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       ar  [-X32_64]  [-]p[mod  [relpos]  [count]]  archive [mem­


       The GNU ar program creates, modifies,  and  extracts  from
       archives.   An  archive is a single file holding a collec­
       tion of other files in a structure that makes it  possible
       to  retrieve the original individual files (called members
       of the archive).

       The original files' contents, mode  (permissions),  times­
       tamp,  owner,  and group are preserved in the archive, and
       can be restored on extraction.

       GNU ar can maintain archives whose members have  names  of
       any  length; however, depending on how ar is configured on
       your system, a limit on member-name length may be  imposed
       for  compatibility  with  archive  formats maintained with
       other tools.  If it exists, the limit is often 15  charac­
       ters  (typical  of formats related to a.out) or 16 charac­
       ters (typical of formats related to coff).

       ar is considered a binary utility because archives of this
       sort  are  most  often  used as libraries holding commonly
       needed subroutines.

       ar creates an index to the symbols defined in  relocatable
       object  modules  in the archive when you specify the modi­
       fier s.  Once  created,  this  index  is  updated  in  the
       archive  whenever  ar makes a change to its contents (save
       for the q update operation).   An  archive  with  such  an
       index  speeds  up  linking to the library, and allows rou­
       tines in the library to call each other without regard  to
       their placement in the archive.

       You  may  use nm -s or nm --print-armap to list this index
       table.  If an archive lacks the table, another form of  ar
       called ranlib can be used to add just the table.

       GNU  ar  is  designed  to be compatible with two different
       facilities.  You can control its activity  using  command-
       line  options,  like the different varieties of ar on Unix
       systems; or, if you specify the single command-line option
       -M, you can control it with a script supplied via standard
       input, like the MRI ``librarian'' program.


       GNU ar allows you to mix the operation code p and modifier
       flags  mod  in  any  order,  within the first command-line

       m   Use this operation to move members in an archive.

           The ordering of members in an archive can make a  dif­
           ference  in how programs are linked using the library,
           if a symbol is defined in more than one member.

           If no modifiers are used with  "m",  any  members  you
           name  in  the member arguments are moved to the end of
           the archive; you can use the a, b, or i  modifiers  to
           move them to a specified place instead.

       p   Print  the  specified  members  of the archive, to the
           standard output file.  If the v modifier is specified,
           show  the  member  name before copying its contents to
           standard output.

           If you specify no member arguments, all the  files  in
           the archive are printed.

       q   Quick append; Historically, add the files member... to
           the end of archive, without checking for  replacement.

           The  modifiers  a,  b, and i do not affect this opera­
           tion; new members are always placed at the end of  the

           The  modifier  v  makes  ar  list  each  file as it is

           Since the  point  of  this  operation  is  speed,  the
           archive's  symbol  table index is not updated, even if
           it already existed; you can use ar s or ranlib explic­
           itly to update the symbol table index.

           However,  too  many  different  systems  assume  quick
           append rebuilds the index, so GNU ar implements q as a
           synonym for r.

       r   Insert the files member... into archive (with replace­
           ment). This operation differs from q in that any  pre­
           viously  existing  members  are deleted if their names
           match those being added.

           If one of the files named in member... does not exist,
           ar  displays  an error message, and leaves undisturbed
           any existing members  of  the  archive  matching  that

           By  default,  new  members are added at the end of the
           file; but you may use one of the modifiers a, b, or  i
           to request placement relative to some existing member.

           If  there  is  more  than  one file with the same name
           (say, fie) in an archive (say b.a), ar t b.a fie lists
           only the first instance; to see them all, you must ask
           for a complete listing---in our example, ar t b.a.

       x   Extract members (named member) from the archive.   You
           can use the v modifier with this operation, to request
           that ar list each name as it extracts it.

           If you do not specify  a  member,  all  files  in  the
           archive are extracted.

       A  number  of modifiers (mod) may immediately follow the p
       keyletter, to specify variations on an operation's  behav­

       a   Add new files after an existing member of the archive.
           If you use the modifier a, the  name  of  an  existing
           archive member must be present as the relpos argument,
           before the archive specification.

       b   Add  new  files  before  an  existing  member  of  the
           archive.   If  you  use the modifier b, the name of an
           existing archive member must be present as the  relpos
           argument,  before the archive specification.  (same as

       c   Create the archive.  The specified archive  is  always
           created  if  it  did  not  exist,  when you request an
           update.  But a warning is issued unless you specify in
           advance  that  you  expect to create it, by using this

       f   Truncate names in the archive.  GNU ar  will  normally
           permit  file  names of any length.  This will cause it
           to create archives which are not compatible  with  the
           native  ar program on some systems.  If this is a con­
           cern, the f modifier may  be  used  to  truncate  file
           names when putting them in the archive.

       i   Insert  new  files  before  an  existing member of the
           archive.  If you use the modifier i, the  name  of  an
           existing  archive member must be present as the relpos
           argument, before the archive specification.  (same  as

       l   This modifier is accepted but not used.

       N   Uses  the  count parameter.  This is used if there are
           multiple entries in the archive with  the  same  name.
           Extract  or  delete  instance  count of the given name

       s   Write an object-file index into the archive, or update
           an existing one, even if no other change  is  made  to
           the  archive.   You  may use this modifier flag either
           with any operation, or alone.   Running  ar  s  on  an
           archive is equivalent to running ranlib on it.

       S   Do  not  generate  an  archive symbol table.  This can
           speed up building a large library  in  several  steps.
           The resulting archive can not be used with the linker.
           In order to build a symbol table, you must omit the  S
           modifier  on the last execution of ar, or you must run
           ranlib on the archive.

       u   Normally, ar r... inserts all files  listed  into  the
           archive.   If  you  would like to insert only those of
           the files you list that are newer than  existing  mem­
           bers of the same names, use this modifier.  The u mod­
           ifier is allowed only for the operation  r  (replace).
           In  particular,  the  combination  qu  is not allowed,
           since checking the timestamps  would  lose  any  speed
           advantage from the operation q.

       v   This modifier requests the verbose version of an oper­
           ation.  Many operations  display  additional  informa­
           tion, such as filenames processed, when the modifier v
           is appended.

       V   This modifier shows the version number of ar.

       ar ignores an initial option spelt -X32_64,  for  compati­
       bility with AIX.  The behaviour produced by this option is
       the default for GNU ar.  ar does not support  any  of  the
       other  -X options; in particular, it does not support -X32
       which is the default for AIX ar.


       nm(1), ranlib(1), and the Info entries for binutils.


       Copyright (c) 1991, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99,  2000,
       2001, 2002, 2003 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission  is  granted  to copy, distribute and/or modify
       this document under the terms of the GNU  Free  Documenta­
       tion  License,  Version 1.1 or any later version published
       by the Free Software Foundation; with  no  Invariant  Sec­
       tions,  with  no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover
       Texts.  A copy of the license is included in  the  section
       entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License''.




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