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Linux Tutorial - Networking - TCP-IP - Subnet Masks
  Network Standards ---- Routing and IP Gateways  


Subnet Masks

Subnet masks are 32-bit values that allow the recipient of IP packets to distinguish the network ID portion of the IP address from the host ID. Like an IP address, the value of a subnet mask is frequently represented in dotted decimal notation. Subnet masks are determined by assigning 1's to bits that belong to the network ID and 0's to the bits that belong to the host ID. Once the bits are in place, the 32-bit value is converted to dotted decimal notation, as shown in the table below.

Address classBits for subnet maskSubnet mask
Class A11111111 00000000 00000000 00000000255.0.0.0
Class B11111111 11111111 00000000 00000000255.255.0.0
Class C11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000255.255.255.0

Table - Default Subnet Masks for Standard IP Address Classes

The result allows TCP/IP to determine the host and network IDs of the local computer. For example, when the IP address is 102.54.94.97 and the subnet mask is 255.255.0.0, the network ID is 102.54 and the host ID is 94.97.

Keep in mind that all of this with the subnet masks is the principle and not necessarily the practice. If you (meaning your company) has been assigned a Class B address, then the the first two octets are assigned to you. You could then breakdown the class B net into Class C nets. If we take a look at Table 0\1, we see that there are 65,534 possible nodes in that network. That is really too many to manage.

However, if we considered each of the third octets to represent a sub-net of our class B network, they would all have 254 possible nodes per sub-net. This is basically what a class C net is anyway. We can then assign each sub-net to a department or building and then assign one person to manage each of the class C sub-nets, which is a little easier to do.

To keep the different class C subnet from interfering with each other, we give each sub-net a Class C subnet-mask, although the first octet is in the range for a Class B network. That way machines on this subnet are only concerned with packets for the subnet. We can also break down the sub-nets physically so that there is a gateway or router between the subnets. That way the physical network is not overburdened with traffic from 65,534 machines.

Let's look at an example. Assume your company uses the Class B address 172.16.0.0. The different departments within the company are assigned a class C address that might look like this: 172.16.144.0. Although the first octet (172) says that this is a class B address, it is really the subnet-mask that makes that determination. In this case, our subnet mask would be: 255.255.255.0. Therefore, any packet that is destined for an address other than one starting 172.16.144.0 is not on this network.

It is the responsibility of IP to ensure that each packet ends up going to the right machine. This is accomplished, in part, by assigned a unique address to each machine. This address is referred to as the Internet address or IP address. Each network gets a set of these IP addresses that are within a specific range. In general, packets that are destined for an IP address within that range will stay within the local network. Only when a packet is destined for somewhere outside of the local network is it "allowed" to pass.

In other words, IP is responsible for the delivery of the packet. It functions similar to the post office, whereby you have both a sending and receiving address. Often times you have many more letters than a single mail bag can handle. The mail carrier (or someone else at the post office) will break down the number of letters into sets small enough to fit in a bag. This is what IP does.

Since there are many people using the line all at once, IP will break down the TCP packets into units of a specific size. Although often referred to also a packets, the more correct terminology is to refer to IP packets as datagrams. Just like bags of mail need to go from one post office to the next to reach their final destination, IP datagrams must often go through different machines to reach their final destination.

Saying that IP routing can be accomplished completely in software isn't entirely accurate. Although, no physical router is needed, IP can't send a packet to someplace where there is no physical connection. This is normally accomplished by an additional network card. With two (or more) network cards a single machine can be connected to multiple networks. The IP layer on that one machine can then be used to route IP packets between the two networks.

Once configured (how that's done, we'll talk about later), IP maintains a table of routing information, called (logically) a routing table. Every time the IP layer receives a packet, it checks the destination address

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Copyright 2002-2009 by James Mohr. Licensed under modified GNU Free Documentation License (Portions of this material originally published by Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc). See here for details. All rights reserved.
  




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