Hardware Diagnostic Tools
Since the world
is not perfect you will eventually have to deal with a crashed system. In many
cases, how the system behaves when it boots (or doesn't boot) will give you an
indication of what is going on. However, it also will happen that there is
nothing that specifically identifies the problem. It is also possible that your
system boots fine, but exhibits odd behavior has it is running. The most common
solution for this kind of problems on Windows machines is to re-install.
However, this only corrects the problem if is related to the software. What
about hardware problems?
There are a number of hardware diagnostic tools on
the market. Some run under Windows, whereas others have their own "operating
system" which you can boot, allowing you to directly
access the hardware. Those that run as stand alone products, typically have a
much wider range of tests they can conduct because they are not limited by the
operating system. Keep in mind that this more that just
reporting the IRQ or base address of
the devices. These products actually test the various components of your system.
Personally, I think you should use tools which run under the
operating system in conjunction with stand-alone products.
It is possible that you might get incorrect results if you are running under
any operating system as it often "interprets" the information for you. Although
this is useful for "configuration" issues, defects and other problems are often
There are also a few products that come with interface cards
that are inserted to the bus, allowing you to diagnose
problems even when your system cannot boot. These have a
small, digital display on the card which shows you the post code being sent
across the bus. Based on the code, you can determine where the problem lies.
In general, the software products have a common set of tests they run
through. The tests normally include:
Video Alignment Aids
Floppy Disk Drive
Hard Disk Tests (0 & 1)
Main Memory Tests
One of the key features to
look at is the extent to which you can configure these tests. This might mean
defining a specific set of tests to run, as well as how many times to run each
test. Both are important aspects. If you already have an idea of where the
problem is, you should not have to wait for the program to run through
unnecessary tests. Also, with hardware you often have sporadic problems.
Therefore, you might have to run the test continually for an extended length of
time before the problem re-appears.
Another thing to look at is what values
or configuration settings can be changed. Keep in mind that changing settings is
not always a good thing. Particularly if a novice is running the tests.
If you are concerned with diagnosing PC hardware
problems, take a look at the wide range of products that Micro2000 has to
offer. The products range from self-booting diagnostic tools to
POST reader cards to remote diagnostics and beyond.
Micro-Scope is their self-booting diagnostic tool that can run on any PC.
Regardless of the CPU manufacturer (Intel, Cyrix or AMD) or
bus (ISA, EISA,
MCA, PCI, and PCMCIA), Micro-Scope can
identify problems on your PC. Version 7 (the newest, as of this writing)
contains tests for your CD-ROM drive, without the need to
load DOS-based CD-ROM drivers. Something which many other diagnostic tools do
not have. In addition, the version 7 also contains support for the AMD K6-II and
Intel Xeon processor, even those with a clock speed above 500Mhz. Upgrades for
new processors are available for download from the internet.
simply report on the problems they find. However, Micro-Scope not only allows
you to make changes, but also gives you detailed benchmarks of your system. This
is useful when you "feel" something is wrong with your machine, but there is no
identifiable hardware problem. With the report generated by the benchmark, you
can see if the machine is performing as it should.
During the testing,
Micro-Scope examines the CMOS and POST
information. Anything that is inaccurate or questionable is flagged, allowing
you to change it as needed. Part of this is being able to accurately identify
your hardware, including brand name and model. This is extremely useful when
buying brand name computers, which normally do not tell you exactly what
components you have.
Microscope supports all common bus
types including ISA, EISA,
PCI and Microchannel. You can even display the POS
registers on IBM PS/2 systems, including all slots, which adapters are in which
slot, which ADF (adapter description file) to use and
whether the ADF is loaded.
In addition to being able to diagnose
CD-ROM problems, Micro-Scope can test many other
multi-media components, such as DVD drives and sound cards. It has full
synthesizer tests and can test the volume and left-right channels of your sound
Tests can be run once or repeatedly. The results of which can either
be printer out or saved to disk (or just viewed on-screen if you want). In
addition, you can use the printscreen capability to print directly from the
As with other products, Micro-Scope will
thoroughly check your memory, using all of the common tests (checkerboard,
walking-ones, etc.). Low memory is tested before the entire program is loaded,
which is then relocated in memory to enable you to test all of your memory,
regardless of how much you have. In addition, Micro-Scope will tell you exactly
what bank is failing. This includes the ability to test internal and external
system cache, as well as video RAM up
Another bonus is the tools Micro-Scope has for data recovery. It
can identify and correct many problems in the master boot
record of your hard disk. It also includes an editor to allow you to make
changes your self anywhere on the disk (assuming you have the knowledge to do
In addition, to free download of patches, Micro-Scope comes with
lifetime technical support. After using the program, I find it difficult to
conceive of a reason why someone would need to call to support, as it is so
intuitive, but the offer is nice. The product package contains both 3.5" and
5.25" disks, a use's manual, as well as 9 pin serial, 25 pin serial, and 25 pin
parallel loopback connectors, to diagnose serial and parallel port problems.
Unfortunately, something like Micro-Scope cannot always do the job. This
happens when your system just won't boot for any number of
reasons. Using a diskette with it's own operating
system does no good, because the computer does not get that far to
boot from anywhere. This is where Micro2000's product POST-Probe comes in handy.
As it's name implies, POST-Probe monitors the POST codes
being sent across your system bus as the computer is
booting. It can fit into any ISA,
EISA, PCU or MCA slot (although it
requires the included adapter for the MCA). These codes are displayed on two
seven-segment displays, indicating what the POST is testing at the moment.
There are also four LEDs which monitor the power, as well as four voltage
pads (+5vdc, -5vdc, +12vdc, -12vdc and an additional 3.3V for PCI) to test the
system using a voltmeter.
There are additional LEDs which monitor clock
signals, the RESET signal and I/O
reads and writes. You can therefore use POST-Probe after your system is running
to identify other bus problems and possible problems with
When your system stops, the last code displayed gives
you an indication of what is wrong. Although the code does not always tell you
the exact place where there is a problem, the included user's manual lists these
phases of the POST. By looking at the steps around where it
stopped, I have never not found the problem. In one instance, I accidentally
loosed up the cable to my hard disk. When I tried to boot
nothing happen. Using the POST-Probe I quickly found the problem.
As I will
talk about in later chapters, I am a stickler for documentation. I am really
impressed with the POST-Probe manual. It is written in an easy to understand
language. POST failure codes are on the left side of each
page, with the description the device or chip that is causing the problem. This
helps finding and understanding the problem.
For the true profession,
Micro200 has combined Micro-Scope and POST-Probe into a single product, which
they call the Universal Diagnostics Toolkit. Both products are combined in the
full version within a case, which is not only large enough to hold both product,
but tools and many other things. Each product as the same lifetime technical
support as the stand-alone versions.
Micro2000's product Burn-In takes much
of the functionality of Micro-Scope to the next level. As it's name implies, it
is used to conduct "burn-in" tests of computers. This can be either new machines
or ones that you have repaired. This is an extremely useful tool to prevent
deploying products that will only cause you problems down the road. Particularly
in cases where machines have multiple problems and only one is correct, burn-in
tests can save you a great deal of both time and money.
Burn-In is compatible with all CPU manufacturers and system
buses. In addition, Burn-In performs all of the same tests that Micro-scope
Burn-In has a couple of very useful features for companies that
install a larger number of PCs at once. First, the tests can be run without a
monitor or keyboard. Therefore, you need a lot less space allowing you to simply
stack up the PCs and run a large number of tests at once.
Using the floppy drive light and speaker, the program send a few signals to the
technician when it needs a "scratch" disk or the loopback plugs. Other than
that, the program runs completely on it's one, saving the results to disk.
As the tests are run, Burn-In writes a complete log to the scratch disk you
provided. Since the log is ASCII, you can read it with
any text editor. In addition, the log is being update the
entire time. Therefore, if something should happen to the machine (like someone
accidentally pulling the plug), Burn-In will be able to continue where it left
In addition, you only need to run the setup once. The test
configuration is then saved and performed the same way each time the disk is
booted. If the program determines that hardware is not present for a test is was
selected to do, that test is simply skipped, without the need to configure the
test for different hardware variations.
Windsor Technologies is a powerful and very inexpensive stand-alone diagnostic
tool. Although you could order it with all of the packaging, you can save time,
money and trees by ordering and then downloading it from the web. As of this
writing it is just $9.95, which is a fraction of most other products.
One key aspect is that it is designed specifically for users with less experience.
Although it has most of the features of high-end tools, the emphasis is on ease
of use, as well as providing the user with sufficient information to diagnose
This is a stand-alone product, in that it can be booted from a
floppy. This sounds confusing at first, because you download it from the
Internet. What you download is a program which allows you to create the bootable
floppies. Once booted, TuffTEST "takes over" the computer, without the need for
an operating system like DOS or
Windows. As I mentioned before, often this yields more accurate results.
TuffTEST has its own set of device drivers, which can access hardware directly.
Windsor boasts that TuffTEST is "safe for use by anyone." This is because
none of the tests change data on the hard disk. In addition, the program is so
configure that once it boots, it will wait 10 seconds for a menu selection and
if no key is pressed it runs through the complete suite of tests.
advantage of TuffTEST is that it is complete written in assembly language which
means more compact code, and faster execution. In addition, it take up just
125K of memory, which is actually relocated when then program runs. This ensures
that every memory locations is tested. In other cases, the program is actually
too large to be able to check all of memory.
TuffTEST is not just a diagnostic
tool as it can also display all of your hardware configuration information.
This information can then be printed or saved to the disk. Each saved session
contains the test results as well as the system configuration. Since you can
save up to five previous sessions, you can compare the results from multiple
Higher up on the scale is TuffTEST PRO, this is intended for the
professional. This has the same basic functionality plus you can edit your
configuration and make other changes to your system. Like TuffTEST. TuffTEST PRO
is a stand-alone product, meaning you boot your
operating system from the diskette and
it becomes your operating system.
In addition, there are a number of tests
that TuffTEST PRO has that are not included in TuffTEST. For example, TuffTEST
PRO can report in the switch positions on your motherboard, conduct
I/O tests on your serial and parallel ports, determine the
optimal interleave and low-level your harddisk, and many other tests. Using the
optional loopback test, you can do I/O tests on your serial and parallel ports.
One of the most interesting aspects of TuffTEST is sales approach. You can
order a packaged version f the product, including a printed manual , if you
feel it is necessary. However, there really is no need. The on-line manual
contains all of the necessary information, plus the product is extremely
Lifetime support is provided for free. However, the product is so
easy to use it is hard to think of reason why you would need to call them. In
addition, updates range from free for minor changes to a slight fee for major
The PC Technology Guide
If you feel
you are overwhelmed by all the different hardware technologies, you're not
alone. Quite rankly there are a lot of different kinds of hardware and it is
extremely difficult to be really familiar with all of it, especially if you have
other duties to perform. However, at one time or another you're going to need to
know about different kinds of hardware, so you will either need to learn all
yourself, hire someone who already know it all, or find a source of information
that can deliver the necessary information efficiently.
In this context,
efficiency has two key aspects. The first is related to speed. If it takes
until tomorrow to get the information you need (like being through stacks and
stacks of old magazines), it is not very efficient. Even if you know that the
information is in that stack "somewhere," it does you
little good if you spend hours or even days looking for it.
efficiency is also related to the amount of information available to you. This
does not mean you need access to all of the material ever written about PC
hardware. Instead, the opposite is often more true. That is, sometimes the
information available is just too much. You cannot see the forest for the trees.
If the amount of information keeps you from getting at what you need, it is not
I often encounter "information overload" when I'm confronted
by new technology. I'm interested in earning what it's all about and browse
the Web site of a vendor who offers this technology. It is loaded with
technology briefs, press releases, white papers, and many other documents
describing the technology. Unfortunately, more often than not where I would expect
to find a description of the technology, I end up with what equates to nothing
more than the marketing blurb about how wonderfully this company has implemented
Even if there are technical papers about the technology,
I'm often confronted with a problem with new technology that there is often not
enough background information to understand what the papers talking
about. So I have to go running to some other site to find out the technical
background to understand technical background of this new technology.
Therefore, when I came across the PC technology guide Web site
(www.pctechguide.com), I was amazed to find so much useful information in one
place. The site explicitly states it is"aimed more at the PC hobbiest than the
IT professional." However, I feel that the authors "aim" is off as this site
provides the wealth of information for the hobbiest and the IT professional.
One key issue that is overlooked by many people is just what "IT
professional" means today. As late as the mid-90s, and IT professional had to be
a jack of all trades. You had to know about hardware, operating systems,
networking, programming, and all of the other areas which falls under the
heading of "information technology." Today, people within the IT profession are
becoming more and more specialized. It is not unreasonable to find an
outstanding database administrator, who knows little about
the underlying hardware. He or she does not need to know this as the
operating system should provide the necessary level of
Therefore, something like the PC technology guide provides an
outstanding resource for anyone including IT professionals who need to find out
more information about the hardware technology aspects of IT. Plus, it is
loaded with detailed images, which help you to understand the technology being
discussed. Being Web pages has the extra added advantage of having links to
different places on the site. Therefore, you do not need to go hunting defined
details. You just click on the link and you are there.
The site's author,
Dave Anderson, has also considered the wishes of people who want continual access
to the information. Dave provides the PC technology guide on CD, which you can
order on the Web site. This is definitely well worth the money. For less than
the cost of any good book on the subject, you have immediate access to the
information you need. Since it only takes up about 25 MB, including all of the
information stored in MS-Word documents, there is no reason not to copy it to
your hard disk.
Although a separate browser is provided with the product,
which allows you to access the pages, preferred using a separate browser such
as Netscape Navigator. By purchasing a site license, you could easily link in
the PC technology guide into your Intranet, making it available to all of your
users. In addition, regular updates of the CD are provided.