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Linux Tutorial Topics: 

Note that any given object can relate to more than one topic, so it is likely that pages will appear more than once. For example, concepts may relate to topics that are slightly different from the topic of the page where they are discussed in detail.

Operating System and the Kernel

Pages

Introduction to Operating Systems -> What Is an Operating System -> What Is an Operating System
Introduction to Operating Systems -> Processes -> Processes
Introduction to Operating Systems -> Processes -> Virtual Memory Basics
Introduction to Operating Systems -> Operating System Layers -> Operating System Layers
Introduction to Operating Systems -> Moving On -> Moving On
The Operating System -> The Operating System
The Operating System -> Hardware Basics -> Hardware Basics
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Memory Management
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Linux Processes
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Process Scheduling
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Scheduling in Multiprocessor Systems
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> System Calls
The Operating System -> Devices and Device Nodes -> Devices and Device Nodes
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Linux Data Structures -> Linux Data Structures
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Linux Page Tables
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Process Virtual Memory
The Operating System -> Rebuilding Your Kernel -> Installing Your Kernel
The Operating System -> Rebuilding Your Kernel -> Linux Kernel Source Code -> Linux Kernel Source Code
The Operating System -> Devices and Device Nodes -> Device Drivers -> Device Drivers
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> Files and File Systems
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> Supported File Systems
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The EXT2 File System -> The EXT2 File System
The Operating System -> Rebuilding Your Kernel -> Rebuilding Your Kernel
The Computer Itself -> The Central Processing Unit -> ARM Processors
System Monitoring -> Finding Out About Your System -> Important System Files
Introduction to Operating Systems -> Introduction to Operating Systems
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> Disk Layout
The Operating System -> Hardware Basics -> CPU Basics
The Operating System -> Software Basics -> Computer Languages
The Operating System -> Hardware Basics -> Memory Basics
The Operating System -> Hardware Basics -> Bus Basics
The Operating System -> Hardware Basics -> Peripheral and Controller Basics
The Operating System -> Hardware Basics -> Address Spaces
The Operating System -> Hardware Basics -> Timers
The Operating System -> Software Basics -> Software Basics
The Operating System -> Software Basics -> Memory Management Basics
The Operating System -> Software Basics -> Device Driver Basics
The Operating System -> Software Basics -> Kernel Data Structures
The Operating System -> Software Basics -> Linked Lists
The Operating System -> Software Basics -> Hash Tables
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> The Kernel
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Virtual Memory
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Demand Paging
The Operating System -> Devices and Device Nodes -> Device Drivers -> Polling and Interrupts
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Kernel Mechanisms -> Task Queues
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Kernel Mechanisms -> Wait Queues
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Kernel Mechanisms -> Timers
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Kernel Mechanisms -> Buzz Locks
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Kernel Mechanisms -> Semaphores
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Interrupts Exceptions and Traps
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Kernel Mechanisms -> Bottom Half Handling
The Operating System -> Devices and Device Nodes -> Device Drivers -> Direct Memory Access
The Operating System -> Devices and Device Nodes -> Device Drivers -> PCI Devices
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The EXT2 File System -> The EXT2 Inode
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The EXT2 File System -> The EXT2 Superblock
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The EXT2 File System -> The EXT2 Group Descriptor
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The EXT2 File System -> EXT2 Files
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The EXT2 File System -> EXT2 Directories
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The Virtual File System -> The Virtual File System
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The Virtual File System -> The VFS Superblock
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The Virtual File System -> The VFS Inode
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The Virtual File System -> Registering the File System
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The Virtual File System -> Mounting a File System
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The Virtual File System -> Unmounting a File System
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The Virtual File System -> The VFS Inode Cache
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The Virtual File System -> The Directory Cache
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The Buffer Cache
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> The bdflush Kernel Daemon
The Operating System -> Files and File Systems -> File System Tools
The Operating System -> Interprocess Communication -> Signals
The Operating System -> Interprocess Communication -> Pipes
The Operating System -> Interprocess Communication -> Semaphores
The Operating System -> Interprocess Communication -> Message Queues
The Operating System -> Interprocess Communication -> Shared Memory
The Operating System -> Interprocess Communication -> Sockets
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Kernel Mechanisms -> Kernel Mechanisms
The Operating System -> Rebuilding Your Kernel -> Linux Kernel Source Code -> Where to Get the Source
The Operating System -> Rebuilding Your Kernel -> Linux Kernel Source Code -> How the Source is Arranged
The Operating System -> Rebuilding Your Kernel -> Modules -> Modules
The Operating System -> Rebuilding Your Kernel -> Modules -> Loading a Module
The Operating System -> Devices and Device Nodes -> Major and Minor Numbers
The Operating System -> Devices and Device Nodes -> Device Drivers -> Interrupts and Interrupt Handling
The Operating System -> Software Basics -> Abstract Interfaces
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Paging and Swapping
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Page Allocation and Deallocation
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Memory Mapping
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> The Linux Page Cache
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Caches
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Swapping Out System V Shared Memory Pages
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Swapping Pages In
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> The Swap Cache
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Processes
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Creating a Process
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Memory Management -> Swapping Out and Discarding Pages
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Identifiers
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Executing Programs
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Processes in Action
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> The Life Cycle of Processes
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Times and Timers
The Operating System -> Interprocess Communication -> Interprocess Communication
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Executing Programs
The Operating System -> The Kernel -> Processes -> Process Files
Introduction to Operating Systems -> Files and Directories -> Files and Directories

Concepts

A process is the running instance of a program.
Linux switches between processes up to 100 times a second.
Linux forces processes to give up the CPU.
A process running in the "background" still takes up system resources, like memory.
The priority of a process can be changed using the 'nice' command.
File and directory names do not have the same limitations under Linux as they do under Windows.
Linux uses a file's "magic number" to determine what kind of file it is.
Files and directories that start with a dot ('.') are not normally displayed in a directory listing.
The '-i' option to 'ls' with list a file's inode number.
Although you change directories with the 'cd' command, or move up and down the directory tree, you do not actually move anywhere.
An inode does not contain the name of a file.
A single inode could be referenced by hundreds of individual file names.
Unlike Windows, the GUI is not part of the operating system.
A symbolic link can be used across file systems.
Two device nodes with completely different names could have the same major and minor numbers and are therefore the exact same device.
Two different users can share the same program.
A dot (.) as the first character in a file makes it "hidden".
The Linux kernel exists as a real file on your hard disk before it is loaded into memory.
The /proc filesystem contains a great deal of information about your running system.
You can start programs regularly at specific intervals using the cron daemon.
The name of the file's owner is not stored in the file's inode.
A process that is swapped out can still be consideraed runable.
The 'nice' command can be used to change a process' priority.
The 'renice' command can be used to the priority of a running process.
In regard to memory management, the basic unit of memory is called a "page".
Both CPU and kernel help ensure that processes do not not access memory they shouldn't.
Depending on how much memory you have, it is still possible that the entire program is in memory.
The principle of spatial locality says that typically the same area of memory will accessed repeatedly.
The "swap space" is an area of the hard disk that is used as an extension of main memory.
Swap space can be added to a running Linux system.
Kernels with an odd numbered minor_release are considered "development" releases. T
"Rebuilding" a kernel consists of compiling C-lanuage source code files.
After a kernel is rebuilt it is usually "activated" with the 'lilo' command.
Lilo can boot operating systems on different drives as well as different partitions.
Under Linux hardware is accessed through special files called "device nodes".
All the software functions for a specific device are jointly referred to as a
A device node's "major number" tells you what type of device it is.
An ext2 filesystem can be 4 TB.
With a fast symbolic links the path to the "real" file is stored in the inode.
An ext2fs block group contains copies of the primary control structures, making recovery easy.
Unlike DOS, a Linux file name can contain multiple dots.
Because a device driver needs to be sure that it has properly completed its task, it usually cannot quit until it has finished.

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