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· Introduction to Operating Systems
· Linux Basics
· Working with the System
· Shells and Utilities
· Editing Files
· Basic Administration
· The Operating System
· The X Windowing System
· The Computer Itself
· Networking
· System Monitoring
· Solving Problems
· Security
· Installing and Upgrading
· Linux and Windows

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Linux Tutorial Topics: 

Note that any given object can relate to more than one topic, so it is likely that pages will appear more than once. For example, concepts may relate to topics that are slightly different from the topic of the page where they are discussed in detail.

Working with the System


Linux Basics -> Linux Basics
Shells and Utilities -> The Shell -> The Shell
Shells and Utilities -> The Search Path -> The Search Path
Shells and Utilities -> Shell Variables -> Shell Variables
Shells and Utilities -> Permissions -> Permissions
Shells and Utilities -> Quotes -> Quotes
Shells and Utilities -> Pipes and Redirection -> Pipes and Redirection
Shells and Utilities -> Interpreting the Command -> Interpreting the Command
Shells and Utilities -> Different Kinds of Shells -> Different Kinds of Shells
Shells and Utilities -> Command Line Editing -> Command Line Editing
Shells and Utilities -> Functions -> Functions
Shells and Utilities -> Job Control -> Job Control
Shells and Utilities -> Aliases -> Aliases
Shells and Utilities -> A Few More Constructs -> A Few More Constructs
Shells and Utilities -> The C-Shell -> The C-Shell
Shells and Utilities -> Commonly Used Utilities -> Commonly Used Utilities
Shells and Utilities -> Commonly Used Utilities -> Examples of Commonly Used Utilities
Shells and Utilities -> Looking Through Files -> Looking Through Files
Shells and Utilities -> Basic Shell Scripting -> Basic Shell Scripting
Shells and Utilities -> Managing Scripts -> Managing Scripts
Editing Files -> Editing Files
Editing Files -> Vi -> Vi
Editing Files -> Vi -> vi Basics
Editing Files -> Vi -> Changing Text in vi
Editing Files -> Vi -> Moving Around in vi
Editing Files -> Vi -> Searching in vi
Editing Files -> Vi -> vi Buffers
Editing Files -> Vi -> vi Magic
Editing Files -> Vi -> Command Output in vi
Editing Files -> Vi -> More vi Magic
Editing Files -> Vi -> vi Odds and Ends
The X Windowing System -> Remote Access -> XDMCP
Editing Files -> Vi -> Configuring vi
Editing Files -> Sed -> Sed
Working with the System -> Backing-up and Restoring Files
Working with the System -> Interacting with the System
Working with the System -> Logging In
Working with the System -> Logging Out
Working with the System -> When Things Go Wrong
Working with the System -> Accessing Disks
Shells and Utilities -> Looking for Files -> Looking for Files
Editing Files -> Awk -> Awk
Editing Files -> Perl -> Perl
Basic Administration -> User Accounts -> logging in
The X Windowing System -> Configuring the X-Windows Server -> Configuring the X-Windows Server
The X Windowing System -> The Basics of X -> The Basics of X
The X Windowing System -> Resources -> Resources
The X Windowing System -> Colors -> Colors
The X Windowing System -> Displaying Clients -> Displaying Clients
The X Windowing System -> Fonts -> Fonts
The X Windowing System -> The Window Manager -> The Window Manager
The X Windowing System -> Remote Access -> Remote Access
Networking -> SAMBA -> SAMBA
Networking -> Accesing the Web -> Accesing the Web
Linux and Windows -> Easing the Transition to Linux -> Multi-Booting -> Multi-Booting
Shells and Utilities -> Regular Expressions and Metacharacters -> Regular Expressions and Metacharacters
Linux and Windows -> Easing the Transition to Linux -> Multi-Booting -> Booting Linux from NT
Linux and Windows -> Easing the Transition to Linux -> Windows9X and Linux
Linux and Windows -> Easing the Transition to Linux -> Windows Look-n-Feel
Linux and Windows -> Easing the Transition to Linux -> The Right Tools
Linux and Windows -> Sharing Files -> Sharing Files
Shells and Utilities -> Shell Odds and Ends -> Shell Odds and Ends
Linux and Windows -> Easing the Transition to Linux -> Easing the Transition to Linux
The X Windowing System -> The X Windowing System
Working with the System -> Working with the System
Linux and Windows -> Linux and Windows
Shells and Utilities -> Directory Paths -> Directory Paths
Shells and Utilities -> Shells and Utilities


Unwanted cron output can be redirected just like any other command.
A process running in the "background" still takes up system resources, like memory.
The priority of a process can be changed using the 'nice' command.
File and directory names do not have the same limitations under Linux as they do under Windows.
Files and directories that start with a dot ('.') are not normally displayed in a directory listing.
The '-i' option to 'ls' with list a file's inode number.
Although you change directories with the 'cd' command, or move up and down the directory tree, you do not actually move anywhere.
Unlike Windows, the GUI is not part of the operating system.
You can run a command as a different user with the 'su' command.
There are six primary file types - regular, directory, block device, character device, named pipe and symbolic link.
The current directory is typically not part of the root user's search patch.
Use the 'chmod' command to make shell scripts executable.
A common reason commands are not found is that they are not in your path
Linux uses the forward-slash (/) as a directory seperator.
The bash shell can automatically complete commands and arguments.
The system-wide default evironment is defined in /etc/profile.
Some programs can interpret metacharacters themselves.
You can stop the shell from evaluating metacharacters by enclosing the expression is single quotes.
Back-quotes can be used to assign the output of a command to a shell variable.
The output of one command can be sent to another using the pipe symbol - |.
You can redirect error messages from commands to a file with 2>file_name.
You can combine pipes and redirection in a single command.
Multiple pipes can be used to combine multiple commands.
You can use the find command to search for specific files on your system.
Even on a simple character terminal, you can manage multiple running processes.
Processes in the background still take up system resources.
Error messages can be sent to a file using the construct "2> file_name"
The bash shell allows you to repeat and edit previous commands.
You can combine find and grep to look for specific text anywhere on your system.
The -exec option to find allows you to execute commands on the files it finds.
You can combine the contents of files with "cat file1 file2 file3 >newfile"
Quick text files or even shell scripts can be written like this "cat >newfile"
Three files are opened by the shell when your start it- standard input, standard output and standard error.
Aliases will be executed before a command with the same name.
Curly braces are used to combine variables or ensure they are interpreted properly.
Positional parameters can be assigned to variables to make them easier to identify.
The position parameter $0 refers to the script that is being executed.
In a script, multiple if-statements could be combined into a case-statement.
The -p option to mkdir can be used to create multiple levels of directories.
A symbolic link can be used across file systems.
Symbolic links can refer to files or directories on different filesystems.
The file command can be used to determine the type of file.
The file .hushlogin in your home directory creates a "silent" login.
The who command will tell you who is currently logged in.
The last command will tell you recently logged in users.
You can assign the output of a command to a variable using backticks like this VAR=`command`.
You can search for files based on their age using the -mtime,-atime, and -ctime options to the find command.
You can search for directories using the -type d option to the find command.
You can search for files and directories owned by a particular user using the -user option to the find command.
In vi, the :set showmode command will show you whether you are in command or insert mode.
Two different users can share the same program.
Using "job control" processes running in the background can be managed just like processes in the foreground.
A dot (.) as the first character in a file makes it "hidden".
Linux only looks in your search path to find commands and programms.
Unlike with DOS and Windows, your current directory is typically not part of your search path by default.
To change into a directory you actually need "execute" permissions on the directory.
A directory is stored on the hard disk like any other file.
When a shell variable is defined, it is NOT automatically available to subsequent processes.
Another term for wildcards is metacharacters.
You can stop the shell from expanding metacharacters by enclosing them in single quotes.
Back quotes can be used to assign the output of a command to a shell variable.
To be evaluated, commands are broken into "tokens".
Changes made to variables by a child process are not seen by the parent.
Aliases are internal to your shell.
The cdpath variable defines your default search path for changing directories.
The cdspell mechanism attempts to figure out the correct spelling when changing directories.
The find command can search for specific files using wildcards.
The grep command can be used to look for specific text within a file.
The head and tail commands can be used to look at the start and end of a file, respectively.
Curly braces {} can be used to combine variables.
When using position parameters in a script, they need to be proceeded with a $, just like any other variable.
The number of position parameters (i.e arguments) is stored in the special variable $#.
The special variable $0 contains the name of the script being executed.
Symbolic links can refer to files or directories on different filesystems.
The 'umask' command sets the default permissions for newly created files.
The 'file' command is used to determine a file's type or contents (i.e. binary, shell-script, ASCII).
The /etc/magic file contains information used to determine a file's type or contents. (i.e. binary, shell-script, ASCII)
If you have both Linux and Windows on your system, you can use an FAT file system to share data.
You can boot Windows NT/2000 from Linux as well as Linux from Windows NT/2000.
You can use the Samba package to share files between Linux and Windows.
Because Linux and Windows have a different understanding of security, you have to be careful when you share filesystems.
A Linux machine running SAMBA can serve as a primary domain controller.
The 'who' command will show you who is currently logged in.
The regular expression [:alnum:] matches alpha-numeric characters in all supported languages.
Regular expressions will expand to the longest pattern that matches.
Aliases do not always represent commands and must therefore be evaluated before the shell tries to executed the command.


absolute path     account     address     administrator     application     argument     ASCII     back-slash     back-tick     binary     block device     boot     buffer     caret     CD-ROM     CGI     command line     compile     current working directory     cylinder     descriptor     device nodes     directory name     DOS     double-quotes     EIDE     environment     error message     field separator     filesystem     full path     hard link     header     home directory     HTML     I/O     IDE     inode     kernel     link count     login     logname     man-page     mask     metacharacter     octal     operating system     parent directory     partition     permissions     pipe     redirection     regular expression     relative path     script     SCSI     search path     shell     single-quotes     standard error     standard input     standard output     stderr     stdin     stdout     streams     subdirectory     SUID     symbolic link     terminal     text     UID     umask     UNIX     variable     wildcard    

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