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ImageMagick




SYNOPSIS

       animate [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ]

       composite [ options ... ] image composite [ mask ] compos­
       ited

       conjure [ options ] script.msl [ [ options ] script.msl ]

       convert  [  [ options ... ] [ input_file ...  ] ... [ out­
       put_file ] ]

       display [ options ... ] file ...  [ [options ... ]file ...
       ]

       identify file [ file ... ]

       import [ options ... ] file

       mogrify [ options ... ] file ...

       montage  [ options ... ] file [ [ options ... ] file ... ]
       output_file


DESCRIPTION

       ImageMagick provides a suite of commandline utilities  for
       creating, converting, editing, and displaying images:

       Display  is  a machine architecture independent image pro­
       cessing and display program. It can display  an  image  on
       any workstation display running an X server.

       Import  reads  an  image  from  any visible window on an X
       server and outputs it as an image file. You can capture  a
       single  window, the entire screen, or any rectangular por­
       tion of the screen.

       Montage creates a composite by combining several  separate
       images.  The  images are tiled on the composite image with
       the name of the image optionally appearing just below  the
       individual tile.

       Convert  converts  an input file using one image format to
       Scripting Language (MSL).

       The ImageMagick utilities recognize  the  following  image
       formats:

       Name   Mode Description
        o  8BIM      *rw- Photoshop resource format
        o  AFM       *r-- TrueType font
        o  APP1      *rw- Photoshop resource format
        o  ART       *r-- PF1: 1st Publisher
        o  AVI       *r-- Audio/Visual Interleaved
        o  AVS       *rw+ AVS X image
        o  BIE       *rw- Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                          interchange format
        o  BMP       *rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
        o  CAPTION   *r+  Caption (requires separate size info)
        o  CMYK      *rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, and black
                          samples (8 or 16 bits, depending on
                          the image depth)
        o  CMYKA     *rw- Raw cyan, magenta, yellow, black, and
                          matte samples (8 or 16 bits, depending
                          on the image depth)
        o  CUT       *r-- DR Halo
        o  DCM       *r-- Digital Imaging and Communications in
                           Medicine image
        o  DCX       *rw+ ZSoft IBM PC multi-page Paintbrush
        o  DIB       *rw+ Microsoft Windows bitmap image
        o  DPS       *r-- Display PostScript
        o  DPX       *r-- Digital Moving Picture Exchange
        o  EPDF      *rw- Encapsulated Portable Document Format
        o  EPI       *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
                          Interchange format
        o  EPS       *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPS2      *-w- Adobe Level II Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPS3      *-w- Adobe Level III Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPSF      *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
        o  EPSI      *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript
                          Interchange format
        o  EPT       *rw- Adobe Encapsulated PostScript with TIFF
                          preview
        o  FAX       *rw+ Group 3 FAX
        o  FILE      *r-- Uniform Resource Locator
        o  FITS      *rw- Flexible Image Transport System
        o  FPX       *rw- FlashPix Format
        o  FTP       *r-- Uniform Resource Locator
        o  G3        *rw- Group 3 FAX
        o  GIF       *rw+ CompuServe graphics interchange format
        o  GIF87     *rw- CompuServe graphics interchange format
                          (version 87a)
        o  GRADIENT  *r-- Gradual passing from one shade to
                          another

        o  ICON      *r-- Microsoft icon
        o  IMPLICIT  *---
        o  IPTC      *rw- IPTC Newsphoto
        o  JBG       *rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                          interchange format
        o  JBIG      *rw+ Joint Bi-level Image experts Group
                          interchange format
        o  JP2       *rw- JPEG-2000 JP2 File Format Syntax
        o  JPC       *rw- JPEG-2000 Code Stream Syntax
        o  JPEG      *rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
                          JFIF format
        o  JPG       *rw- Joint Photographic Experts Group
                          JFIF format
        o  LABEL     *r-- Text image format
        o  LOGO      *rw- ImageMagick Logo
        o  M2V       *rw+ MPEG-2 Video Stream
        o  MAP       *rw- Colormap intensities (8 or 16 bits,
                          depending on the image depth) and
                          indices (8 or 16 bits, depending
                          on whether colors exceeds 256).
        o  MAT       *-w+ MATLAB image format
        o  MATTE     *-w+ MATTE format
        o  MIFF      *rw+ Magick image format
        o  MNG       *rw+ Multiple-image Network Graphics
        o  MONO      *rw- Bi-level bitmap in least-significant-
                          -byte-first order
        o  MPC       -rw- Magick Persistent Cache image format
        o  MPEG      *rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
        o  MPG       *rw+ MPEG-1 Video Stream
        o  MPR       *r-- Magick Persistent Registry
        o  MSL       *r-- Magick Scripting Language
        o  MTV       *rw+ MTV Raytracing image format
        o  MVG       *rw- Magick Vector Graphics
        o  NETSCAPE  *r-- Netscape 216 color cube
        o  NULL      *r-- Constant image of uniform color
        o  OTB       *rw- On-the-air bitmap
        o  P7        *rw+ Xv thumbnail format
        o  PAL       *rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
        o  PALM      *rw- Palm Pixmap format
        o   PBM        *rw+  Portable  bitmap  format  (black and
       white)
        o  PCD       *rw- Photo CD
        o  PCDS      *rw- Photo CD
        o  PCL       *-w- Page Control Language
        o  PCT       *rw- Apple Macintosh QuickDraw/PICT
        o  PCX       *rw- ZSoft IBM PC Paintbrush
        o  PDB       *r-- Pilot Image Format
        o  PDF       *rw+ Portable Document Format
        o  PFA       *r-- TrueType font
        o  PFB       *r-- TrueType font
        o  PFM       *r-- TrueType font
        o  PGM       *rw+ Portable graymap format (gray scale)
        o  PTIF      *rw- Pyramid encoded TIFF
        o  PWP       *r-- Seattle Film Works
        o  RAS       *rw+ SUN Rasterfile
        o  RGB       *rw+ Raw red, green, and blue samples (8 or
                          16 bits, depending on the image depth)
        o  RGBA      *rw+ Raw red, green, blue, and matte samples
                          (8 or 16 bits, depending on the image
                          depth)
        o  RLA       *r-- Alias/Wavefront image
        o  RLE       *r-- Utah Run length encoded image
        o  ROSE      *rw- 70x46 Truecolor test image
        o  SCT       *r-- Scitex HandShake
        o  SFW       *r-- Seattle Film Works
        o  SGI       *rw+ Irix RGB image
        o  SHTML     *-w- Hypertext Markup Language and a
                          client-side image map
        o  STEGANO   *r-- Steganographic image
        o  SUN       *rw+ SUN Rasterfile
        o  SVG       *rw+ Scalable Vector Gaphics
        o  TEXT      *rw+ Raw text
        o  TGA       *rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  TIF       *rw+ Tagged Image File Format
        o  TIFF      *rw+ Tagged Image File Format
        o  TILE      *r-- Tile image with a texture
        o  TIM       *r-- PSX TIM
        o  TTF       *r-- TrueType font
        o  TXT       *rw+ Raw text
        o  UIL       *-w- X-Motif UIL table
        o  UYVY      *rw- 16bit/pixel interleaved YUV
        o  VDA       *rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  VICAR     *rw- VICAR rasterfile format
        o  VID       *rw+ Visual Image Directory
        o  VIFF      *rw+ Khoros Visualization image
        o  VST       *rw+ Truevision Targa image
        o  WBMP      *rw- Wireless Bitmap (level 0) image
        o  WMF       *r-- Windows Metafile
        o  WPG       *r-- Word Perfect Graphics
        o  X         *rw- X Image
        o  XBM       *rw- X Windows system bitmap (black
                          and white)
        o  XC        *r-- Constant image uniform color
        o  XCF       *r-- GIMP image
        o  XML       *r-- Scalable Vector Gaphics
        o  XPM       *rw- X Windows system pixmap (color)
        o  XV        *rw+ Khoros Visualization image
        o  XWD       *rw- X Windows system window dump (color)
        o  YUV       *rw- CCIR 601 4:1:1

           Modes:
                     *    Native blob support
                     r    Read
                     w    Write

       supported by your particular configuration,  run  "convert
       -list format".

       Raw  images are expected to have one byte per pixel unless
       ImageMagick is compiled in the default 16-bit mode  or  in
       32-bit  mode.  Here, the raw data is expected to be stored
       two or four bytes per pixel, respectively, in most-signif­
       icant-byte-first  order.   You can tell if ImageMagick was
       compiled in 16-bit mode by typing  "convert"  without  any
       options,  and looking for "Q:16" in the first line of out­
       put.


FILES AND FORMATS

       By default, the image format is determined  by  its  magic
       number,  i.e., the first few bytes of the file. To specify
       a particular image format, precede the  filename  with  an
       image  format  name  and a colon (i.e.ps:image) or specify
       the image type as the filename suffix.  The  magic  number
       takes  precedence  over the filename suffix and the prefix
       takes precedence over the magic number and the  suffix  in
       input  files.   The prefix takes precedence over the file­
       name suffix in output files.  To read the "built-in"  for­
       mats  (GRANITE, H, LOGO, NETSCAPE, PLASMA, and ROSE) use a
       prefix (including the colon) without a filename or suffix.
       To read the XC format, follow the colon with a color spec­
       ification.  To read the CAPTION format, follow  the  colon
       with a text string or with a filename prefixed with the at
       symbol (@).

       When you specify X as your image type,  the  filename  has
       special  meaning. It specifies an X window by id, name, or
       root. If no filename is specified, the window is  selected
       by clicking the mouse in the desired window.

       Specify input_file as - for standard input, output_file as
       - for standard output. If  input_file  has  the  extension
       respectively.  If  output_file has the extension .Z or the
       file is compressed using with  compress  or  gzip  respec­
       tively.

       Finally,  when running on platforms that allow it, precede
       the image file name with | to pipe to  or  from  a  system
       command  (this  feature is not available on VMS, Win32 and
       Macintosh platforms). Use a backslash or  quotation  marks
       to prevent your shell from interpreting the |.

       Use  an optional index enclosed in brackets after an input
       file name to specify a desired subimage of a multi-resolu­
       tion image format like Photo CD (e.g. "img0001.pcd[4]") or
       a range  for  MPEG  images  (e.g.  "video.mpg[50-75]").  A
       subimage    specification    can    be    disjoint   (e.g.
       writes files image00.miff, image01.miff, etc.

       When running a commandline utility, you can prepend an  at
       sign  @  to  a  filename to read a list of image filenames
       from that file. This is convenient in the event  you  have
       too many image filenames to fit on the command line.


OPTIONS

       Options  are  processed  in command line order. Any option
       you specify on the command line remains in effect for  the
       set of images that follows, until the set is terminated by
       the appearance of any option or -noop.  Some options  only
       affect  the  decoding of images and others only the encod­
       ing.  The latter can appear after the final group of input
       images.

       This is a combined list of the commandline options used by
       the ImageMagick utilities  (animate,  composite,  convert,
       display, identify, import, mogrify and montage).

       In  this document, angle brackets ("<>") enclose variables
       and curly brackets ("{}") enclose optional parameters. For
       example,  "-fuzz  <distance>{%}"  means  you  can  use the
       option "-fuzz 10" or "-fuzz 2%".

       -adjoin
              join images into a single multi-image file

              By default, all images of  an  image  sequence  are
              stored  in  the  same  file.  However, some formats
              (e.g. JPEG) do not support more than one image  and
              are  saved  to separate files. Use +adjoin to force
              this behavior.

       -affine <matrix>
              drawing transformation matrix

              This  option  provides  a   transformation   matrix
              {sx,rx,ry,sy,tx,ty}  for use by subsequent -draw or
              -transform options.

              The transformation matrix  has  3x3  elements,  but
              three  of  them  are omitted from the input because
              they are constant.  The complete matrix is

                   sx rx  0
                   ry sy  0

                  {cos(a),sin(a),-sin(a),cos(a),0,0}

              A series of operations can be accomplished by using
              a matrix that is the multiple of the  matrices  for
              each operation.

       -antialias
              remove pixel aliasing

              By  default  antialiasing  algorithms are used when
              drawing objects (e.g. lines)  or  rendering  vector
              formats  (e.g.  WMF and Postscript). Use +antialias
              to disable use of antialiasing algorithms.  Reasons
              to disable antialiasing

              include avoiding increasing colors in the image, or
              improving rendering speed.

       -append
              append a set of images

              This option creates a single image where the images
              in  the original set are stacked top-to-bottom.  If
              they are not of the same width, any  narrow  images
              will be expanded to fit using the background color.
              Use +append to stack images left-to-right.  The set
              of  images  is  terminated by the appearance of any
              option.  If the -append option appears after all of
              the input images, all images are appended.

       -authenticate <string>
              decrypt image with this password

              Use this option to supply a password for decrypting
              an image or an image sequence, if it is being  read
              from a format such as PDF that supports encryption.
              Encrypting images being written is not supported.

       -average
              average a set of images

              The set of images is terminated by  the  appearance
              of  any  option.   If  the  -average option appears
              after all of the input images, all images are aver­
              aged.

       -backdrop <color>
              display the image centered on a backdrop.

              This  backdrop covers the entire workstation screen

       -blue-primary <x>,<y>
              blue chromaticity primary point

       -blur <radius>{x<sigma>}
              blur the image with a Gaussian operator

              Blur with the given radius and  standard  deviation
              (sigma).

       -border <width>x<height>
              surround the image with a border of color

              See -geometry for details about the geometry speci­
              fication.

       -bordercolor <color>
              the border color

              The color is specified using the  format  described
              under the -fill option.

       -borderwidth <geometry>
              the border width

       -box <color>
              set the color of the annotation bounding box

              The  color  is specified using the format described
              under the -fill option.

              See -draw for further details.

       -cache <threshold>
              (This  option  has  been  replaced  by  the  -limit
              option)

       -channel <type>
              the type of channel

              Choose  from:  Red,  Green,  Blue,  Opacity, Matte,
              Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, or Black.

              Use this option to  extract  a  particular  channel
              from  the image.  Matte, for example, is useful for
              extracting the opacity values from an image.

       -charcoal <factor>
              distance leftward from the right edge of the  image
              to  the rightmost column to remove.  Similarly, the
              y offset normally  specifies  the  topmost  row  to
              remove,  but if the -gravity option is present with
              SouthWest, South, or SouthEast gravity,  it  speci­
              fies  the  distance  upward from the bottom edge of
              the image to the bottom row to remove.

              The -chop option removes entire rows  and  columns,
              and  moves the remaining corner blocks leftward and
              upward to close the gaps.

       -clip  apply the clipping path, if one is present

              If a clipping path is present, it will  be  applied
              to subsequent operations.

              For example, if you type the following command:

                   convert -clip -negate cockatoo.tif negated.tif

              only  the  pixels  within  the  clipping  path  are
              negated.

              The -clip feature requires the XML library.  If the
              XML library is not present, the option is  ignored.

       -coalesce
              merge a sequence of images

              Each  image  N  in  the  sequence  after Image 0 is
              replaced  with  the  image  created  by  flattening
              images 0 through N.

              The  set  of images is terminated by the appearance
              of any option.  If  the  -coalesce  option  appears
              after  all of the input images, all images are coa­
              lesced.

       -colorize <value>
              colorize the image with the pen color

              Specify the amount of colorization as a percentage.
              You  can  apply separate colorization values to the
              red, green, and blue channels of the image  with  a
              colorization  value  list  delimited  with  slashes
              (e.g. 0/0/50).

       -colormap <type>
              define the colormap type

       -colors <value>
              preferred number of colors in the image

              The  actual  number  of  colors in the image may be
              less than your request, but never more. Note,  this
              is  a  color  reduction  option.  Images  with less
              unique colors than specified with this option  will
              have  any duplicate or unused colors removed. Refer
              to quantize for more details.

              Note, options -dither, -colorspace, and  -treedepth
              affect the color reduction algorithm.

       -colorspace <value>
              the type of colorspace

              Choices  are:  GRAY,  OHTA,  RGB, Transparent, XYZ,
              YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, YUV, or CMYK.

              Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB
              color  space. Empirical evidence suggests that dis­
              tances in color spaces such as YUV  or  YIQ  corre­
              spond  to perceptual color differences more closely
              than do distances in RGB space.  These color spaces
              may  give  better  results  when  color reducing an
              image.  Refer to quantize for more details.

              The Transparent color  space  behaves  uniquely  in
              that it preserves the matte channel of the image if
              it exists.

              The -colors or -monochrome option is  required  for
              this option to take effect.

       -comment <string>
              annotate an image with a comment

              Use this option to assign a specific comment to the
              image, when writing to an image  format  that  sup­
              ports comments. You can include the image filename,
              type, width, height, or other  image  attribute  by
              embedding  special  format  characters listed under
              the -format option.  The comment is  not  drawn  on
              the  image, but is embedded in the image datastream
              via a "Comment" tag or similar mechanism.   If  you
              If the first character of string is  @,  the  image
              comment is read from a file titled by the remaining
              characters in the string.

       -compose <operator>
              the type of image composition

              By default, each of the composite image pixels  are
              replaced by the corresponding image tile pixel. You
              can choose an alternate composite operation:

                   Over
                   In
                   Out
                   Atop
                   Xor
                   Plus
                   Minus
                   Add
                   Subtract
                   Difference
                   Multiply
                   Bumpmap
                   Copy
                   CopyRed
                   CopyGreen
                   CopyBlue
                   CopyOpacity

              How each operator behaves is described below.

               Over

                    The result will be the union of the two image
                    shapes,  with opaque areas of composite image
                    obscuring image in the region of overlap.

               In

                    The result is simply composite image  cut  by
                    the  shape  of image.  None of the image data
                    of image will be in the result.

               Out

                    The resulting image is composite  image  with

                    The result is the image data from  both  com­
                    posite  image  and  image that is outside the
                    overlap region.  The overlap region  will  be
                    blank.

               Plus

                    The result is just the sum of the image data.
                    Output values are cropped to  255  (no  over­
                    flow).   This operation is independent of the
                    matte channels.

               Minus

                    The result of composite image -  image,  with
                    underflow cropped to zero.  The matte channel
                    is ignored (set to 255, full coverage).

               Add

                    The result of composite image +  image,  with
                    overflow wrapping around (mod 256).

               Subtract

                    The  result  of composite image - image, with
                    underflow wrapping around (mod 256).  The add
                    and subtract operators can be used to perform
                    reversible transformations.

               Difference

                    The result of abs(composite image  -  image).
                    This is useful for comparing two very similar
                    images.

               Multiply

                    The result of composite image * image.   This
                    is useful for the creation of drop-shadows.

               Bumpmap

                    The result image shaded by composite image.
                    untouched.

               CopyGreen

                    The resulting image is  the  green  layer  in
                    image  replaced  with the green layer in com­
                    posite image.  The other  layers  are  copied
                    untouched.

               CopyBlue

                    The  resulting  image  is  the  blue layer in
                    image replaced with the blue layer in compos­
                    ite  image.   The  other  layers  are  copied
                    untouched.

               CopyOpacity

                    The resulting image is  the  matte  layer  in
                    image  replaced  with the matte layer in com­
                    posite image.  The other  layers  are  copied
                    untouched.

               The  image  compositor  requires a matte, or alpha
               channel in the image for  some  operations.   This
               extra  channel usually defines a mask which repre­
               sents a sort of a  cookie-cutter  for  the  image.
               This is the case when matte is 255 (full coverage)
               for pixels inside the  shape,  zero  outside,  and
               between zero and 255 on the boundary.  For certain
               operations, if image does not have a  matte  chan­
               nel, it is initialized with 0 for any pixel match­
               ing in color to pixel  location  (0,0),  otherwise
               255 (to work properly borderwidth must be 0).

       -compress <type>
              the type of image compression

              Choices  are:  None, BZip, Fax, Group4, JPEG, Loss­
              less, LZW, RLE or Zip.

              Specify +compress to store the binary image  in  an
              uncompressed  format.   The default is the compres­
              sion type of the specified image file.

              the  sampling  factor to be used by JPEG, MPEG, and
              YUV encoders for downsampling the chroma  channels.

       -contrast
              enhance or reduce the image contrast

              This  option  enhances  the  intensity  differences
              between the lighter  and  darker  elements  of  the
              image.  Use -contrast to enhance the image or +con­
              trast to reduce the image contrast.

              For a more pronounced effect  you  can  repeat  the
              option:

                  convert rose: -contrast -contrast rose_c2.png

       -convolve <kernel>
              convolve  image with the specified convolution ker­
              nel

              The kernel is specified as a  comma-separated  list
              of  integers,  ordered left-to right, starting with
              the top row.  The order of the kernel is determined
              by  the  square  root  of  the  number  of entries.
              Presently only square kernels are supported.

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}
              preferred size and location of the cropped image

              See -geometry for details about the geometry speci­
              fication.

              The  width  and  height  give the size of the image
              that remains after cropping, and x and y  are  off­
              sets  that give the location of the top left corner
              of the cropped image with respect to  the  original
              image.   To  specify  the amount to be removed, use
              -shave instead.

              If the x and y offsets are present, a single  image
              is  generated,  consisting  of  the pixels from the
              cropping region.  The offsets specify the  location
              of  the  upper  left  corner of the cropping region
              measured downward and rightward with respect to the
              upper  left  corner  of the image.  If the -gravity
              option is present with NorthEast, East,  or  South­
              East  gravity,  it gives the distance leftward from
              the right edge of the image to the  right  edge  of
              the  cropping  region.   Similarly, if the -gravity

              Amount  defines  the  number of positions each col­
              ormap entry is shifted.

       -debug <events>
              enable debug printout

              The events parameter specifies which events are  to
              be logged.  It can be either None, All, or a comma-
              separated list consisting of one  or  more  of  the
              following  domains:  Annotate,  Blob, Cache, Coder,
              Configure,  Locale,  Render,  Resource,  Transform,
              X11,  or  User.  For example, to log cache and blob
              events, use

                  convert -debug "Cache,Blob" rose: rose.png

              The "User" domain is normally empty, but developers
              can  log  "User"  events  in  their private copy of
              ImageMagick.

              Use the -log  option  to  specify  the  format  for
              debugging output.

              Use +debug to turn off all logging.

       -deconstruct
              break down an image sequence into constituent parts

              This option compares each image with the next in  a
              sequence and returns the maximum bounding region of
              any pixel differences it  discovers.   This  method
              can undo a coalesced sequence returned by the -coa­
              lesce option, and is useful for removing  redundant
              information from a GIF or MNG animation.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the appear­
              ance of any option.   If  the  -deconstruct  option
              appears  after  all of the input images, all images
              are deconstructed.

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>
              display the next image after pausing

              This option is useful for regulating the  animation
              of  image  sequences  Delay/100 seconds must expire
              before the display of the next image.  The  default
              is  no  delay  between  each  showing  of the image
              sequence. The maximum delay is 65535.


       -depth <value>
              depth of the image

              This is the number of bits in a color sample within
              a  pixel.  The  only acceptable values are 8 or 16.
              Use this option to specify the depth of raw  images
              whose  depth is unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK,
              or to change the depth of any image  after  it  has
              been read.

       -descend
              obtain image by descending window hierarchy

       -despeckle
              reduce the speckles within an image

       -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>
              shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map

              With this option, composite image is used as a dis­
              placement map.  Black, within the displacement map,
              is a maximum positive  displacement.   White  is  a
              maximum  negative  displacement  and middle gray is
              neutral.  The displacement is scaled  to  determine
              the  pixel  shift.   By  default,  the displacement
              applies in both the horizontal and vertical  direc­
              tions.   However,  if  you  specify mask, composite
              image is the horizontal X displacement and mask the
              vertical Y displacement.

       -display <host:display[.screen]>
              specifies the X server to contact

              This  option  is  used  with  convert for obtaining
              image or font from this X server.  See X(1).

       -dispose <method>
              GIF disposal method

              The Disposal Method indicates the way in which  the
              graphic is to be treated after being displayed.

              Here are the valid methods:

                  Undefined       No disposal specified.
                  None             Do not dispose between frames.
                  Background      Overwrite the image area with

              apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image

              The basic strategy of dithering is to trade  inten­
              sity resolution for spatial resolution by averaging
              the  intensities  of  several  neighboring  pixels.
              Images  which  suffer  from  severe contouring when
              reducing colors can be improved with this option.

              The -colors or -monochrome option is  required  for
              this option to take effect.

              Use  +dither  to  turn  off dithering and to render
              PostScript without text or graphic aliasing.

       -draw <string>
              annotate an image with one or more  graphic  primi­
              tives

              Use  this  option  to annotate an image with one or
              more graphic primitives.   The  primitives  include
              shapes,  text,  transformations,  and  pixel opera­
              tions.  The shape primitives are

                   point           x,y
                   line            x0,y0 x1,y1
                   rectangle       x0,y0 x1,y1
                   roundRectangle  x0,y0 x1,y1 wc,hc
                   arc             x0,y0 x1,y1 a0,a1
                   ellipse         x0,y0 rx,ry a0,a1
                   circle          x0,y0 x1,y1
                   polyline        x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   polygon         x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   Bezier          x0,y0  ...  xn,yn
                   path            path specification
                   image           operator x0,y0 w,h filename

              The text primitive is

                   text            x0,y0 string

              The text gravity primitive is

                   gravity         NorthWest,  North,  NorthEast,
              West, Center,
                                   East,   SouthWest,  South,  or
              SouthEast


              The pixel operation primitives are

                   color           x0,y0 method
                   matte           x0,y0 method

              The shape primitives are drawn in the color  speci­
              fied  in  the  preceding -stroke option. Except for
              the line and point primitives, they are filled with
              the  color specified in the preceding -fill option.
              For unfilled shapes, use -fill none.

              Point requires a single coordinate.

              Line requires a start and end coordinate.

              Rectangle expects an upper  left  and  lower  right
              coordinate.

              RoundRectangle  has  the upper left and lower right
              coordinates and the width and height  of  the  cor­
              ners.

              Circle has a center coordinate and a coordinate for
              the outer edge.

              Use Arc to circumscribe an arc within a  rectangle.
              Arcs  require  a start and end point as well as the
              degree of rotation (e.g. 130,30 200,100 45,90).

              Use Ellipse to draw a partial ellipse  centered  at
              the  given  point with the x-axis and y-axis radius
              and start and end of arc in degrees  (e.g.  100,100
              100,150 0,360).

              Finally, polyline and polygon require three or more
              coordinates to define its boundaries.   Coordinates
              are  integers  separated by an optional comma.  For
              example, to define a  circle  centered  at  100,100
              that extends to 150,150 use:

                   -draw 'circle 100,100 150,150'

              Paths (See Paths) represent an outline of an object
              which is defined in terms of moveto (set a new cur­
              rent point), lineto (draw a straight line), curveto
              (draw a curve using a cubic Bezier), arc  (ellipti­
              cal  or circular arc) and closepath (close the cur­
              rent shape by drawing a line to  the  last  moveto)
              elements.  Compound  paths  (i.e., a path with sub­
              use  the  actual  dimensions  found  in  the  image
              header.  Otherwise,  it will be scaled to the given
              dimensions.  See -compose for a description of  the
              composite operators.

              Use text to annotate an image with text. Follow the
              text coordinates with a string. If the  string  has
              embedded  spaces,  enclose  it  in  double  quotes.
              Optionally you  can  include  the  image  filename,
              type,  width,  height,  or other image attribute by
              embedding special format character.   See  -comment
              for details.

              For example,

                   -draw 'text 100,100 "%m:%f %wx%h"'

              annotates the image with MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for
              an image titled bird.miff and whose  width  is  512
              and height is 480.

              If  the first character of string is @, the text is
              read from a file titled by the remaining characters
              in the string.

              Rotate rotates subsequent shape primitives and text
              primitives about the origen of the main  image.  If
              the  -region  option precedes the -draw option, the
              origen for transformations is the upper left corner
              of the region.

              Translate translates them.

              Scale scales them.

              SkewX  and SkewY skew them with respect to the ori­
              gen of the main image or the region.

              The  transformations  modify  the  current   affine
              matrix,  which  is  initialized  from  the  initial
              affine  matrix  defined  by  the  -affine   option.
              Transformations  are  cumulative  within  the -draw
              option.  The initial affine matrix is not affected;
              that  matrix  is  only changed by the appearance of
              another -affine option.  If  another  -draw  option
              appears, the current affine matrix is reinitialized
              from the initial affine matrix.
              coordinate.  The  point  method recolors the target
              pixel. The replace method recolors any  pixel  that
              matches  the  color of the target pixel.  Floodfill
              recolors any pixel that matches the  color  of  the
              target  pixel and is a neighbor, whereas filltobor­
              der recolors any neighbor pixel  that  is  not  the
              border color. Finally, reset recolors all pixels.

              Use  matte  to  the change the pixel matte value to
              transparent. Follow the  pixel  coordinate  with  a
              method  (see  the color primitive for a description
              of methods). The point  method  changes  the  matte
              value  of  the  target  pixel.  The  replace method
              changes the matte value of any pixel  that  matches
              the  color  of  the target pixel. Floodfill changes
              the matte value of any pixel that matches the color
              of  the  target  pixel  and  is a neighbor, whereas
              filltoborder changes the matte value of any  neigh­
              bor  pixel  that  is not the border color (-border­
              color).  Finally reset changes the matte  value  of
              all pixels.

              You  can  set  the  primitive color, font, and font
              bounding box color  with  -fill,  -font,  and  -box
              respectively. Options are processed in command line
              order so be sure to use these  options  before  the
              -draw option.

       -edge <radius>
              detect edges within an image

       -emboss <radius>
              emboss an image

       -encoding <type>
              specify the text encoding

              Choose   from   AdobeCustom,   AdobeExpert,  Adobe­
              Standard, AppleRoman, BIG5, GB2312, Latin 2,  None,
              SJIScode, Symbol, Unicode, Wansung.

       -endian <type>
              specify endianness (MSB or LSB) of output image

              Use +endian to revert to unspecified endianness.

       -enhance
                  name                 ("convert -list color"  to
              see names)
                  #RGB                  (R,G,B are hex numbers, 4
              bits each)
                  #RRGGBB              (8 bits each)
                  #RRRGGGBBB           (12 bits each)
                  #RRRRGGGGBBBB        (16 bits each)
                  #RGBA                (4 bits each)
                  #RRGGBBAA            (8 bits each)
                  #RRRGGGBBBAAA        (12 bits each)
                  #RRRRGGGGBBBBAAAA    (16 bits each)
                  rgb(r,g,b)           (r,g,b  are  decimal  num­
              bers)
                  rgba(r,g,b,a)         (r,g,b,a are decimal num­
              bers)

              Enclose the color specification in quotation  marks
              to  prevent  the  "#" or the parentheses from being
              interpreted by your shell.

              For example,

                  convert -fill blue ...
                  convert -fill "#ddddff" ...
                  convert -fill "rgb(65000,65000,65535)" ...

              The shorter forms are scaled up,  if  necessary  by
              replication.    For  example,  #3af,  #33aaff,  and
              #3333aaaaffff are all equivalent.

              See -draw for further details.

       -filter <type>
              use this type of filter when resizing an image

              Use this option to affect the resizing operation of
              an  image  (see -geometry).  Choose from these fil­
              ters:

                   Point
                   Box
                   Triangle
                   Hermite
                   Hanning
                   Hamming
                   Blackman
                   Gaussian
                   Quadratic
                   Cubic
                   Catrom

              The sequence of images is terminated by the appear­
              ance of any option.  If the -flatten option appears
              after all of the input images, all images are flat­
              tened.

       -flip  create a "mirror image"

              reflect the scanlines in the vertical direction.

       -flop  create a "mirror image"

              reflect  the scanlines in the horizontal direction.

       -font <name>
              use this font when annotating the image with text

              You can tag a font  to  specify  whether  it  is  a
              PostScript,  TrueType,  or OPTION1 font.  For exam­
              ple, Arial.ttf is a TrueType font, ps:helvetica  is
              PostScript, and x:fixed is OPTION1.

       -foreground <color>
              define the foreground color

              The  color  is specified using the format described
              under the -fill option.

       -format <type>
              the image format type

              When used with the  mogrify  utility,  this  option
              will  convert  any  image  to  the image format you
              specify.  See ImageMagick(1) for a  list  of  image
              format types supported by ImageMagick.

              By  default  the  file  is  written to its original
              name.  However, if the filename extension matches a
              supported  format,  the  extension is replaced with
              the image format type specified with -format.   For
              example, if you specify tiff as the format type and
              the input image filename is image.gif,  the  output
              image filename becomes image.tiff.

       -format <string>
              output formatted image characteristics

                   %k   number of unique colors
                   %l   label
                   %m   magick
                   %n   number of scenes
                   %o   output filename
                   %p   page number
                   %q   quantum depth
                   %s   scene number
                   %t   top of filename
                   %u   unique temporary filename
                   %w   width
                   %x   x resolution
                   %y   y resolution
                   %#   signature
                   \n   newline
                   \r   carriage return

              For example,

                   -format "%m:%f %wx%h"

              displays MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image titled
              bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is @,  the  format
              is read from a file titled by the remaining charac­
              ters in the string.

              You can also use the following  special  formatting
              syntax  to  print Exif information contained in the
              file:

                   %[EXIF:<tag>]

              Where "<tag>" can be one of the following:

                   *  (print all Exif tags, in keyword=data  for­
              mat)
                   !   (print  all  Exif tags, in tag_number data
              format)
                   #hhhh (print data for Exif tag #hhhh)
                   ImageWidth
                   ImageLength
                   BitsPerSample
                   Compression
                   PhotometricInterpretation
                   FillOrder
                   DocumentName
                   ImageDescription
                   Make
                   Model
                   StripOffsets
                   TransferRange
                   JPEGProc
                   JPEGInterchangeFormat
                   JPEGInterchangeFormatLength
                   YCbCrCoefficients
                   YCbCrSubSampling
                   YCbCrPositioning
                   ReferenceBlackWhite
                   CFARepeatPatternDim
                   CFAPattern
                   BatteryLevel
                   Copyright
                   ExposureTime
                   FNumber
                   IPTC/NAA
                   ExifOffset
                   InterColorProfile
                   ExposureProgram
                   SpectralSensitivity
                   GPSInfo
                   ISOSpeedRatings
                   OECF
                   ExifVersion
                   DateTimeOriginal
                   DateTimeDigitized
                   ComponentsConfiguration
                   CompressedBitsPerPixel
                   ShutterSpeedValue
                   ApertureValue
                   BrightnessValue
                   ExposureBiasValue
                   MaxApertureValue
                   SubjectDistance
                   MeteringMode
                   LightSource
                   Flash
                   FocalLength
                   MakerNote
                   UserComment
                   SubSecTime
                   SubSecTimeOriginal
                   SubSecTimeDigitized
                   FlashPixVersion
                   ColorSpace
                   ExifImageWidth
                   ExifImageLength
                   InteroperabilityOffset
                   FlashEnergy
                   SpatialFrequencyResponse
                   FocalPlaneXResolution
                   FocalPlaneYResolution
                   FocalPlaneResolutionUnit

              See -geometry for details about the geometry speci­
              fication.  The -frame option is not affected by the
              -gravity option.

              The color of the border is specified with the -mat­
              tecolor command line option.

       -frame include the X window frame in the imported image

       -fuzz <distance>{%}
              colors within this distance are considered equal

              A  number  of algorithms search for a target color.
              By default the color must be exact. Use this option
              to  match colors that are close to the target color
              in RGB space. For example, if you want to automati­
              cally trim the edges of an image with -trim but the
              image was scanned and the target  background  color
              may  differ  by  a  small  amount.  This option can
              account for these differences.

              The distance can be in absolute intensity units or,
              by  appending  "%",  as a percentage of the maximum
              possible intensity (255 or 65535).

       -gamma <value>
              level of gamma correction

              The same color image  displayed  on  two  different
              workstations  may look different due to differences
              in the display monitor.  Use  gamma  correction  to
              adjust for this color difference. Reasonable values
              extend from 0.8 to 2.3.  Gamma less than 1.0  dark­
              ens  the  image and gamma greater than 1.0 lightens
              it.

              You can apply separate gamma  values  to  the  red,
              green,  and blue channels of the image with a gamma
              value   list   delimited   with   slashes    (e.g.,
              1.7/2.3/1.2).

              Use +gamma value to set the image gamma level with­
              out  actually  adjusting  the  image  pixels.  This
              option  is  useful if the image is of a known gamma
              but  not  set  as  an  image  attribute  (e.g.  PNG
              images).

              By  default,  the width and height are maximum val­
              ues. That is, the image is expanded  or  contracted
              to fit the width and height value while maintaining
              the aspect ratio of the image. Append  an  exclama­
              tion  point to the geometry to force the image size
              to exactly the size you specify.  For  example,  if
              you  specify 640x480! the image width is set to 640
              pixels and height to 480.

              If only the width is specified, the  width  assumes
              the  value and the height is chosen to maintain the
              aspect ratio of the image.  Similarly, if only  the
              height  is  specified  (e.g.,  -geometry x256), the
              width is chosen to maintain the aspect ratio.

              To specify a percentage width  or  height  instead,
              append %. The image size is multiplied by the width
              and height percentages to obtain  the  final  image
              dimensions. To increase the size of an image, use a
              value greater than 100 (e.g. 125%). To decrease  an
              image's size, use a percentage less than 100.

              Use  @  to specify the maximum area in pixels of an
              image.

              Use > to change the dimensions of the image only if
              its width or height exceeds the geometry specifica­
              tion. < resizes the  image  only  if  both  of  its
              dimensions  are  less  than the geometry specifica­
              tion. For example, if you  specify  '640x480>'  and
              the  image size is 256x256, the image size does not
              change.  However,  if  the  image  is  512x512   or
              1024x1024,  it  is resized to 480x480.  Enclose the
              geometry specification in quotation marks  to  pre­
              vent  the  <  or  >  from being interpreted by your
              shell as a file redirection.

              When used with animate  and  display,  offsets  are
              handled  in  the  same  manner  as  in X(1) and the
              -gravity option is not used.  If the x is negative,
              the offset is measured leftward from the right edge
              of the screen to the right edge of the image  being
              displayed.    Similarly,  negative  y  is  measured
              between the bottom  edges.   The  offsets  are  not
              affected  by  "%"; they are always measured in pix­
              measured in pixels.  To specify the  dimensions  of
              the composite image, use the -resize option.

              When  used  as a convert, import or mogrify option,
              -geometry is synonymous with -resize and  specifies
              the size of the output image.  The offsets, if pre­
              sent, are ignored.

              When used as a montage option, -geometry  specifies
              the  image  size  and  border  size  for each tile;
              default is 256x256+0+0.  Negative  offsets  (border
              dimensions)  are  meaningless.  The -gravity option
              affects the placement of the image within the tile;
              the default gravity for this purpose is Center.  If
              the "%" sign appears in the geometry specification,
              the  tile  size  is the specified percentage of the
              original dimensions of the first tile.  To  specify
              the  dimensions  of  the  montage,  use the -resize
              option.

       -gravity <type>
              direction primitive  gravitates to when  annotating
              the image.

              Choices  are:  NorthWest,  North,  NorthEast, West,
              Center, East, SouthWest, South, SouthEast.

              The direction you choose specifies where  to  posi­
              tion  the text when annotating the image. For exam­
              ple Center gravity forces the text to  be  centered
              within  the image. By default, the image gravity is
              NorthWest.   See  -draw  for  more  details   about
              graphic  primitives.   Only  the  text primitive is
              affected by the -gravity option.

              The -gravity option is also used  in  concert  with
              the  -geometry  option  and other options that take
              <geometry>  as  a  parameter,  such  as  the  -crop
              option.   See  -geometry  for  details  of  how the
              -gravity option interacts  with  the  <x>  and  <y>
              parameters of a geometry specification.

              When used as an option to composite, -gravity gives
              the direction that the image gravitates within  the
              composite.

              Offsets, if present in the geometry  specification,
              are  handled  in  the  same manner as the -geometry
              option, using X11 style to handle negative offsets.

       -iconic
              iconic animation

       -immutable
              make image immutable

       -implode <factor>
              implode image pixels about the center

       -intent <type>
              use this type of rendering intent when managing the
              image color

              Use this option to affect the the color  management
              operation  of an image (see -profile).  Choose from
              these intents: Absolute, Perceptual, Relative, Sat­
              uration

              The default intent is undefined.

       -interlace <type>
              the type of interlacing scheme

              Choices  are:  None, Line, Plane, or Partition. The
              default is None.

              This option is used to specify the type  of  inter­
              lacing  scheme for raw image formats such as RGB or
              YUV.

              None  means  do  not   interlace   (RGBRGBRGBRGBRG­
              BRGB...),

              Line        uses        scanline        interlacing
              (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...), and

              Plane        uses         plane         interlacing
              (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).

              Partition is like plane except the different planes
              are  saved  to  individual  files  (e.g.   image.R,
              image.G, and image.B).

              Use  Line  or  Plane to create an interlaced PNG or
              If you want the label to be visible  on  the  image
              itself,  use  the  -draw  option.  See -comment for
              details.

              For example,

                   -label "%m:%f %wx%h"

              produces an image label of  MIFF:bird.miff  512x480
              for  an  image  titled bird.miff and whose width is
              512 and height is 480.

              If the first character of string is  @,  the  image
              label  is  read from a file titled by the remaining
              characters in the string.

              When converting to PostScript, use this  option  to
              specify  a  header string to print above the image.
              Specify the label font with -font.

              When creating a montage, by default the label asso­
              ciated  with  an image is displayed with the corre­
              sponding tile  in  the  montage.   Use  the  +label
              option to suppress this behavior.

       -lat <width>x<height>{+-}<offset>{%}
              perform local adaptive thresholding

              Perform local adaptive thresholding using the spec­
              ified width, height, and offset.  The offset  is  a
              distance in sample space from the mean, as an abso­
              lute integer ranging from 0 to the  maximum  sample
              value or as a percentage.

       -level <black_point>{,<white_point>}{%}{,<gamma>}
              adjust the level of image contrast

              Give  one,  two or three values delimited with com­
              mas: black, white, and gamma (e.g. 10,65000,1.0  or
              2%,98%,0.5).  The black and white points range from
              0 to MaxRGB or from 0 to 100%; if the  white  point
              is  omitted  it is set to MaxRGB-black_point.  If a
              "%" sign is present anywhere  in  the  string,  the
              black  and  white points are percentages of MaxRGB.
              Gamma is an exponent that ranges from 0.1  to  10.;
              if it is omitted, the default of 1.0 (no gamma cor­
              rection) is assumed.
              memory  When  the  pixel  cache  reaches the memory
              limit it uses memory mapping.  When that  limit  is
              reached it goes to disk.  If disk has a hard limit,
              the program will fail.

              You can use the option -list resource to  find  out
              the limits.

       -linewidth
              the line width for subsequent draw operations

       -list <type>
              the type of list

              Choices   are:  Delegate,  Format,  Magic,  Module,
              Resource, or Type.

              This option lists information about the ImageMagick
              configuration.

       -log <string>

              This  option  specifies  the  format  for  the  log
              printed when the -debug option is active.

              You can display the following components by  embed­
              ding special format characters:

                   %d   domain
                   %e   event
                   %f   function
                   %l   line
                   %m   module
                   %p   process ID
                   %r   real CPU time
                   %t   wall clock time
                   %u   user CPU time
                   %%   percent sign
                   \n   newline
                   \r   carriage return

              For example:

                  convert -debug coders -log "%u %m:%l %e" in.gif
              out.png

              The default behavior is to print all of the  compo­
              nents.

       -loop <iterations>
              By default, color reduction chooses an optimal  set
              of  colors  that best represent the original image.
              Alternatively, you can choose a particular  set  of
              colors from an image file with this option.

              Use +map to reduce all images in the image sequence
              that follows to a single optimal set of colors that
              best  represent  all  the  images.  The sequence of
              images is  terminated  by  the  appearance  of  any
              option.   If  the  +map option appears after all of
              the input images, all images are mapped.

       -map <type>

              display image using this type.

              [animate or display]

              Choose from these Standard Colormap types:

                   best
                   default
                   gray
                   red
                   green
                   blue

              The X server must support the Standard Colormap you
              choose,  otherwise an error occurs. Use list as the
              type and display  searches  the  list  of  colormap
              types  in top-to-bottom order until one is located.
              See xstdcmap(1) for one way  of  creating  Standard
              Colormaps.

       -mask <filename>
              Specify a clipping mask

              The  image read from the file is used as a clipping
              mask.  It must have  the  same  dimensions  as  the
              image being masked.

              If  the mask image contains an opacity channel, the
              opacity of each pixel is used to define  the  mask.
              Otherwise, the intensity (gray level) of each pixel
              is used.

              Use +mask to remove the clipping mask.

              It is not necessary to use -clip  to  activate  the
              mask; -clip is implied by -mask.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one
       -median <radius>
              apply a median filter to the image

       -mode <value>
              mode of operation

       -modulate <value>
              vary  the  brightness,  saturation,  and  hue of an
              image

              Specify the percent change in brightness, the color
              saturation,  and  the  hue separated by commas. For
              example, to increase the color  brightness  by  20%
              and  decrease the color saturation by 10% and leave
              the hue unchanged, use: -modulate 120,90.

       -monochrome
              transform the image to black and white

       -morph <frames>
              morphs an image sequence

              Both the image pixels and size are linearly  inter­
              polated  to give the appearance of a meta-morphosis
              from one image to the next.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the appear­
              ance  of  any option.  If the -morph option appears
              after all of the input images, all images are  mor­
              phed.

       -mosaic
              create a mosaic from an image or an image sequence

              The  -page  option  can  be  used  to establish the
              dimensions of the mosaic and to locate  the  images
              within the mosaic.

              The sequence of images is terminated by the appear­
              ance of any option.  If the -mosaic option  appears
              after  all  of  the  input  images,  all images are
              included in the mosaic.

       -name  name an image

       -negate
              replace every pixel with its complementary color

              The red, green, and blue intensities  of  an  image
              are  negated.   White becomes black, yellow becomes
              defined as noise if and only if  this  pixel  is  a
              maximum or minimum within the pixel window.

              Use  radius  to  specify the width of the neighbor­
              hood.

              Use +noise followed by a noise type to add noise to
              an image. Choose from these noise types:

                   Uniform
                   Gaussian
                   Multiplicative
                   Impulse
                   Laplacian
                   Poisson

       -noop  NOOP (no option)

              The  -noop  option can be used to terminate a group
              of images and reset all options  to  their  default
              values, when no other option is desired.

       -normalize
              transform  image  to  span  the full range of color
              values

              This is a contrast enhancement technique.

       -opaque <color>
              change this color to the pen color within the image

              The  color  is specified using the format described
              under the -fill option.

              See -fill for more details.

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x>{+-}<y>{%}{!}{<}{>}
              size and location of an image canvas

              Use this option to specify the  dimensions  of  the
              PostScript  page in dots per inch or a TEXT page in
              pixels. The choices for a PostScript page are:

                   11x17         792  1224
                   Ledger       1224   792
                   Legal         612  1008
                   A6            297   421
                   A7            210   297
                   A8            148   210
                   A9            105   148
                   A10            74   105
                   B0           2836  4008
                   B1           2004  2836
                   B2           1418  2004
                   B3           1002  1418
                   B4            709  1002
                   B5            501   709
                   C0           2600  3677
                   C1           1837  2600
                   C2           1298  1837
                   C3            918  1298
                   C4            649   918
                   C5            459   649
                   C6            323   459
                   Flsa          612   936
                   Flse          612   936
                   HalfLetter    396   612

              For convenience you can specify the  page  size  by
              media  (e.g.  A4,  Ledger,  etc.). Otherwise, -page
              behaves  much  like  -geometry  (e.g.   -page  let­
              ter+43+43>).

              This  option  is  also used to place subimages when
              writing to a multi-image format that supports  off­
              sets,  such  as  GIF89 and MNG.  When used for this
              purpose the offsets are always  measured  from  the
              top  left corner of the canvas and are not affected
              by the -gravity option.  To position a GIF  or  MNG
              image,    use   -page{+-}<x>{+-}<y>   (e.g.   -page
              +100+200).  When writing to a  MNG  file,  a  -page
              option  appearing  ahead  of the first image in the
              sequence with nonzero width and height defines  the
              width  and  height  values  that are written in the
              MHDR chunk.  Otherwise, the MNG  width  and  height
              are  computed  from  the bounding box that contains
              all images in the sequence.  When writing  a  GIF89
              file,  only  the  bounding  box  method  is used to
              determine its dimensions.

              For a PostScript page, the image  is  sized  as  in
              -geometry and positioned relative to the lower left
              hand corner of the page by {+-}<xoffset>{+-}<y off­
              set>.  Use  -page  612x792>, for example, to center
              the image  within  the  page.  If  the  image  size
              exceeds  the  PostScript page, it is reduced to fit
              Use +page to remove the page settings for an image.

       -paint <radius>
              simulate an oil painting

              Each pixel is replaced by the most  frequent  color
              in a circular neighborhood whose width is specified
              with radius.

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between animation loops [animate]

              Pause for the specified number  of  seconds  before
              repeating the animation.

       -pause <seconds>
              pause between snapshots [import]

              Pause  for  the  specified number of seconds before
              taking the next snapshot.

       -pen <color>
              (This option has been replaced by the -fill option)

       -ping  efficiently determine image characteristics

       -pointsize <value>
              pointsize  of  the PostScript, OPTION1, or TrueType
              font

       -preview <type>
              image preview type

              Use this option to affect the preview operation  of
              an  image  (e.g.   convert  file.png -preview Gamma
              Preview:gamma.png). Choose from these previews:

                   Rotate
                   Shear
                   Roll
                   Hue
                   Saturation
                   Brightness
                   Gamma
                   Spiff
                   Dull
                   Grayscale
                   Quantize
                   Despeckle
                   ReduceNoise
                   CharcoalDrawing
                   JPEG

              The default preview is JPEG.

       -process <command>
              process a sequence of images

              The sequence of images is terminated by the appear­
              ance of any option.

              If  the  -process  option  appears after all of the
              input images, all images are processed.

       -profile <filename>
              add ICM, IPTC, or generic profile  to image

              -profile filename adds an ICM  (ICC  color  manage­
              ment),  IPTC  (newswire  information), or a generic
              profile to the image.

              Use +profile icm, +profile iptc, or  +profile  pro­
              file_name  to  remove  the respective profile.  Use
              identify -verbose to find out what profiles are  in
              the  image  file.   Use  +profile "*" to remove all
              profiles.

              To extract a profile, the -profile  option  is  not
              used.   Instead,  simply write the file to an image
              format such as APP1, 8BIM, ICM, or IPTC.

              For example, to extract the  Exif  data  (which  is
              stored in JPEG files in the APP1 profile), use

                  convert cockatoo.jpg exifdata.app1

       -quality <value>
              JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level

              For  the  JPEG and MPEG image formats, quality is 0
              (lowest image quality and highest  compression)  to
              100 (best quality but least effective compression).
              The default quality is 75.  Use the  -sampling-fac­
              tor  option to specify the factors for chroma down­
              sampling.

              For the MIFF image format, quality/10 is  the  zlib
              compression  level,  which  is 0 (worst but fastest

                   0: none
                   1: sub
                   2: up
                   3: average
                   4: Paeth

              If  filter-type  is  5,  adaptive filtering is used
              when quality is greater than 50 and the image  does
              not  have  a  color  map, otherwise no filtering is
              used.

              If filter-type is 6, adaptive filtering with  mini­
              mum-sum-of-absolute-values is used.

              Only if the output is MNG, if filter-type is 7, the
              LOCO color transformation  and  adaptive  filtering
              with minimum-sum-of-absolute-values are used.

              The  default  is  quality is 75, which means nearly
              the best compression with adaptive filtering.   The
              quality  setting has no effect on the appearance of
              PNG and MNG images, since the compression is always
              lossless.

              For further information, see the PNG specification.

              When writing a JNG  image  with  transparency,  two
              quality values are required, one for the main image
              and one for the grayscale image  that  conveys  the
              opacity  channel.   These  are  written as a single
              integer equal to the main image quality  plus  1000
              times  the  opacity  quality.   For example, if you
              want to use quality 75 for the main image and qual­
              ity  90  to compress the opacity data, use -quality
              90075.

       -raise <width>x<height>
              lighten or darken image edges

              This will create a 3-D effect.  See  -geometry  for
              details  details  about the geometry specification.
              Offsets are not used.

              Use -raise to create a raised effect, otherwise use

              The only command recognized at  this  time  is  the
              name of an image file to load.

       -render
              render vector operations

              Use  +render  to  turn  off rendering vector opera­
              tions.

       -resize <width>x<height>{%}{@}{!}{<}{>}
              resize an image

              This is an alias for the -geometry  option  and  it
              behaves  in  the same manner. If the -filter option
              precedes the -resize option, the  specified  filter
              is used.

              There are some exceptions:

              When  used  as  a composite option, -resize conveys
              the preferred  size  of  the  output  image,  while
              -geometry  conveys  the  size  and placement of the
              composite image within the main image.

              When used as a montage option, -resize conveys  the
              preferred size of the montage, while -geometry con­
              veys information about the tiles.

       -roll {+-}<x>{+-}<y>
              roll an image vertically or horizontally

              See -geometry for details the  geometry  specifica­
              tion.   The x and y offsets are not affected by the
              -gravity option.

              A negative x  offset rolls the image left-to-right.
              A  negative y offset rolls the image top-to-bottom.

       -rotate <degrees>{<}{>}
              apply Paeth image rotation to the image

              Use > to rotate the image only if its width exceeds
              the  height.  < rotates the image only if its width
              is less than the height. For example, if you  spec­
              ify  -rotate  "-90>" and the image size is 480x640,
              the image is not rotated.  However, if the image is
              640x480,  it is rotated by -90 degrees.  If you use
              the -filter option is present.  Offsets, if present
              in the geometry string, are ignored, and the -grav­
              ity option has no effect.

       -sampling-factor <horizontal_factor>x<vertical_factor>
              sampling factors used by JPEG or MPEG-2 encoder and
              YUV decoder/encoder.

              This option specifies the sampling  factors  to  be
              used  by  the JPEG encoder for chroma downsampling.
              If this option is omitted, the  JPEG  library  will
              use  its own default values.  When reading or writ­
              ing  the  YUV  format  and  when  writing  the  M2V
              (MPEG-2)  format, use -sampling-factor 2x1 to spec­
              ify the 4:2:2 downsampling method.

       -scale <geometry>
              scale the image.

              See -geometry for details about the geometry speci­
              fication.  -scale uses a simpler, faster algorithm,
              and it ignores the -filter selection if the -filter
              option  is  present.   Offsets,  if  present in the
              geometry string,  are  ignored,  and  the  -gravity
              option has no effect.

       -scene <value>
              set scene number

              This  option  sets  the scene number of an image or
              the first image in an image sequence.

       -scenes <value-value>
              range of image scene numbers to read

              Each image in the range is read with  the  filename
              followed by a period (.) and the decimal scene num­
              ber.  You can change this behavior by  embedding  a
              %d, %0Nd, %o, %0No, %x, or %0Nx printf format spec­
              ification in the file name. For example,

                  montage -scenes 5-7 image.miff

              makes   a   montage    of    files    image.miff.5,
              image.miff.6, and image.miff.7, and

                  animate -scenes 0-12 image%02d.miff

              animates  files image00.miff, image01.miff, through
              image12.miff.
              pseudo-random number generator seed value

              The  value  can  be  any  integer in the range 1 to
              2**31-1.  Successive runs with  a  particular  seed
              will  generate  the  same sequence of pseudo-random
              numbers.  If  the  -seed  option  is  not  present,
              ImageMagick will generate a random seed from system
              timers, clocks, etc., so that successive runs  will
              generate  different  sequences.   The pseudo-random
              numbers  are  used  by  options  such  as   -noise,
              -spread, and the plasma format.

       -segment <cluster threshold>x<smoothing threshold>
              segment an image

              Segment an image by analyzing the histograms of the
              color components and  identifying  units  that  are
              homogeneous with the fuzzy c-means technique.

              Specify  cluster  threshold as the number of pixels
              in each cluster must exceed the the cluster thresh­
              old  to  be  considered  valid. Smoothing threshold
              eliminates noise in the second  derivative  of  the
              histogram.   As  the  value  is  increased, you can
              expect a smoother second derivative.   The  default
              is   1.5.  See  "Image  Segmentation",  below,  for
              details.

       -shade <azimuth>x<elevation>
              shade the image using a distant light source

              Specify azimuth and elevation as  the  position  of
              the  light source. Use +shade to return the shading
              results as a grayscale image.

       -shadow <radius>{x<sigma>}
              shadow the montage

       -shared-memory
              use shared memory

              This option specifies whether  the  utility  should
              attempt use shared memory for pixmaps.  ImageMagick
              must be compiled with shared  memory  support,  and
              the  display  must  support  the MIT-SHM extension.
              Otherwise, this option is ignored.  The default  is
              True.


       -shear <x degrees>x<y degrees>
              shear the image along the X or Y axis

              Use the specified positive or negative shear angle.

              Shearing slides one edge of an image along the X or
              Y axis, creating a parallelogram.  An  X  direction
              shear  slides  an  edge along the X axis, while a Y
              direction shear slides an edge along  the  Y  axis.
              The  amount  of  the shear is controlled by a shear
              angle. For X direction shears, x  degrees  is  mea­
              sured  relative to the Y axis, and similarly, for Y
              direction shears y degrees is measured relative  to
              the X axis.

              Empty  triangles  left over from shearing the image
              are filled with the  color  defined  as  background
              (class  backgroundColor).   The  color is specified
              using the format described under the -fill  option.

       -silent
              operate silently

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
              width and height of the image

              Use  this option to specify the width and height of
              raw images whose dimensions  are  unknown  such  as
              GRAY,  RGB,  or  CMYK.  In  addition  to  width and
              height, use -size with an offset to skip any header
              information in the image or tell the number of col­
              ors in a MAP image file, (e.g. -size  640x512+256).

              For Photo CD images, choose from these sizes:

                   192x128
                   384x256
                   768x512
                   1536x1024
                   3072x2048

              Finally,  use  this  option  to choose a particular
              resolution layer of a  JBIG  or  JPEG  image  (e.g.
              -size 1024x768).

       -snaps <value>
              number of screen snapshots
              the development process.

       -spread <amount>
              displace image pixels by a random amount

              Amount defines the size of the neighborhood  around
              each pixel to choose a candidate pixel to swap.

       -stegano <offset>
              hide watermark within an image

              Use an offset to start the image hiding some number
              of pixels from the beginning of  the  image.   Note
              this offset and the image size.  You will need this
              information to  recover  the  steganographic  image
              (e.g.  display -size 320x256+35 stegano:image.png).

       -stereo
              composite two images to create a stereo anaglyph

              The left side of the stereo pair is  saved  as  the
              red channel of the output image.  The right side is
              saved  as  the  green  channel.   Red-green  stereo
              glasses  are  required  to properly view the stereo
              image.

       -stroke <color>
              color to use when stroking a graphic primitive

              The color is specified using the  format  described
              under the -fill option.

              See -draw for further details.

       -strokewidth <value>
              set the stroke width

              See -draw for further details.

       -swirl <degrees>
              swirl image pixels about the center

              Degrees defines the tightness of the swirl.

       -text-font <name>
              name of texture to tile onto the image background

       -threshold <value>{<green>,<blue>,<opacity>}{%}
              threshold the image

              Create an image such that any pixel sample that  is
              equal  or  exceeds  the threshold is reassigned the
              maximum intensity otherwise the minimum  intensity.

              If  the green or blue value is omitted, these chan­
              nels use the same value as the first one  provided.
              If  all three color values are the same, the result
              is a bi-level image.  If the opacity  threshold  is
              omitted,  OpaqueOpacity  will  be used and any par­
              tially transparent pixel will become  fully  trans­
              parent.   If  only  a  single  0 is provided, auto-
              thresholding will be performed.

              To generate an all-black or  all-white  image  with
              the same dimensions as the input image, you can use

                  convert -threshold 65535 in.png black.png
                  convert -threshold 0,0 in.png white.png

       -tile <filename>
              tile image when filling a graphic primitive

       -tile <geometry>
              layout of images [montage]

       -title <string>
              assign title to displayed image [animate,  display,
              montage]

              Use  this  option to assign a specific title to the
              image. This is assigned to the image window and  is
              typically   displayed  in  the  window  title  bar.
              Optionally you  can  include  the  image  filename,
              type,  width,  height,  Exif  data,  or other image
              attribute by embedding  special  format  characters
              described under the -format option.

              For example,

                   -title "%m:%f %wx%h"

              produces  an  image title of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480
              for an image titled bird.miff and  whose  width  is
              512 and height is 480.

              The  color  is specified using the format described
              under the -fill option.

       -treedepth <value>
              tree depth for the color reduction algorithm

              Normally, this integer value is zero or one. A zero
              or  one  tells  display  to  choose an optimal tree
              depth for the color reduction algorithm

              An optimal depth generally allows the  best  repre­
              sentation of the source image with the fastest com­
              putational speed and the least  amount  of  memory.
              However,  the  default  depth  is inappropriate for
              some images. To assure the best representation, try
              values  between  2 and 8 for this parameter.  Refer
              to quantize for more details.

              The -colors or -monochrome option is  required  for
              this option to take effect.

       -trim  trim an image

              This  option removes any edges that are exactly the
              same color as the corner pixels.  Use -fuzz to make
              -trim  remove  edges that are nearly the same color
              as the corner pixels.

       -type <type>
              the image type

              Choose from: Bilevel, Grayscale, Palette, PaletteM­
              atte,  TrueColor,  TrueColorMatte, ColorSeparation,
              ColorSeparationMatte, or Optimize.

              Normally, when a format supports different  subfor­
              mats  such  as grayscale and truecolor, the encoder
              will try to choose  an  efficient  subformat.   The
              -type  option  can be used to overrride this behav­
              ior.  For example, to prevent  a  JPEG  from  being
              written  in  grayscale format even though only gray
              pixels are present, use

                  convert bird.pgm -type TrueColor bird.jpg

              Similarly, using -type  TrueColorMatte  will  force
              the  encoder  to write an alpha channel even though

       -units <type>
              the type of image resolution

              Choose  from:  Undefined,  PixelsPerInch,  or  Pix­
              elsPerCentimeter.

       -unsharp <radius>{x<sigma>}{+<amount>}{+<threshold>}
              sharpen the image with an unsharp mask operator

              The -unsharp option sharpens an image.  We convolve
              the  image  with  a  Gaussian operator of the given
              radius and standard deviation (sigma).  For reason­
              able  results,  radius should be larger than sigma.
              Use a radius of 0 to have the method select a suit­
              able radius.

              The parameters are:

                  radius:     The radius of the Gaussian, in pix­
              els,  not
                             counting the center  pixel  (default
              0).
                  sigma:      The standard deviation of the Gaus­
              sian, in
                             pixels (default 1.0).
                  amount:    The  percentage  of  the  difference
              between the
                             original  and the blur image that is
              added back
                             into the original (default 1.0).
                  threshold: The  threshold,  as  a  fraction  of
              MaxRGB, needed
                             to   apply   the  difference  amount
              (default 0.05).

       -use-pixmap
              use the pixmap

       -verbose
              print detailed information about the image

              This information is printed:  image  scene  number;
              image  name;  image  size; the image class (Direct­
              Class or PseudoClass); the total number  of  unique
              colors;  and  the  number  of  seconds  to read and
              transform the image.  Refer to miff for a  descrip­
              tion of the image class.


              This option defines "virtual  pixels"  for  use  in
              operations  that  can  access  pixels  outside  the
              boundaries of an image.

              Choose from these methods:

                  Constant:  Use the image background color.
                  Edge:      Extend the edge pixel toward  infin­
              ity (default).
                  Mirror:    Mirror the image.
                  Tile:      Tile the image.

              This  option  affects  operations  that use virtual
              pixels such as -blur, -sharpen, -wave, etc.

       -visual <type>
              animate images using this X visual type

              Choose from these visual classes:

                   StaticGray
                   GrayScale
                   StaticColor
                   PseudoColor
                   TrueColor
                   DirectColor
                   default
                   visual id

              The X server must support the  visual  you  choose,
              otherwise  an  error  occurs.   If  a visual is not
              specified, the visual class that  can  display  the
              most  simultaneous  colors on the default screen is
              chosen.

       -watermark <brightness>x<saturation>
              percent brightness and saturation of a watermark

       -wave <amplitude>x<wavelength>
              alter an image along a sine wave

              Specify amplitude and wavelength of the wave.

       -white-point <x>,<y>
              chromaticity white point

       -window <id>
              window colormap allows.  Use -colors to reduce  the
              number of colors.

       -window-group
              specify the window group

       -write <filename>
              write  an image sequence [convert, composite]

              The image sequence following the -write filenameop­
              tion is written out, and then processing  continues
              with  the  same image in its current state if there
              are additional options.  To restore  the  image  to
              its original state after writing it, use the +write
              filename option.

       -write <filename>
              write the image to a file [display]

              If filename already exists, you will be prompted as
              to whether it should be overwritten.

              By default, the image is written in the format that
              it was read in as.  To specify a  particular  image
              format,  prefix  filename with the image type and a
              colon (e.g., ps:image) or specify the image type as
              the  filename  suffix  (e.g.,  image.ps).  See con­
              vert(1) for a list of valid image formats.  Specify
              file  as  -  for  standard  output. If file has the
              extension .Z  or  gzip  respectively.  Precede  the
              image file name with | to pipe to a system command.

              Use -compress to specify the type of image compres­
              sion.

              The equivalent X resource for this option is write­
              Filename (class WriteFilename).  See "X Resources",
              below, for details.


ENVIRONMENT

       DISPLAY
              To  get  the  default  host,  display  number,  and
              screen.


SEE ALSO

       animate(1),  display(1),  animate(1),  display(1),   iden­
       tify(1), import(1), montage(1), mogrify(1), composite(1)


COPYRIGHT


       The software is provided "as is", without warranty of  any
       kind, express or implied, including but not limited to the
       warranties of merchantability, fitness  for  a  particular
       purpose  and noninfringement.In no event shall ImageMagick
       Studio be liable for any claim, damages or  other  liabil­
       ity,  whether in an action of contract, tort or otherwise,
       arising from, out of or in connection with ImageMagick  or
       the use or other dealings in ImageMagick.

       Except  as  contained  in  this  notice,  the  name of the
       ImageMagick Studio LLC shall not be used in advertising or
       otherwise  to  promote  the sale, use or other dealings in
       ImageMagick without prior written authorization  from  the
       ImageMagick Studio.


AUTHORS

       John Cristy, ImageMagick Studio LLC,
       Glenn Randers-Pehrson, ImageMagick Studio LLC.

ImageMagick         Date: 2003/01/01 01:00:00      ImageMagick(1)
  




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