to  write  variable=value  rather  than using setvar.
            Setvar is intended  to  be  used  in  functions  that
            assign  values to variables whose names are passed as

       shift [ n ]
            Shift the positional parameters  n  times.   A  shift
            sets the value of $1 to the value of $2, the value of
            $2 to the value of $3,  and  so  on,  decreasing  the
            value  of  $#  by  one.  If there are zero positional
            parameters, shifting doesn't do anything.

       trap [ action ] signal...
            Cause the shell to parse and execute action when  any
            of  the  specified signals are received.  The signals
            are specified by signal number.  Action may  be  null
            or omitted; the former causes the specified signal to
            be ignored and the latter causes the  default  action
            to be taken.  When the shell forks off a subshell, it
            resets trapped  (but  not  ignored)  signals  to  the
            default  action.   The  trap command has no effect on
            signals that were ignored on entry to the shell.

       umask [ mask ]
            Set the value of umask (see umask(2)) to  the  speci­
            fied  octal  value.   If the argument is omitted, the
            umask value is printed.

       unset name...
            The specified variables and functions are  unset  and
            unexported.   If  a  given name corresponds to both a
            variable and a function, both the  variable  and  the
            function are unset.

       wait [ job ]
            Wait for the specified job to complete and return the
            exit status of the last process in the job.   If  the
            argument  is  omitted,  wait for all jobs to complete
            and the return an exit status of zero.


       ensures  that  the  function will return an exit status of
       zero if it successfully changes to a directory  that  does
       not  contain  a ``.enter'' file.  Redefining existing com­
       mands is not always a good idea, but  this  example  shows
       that you can do it if you want to.

       The suspend function distributed with ash looks like

           # Copyright (C) 1989 by Kenneth Almquist.  All rights reserved.
           # This file is part of ash, which is distributed under the terms
           # specified by the Ash General Public License.

           suspend() {
               local -
               set +j
               kill -TSTP 0

       This turns off job control and then sends a stop signal to
       the current  process  group,  which  suspends  the  shell.
       (When job control is turned on, the shell ignores the TSTP
       signal.)  Job control will be  turned  back  on  when  the
       function  returns  because ``-'' is local to the function.
       As an example of what not to do, consider an earlier  ver­
       sion of suspend:

           suspend() {
               set +j
               kill -TSTP 0
               set -$suspend_flag

       There  are two problems with this.  First, suspend_flag is
       a global variable rather than  a  local  one,  which  will
       cause  problems  in  the  (unlikely) circumstance that the
       user is using that variable for some other purpose.   Sec­
       ond,  consider what happens if shell received an interrupt
       signal after it executes the first set command but  before
       it  executes  the  second  one.  The interrupt signal will
       abort the shell function, so that the second  set  command
       will  never  be executed and job control will be left off.
       The first version of suspend avoids this problem by  turn­
       ing  job  control  off  only  in a local copy of the shell
       options.  The local copy of the shell options is discarded
       when  the function is terminated, no matter how it is ter­


       Shell variables can be used to provide  abbreviations  for
       things which you type frequently.  For example, I set
                 export h=$HOME

       Word  splitting  and file name generation are performed by
       default, and you have to explicitly use double  quotes  to
       suppress it.  This is backwards, but you can learn to live
       with it.  Just get in the habit of writing  double  quotes
       around  variable  and command substitutions, and omit them
       only when you really want word  splitting  and  file  name
       generation.   If you want word splitting but not file name
       generation, use the -f option.


       Kenneth Almquist


       echo(1), expr(1), line(1), pwd(1), true(1).


       When command substitution occurs inside a  here  document,
       the  commands  inside the here document are run with their
       standard input closed.  For example,  the  following  will
       not  word  because  the standard input of the line command
       will be closed when the command is run:

           cat <<-!
           Line 1: $(line)
           Line 2: $(line)

       Unsetting a function which is currently being executed may
       cause strange behavior.

       The  shell  syntax allows a here document to be terminated
       by an end of file as well as by a line containing the ter­
       minator word which follows the ``<<''.  What this means is
       that if you mistype the terminator line,  the  shell  will
       silently  swallow  up  the  rest  of your shell script and
       stick it in the here document.

                          March 7, 1991                     SH(1)



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